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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140240/case-report-strongyloides-stercoralis-hyperinfection-in-a-patient-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#1
Richelle Guerrero-Wooley, Ernesto Aranda-Aguirre, Wencheng Li, Aimee Wilkin, Elizabeth Palavecino
Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode that can cause disseminated infection in an immunocompromised host. It is most commonly acquired in developing countries. It was previously a common infection in many parts of the United States, particularly in the Appalachian region, but is rarely identified currently. Here, we describe a patient born and raised in Appalachia, with no history of travel outside the United States, who presented with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and S. stercoralis hyperinfection characterized by acute respiratory failure, altered mental status, and extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia...
November 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135050/belief-about-mandatory-school-vaccinations-and-vaccination-refusal-among-ohio-appalachian-parents-do-demographic-and-religious-factors-general-health-and-political-affiliation-play-a-role
#2
Jessica L Krok-Schoen, Brittany M Bernardo, Rory C Weier, Juan Peng, Mira L Katz, Paul L Reiter, Morgan S Richardson, Michael L Pennell, Cathy M Tatum, Electra D Paskett
PURPOSE: To examine how demographic, general health, religious, and political characteristics influenced beliefs about mandatory school vaccinations and history of vaccination refusal for children among Ohio Appalachian parents. METHODS: In 2013 and 2014, baseline data were obtained from parents (n = 337) of girls aged 9-17 from 12 counties in rural Ohio Appalachia enrolled in the Community Awareness, Resources and Education (CARE II) Project. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify correlates of parental beliefs about mandatory school vaccinations and history of refusing a doctor-recommended vaccine for their child(ren)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116886/coal-miner-participation-in-a-job-transfer-program-designed-to-prevent-progression-of-pneumoconiosis-united-states-1986-2016
#3
Laura Reynolds, Cara N Halldin, A Scott Laney, David J Blackley
The Part 90 program was designed to prevent progression of pneumoconiosis in U.S. coal miners by establishing their right to transfer to a less dusty job in the mine. We calculated the proportion of Part 90-eligible miners who participated during 1986-2016, examined participation by region, and compared characteristics of miners by participation status. Of the 3,547 eligible miners, 14.4% exercised their Part 90 option. Miners working in states outside central Appalachia, and those with more severe pneumoconiosis, were more likely to participate...
November 8, 2017: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098707/the-cancer-risk-associated-with-residential-exposure-to-soil-containing-radioactive-coal-combustion-residuals
#4
Kevin M Towle, Neva F B Jacobs, James J Keenan, Andrew D Monnot
Coal combustion residuals (CCRs) are composed of various constituents, including radioactive materials. The objective of this study was to utilize methodology on radionuclide risk assessment from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to estimate the potential cancer risks associated with residential exposure to CCR-containing soil. We evaluated potential radionuclide exposure via soil ingestion, inhalation of soil particulates, and external exposure to ionizing radiation using published CCR radioactivity values for (232) Th, (228) Ra, (238) U, and (226) Ra from the Appalachia, Illinois, and Powder River coal basins...
November 3, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058649/the-emergence-and-evolution-of-influenza-a-h1%C3%AE-viruses-in-swine-in-canada-and-the-united-states
#5
Martha I Nelson, Marie R Culhane, Nídia S Trovão, Devi P Patnayak, Rebecca A Halpin, Xudong Lin, Meghan H Shilts, Suman R Das, Susan E Detmer
Swine are a key reservoir host for influenza A viruses (IAVs), with the potential to cause global pandemics in humans. Gaps in surveillance in many of the world's largest swine populations impede our understanding of how novel viruses emerge and expand their spatial range in pigs. Although US swine are intensively sampled, little is known about IAV diversity in Canada's population of ~12 million pigs. By sequencing 168 viruses from multiple regions of Canada, our study reveals that IAV diversity has been underestimated in Canadian pigs for many years...
November 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057030/substance-use-in-rural-central-appalachia-current-status-and-treatment-considerations
#6
Lara Moody, Emily Satterwhite, Warren K Bickel
The burden of substance use and especially the unmatched rates of overdoses in rural Central Appalachia highlight the need for innovative approaches to curb the initiation to drug misuse and to address current substance use disorders. Effective substance use interventions involve a thorough understanding of the region. In Central Appalachia, many of the barriers to treatment are shared with other rural and impoverished areas, including a lack of access to health care and lack of health care providers with specialized training...
April 2017: Rural Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031003/step-by-step-calculation-and-spreadsheet-tools-for-predicting-stressor-levels-that-extirpate-genera-and-species
#7
Susan M Cormier, Lei Zheng, Erik W Leppo, Andrew Hamilton
In 2011, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) released a field-based method for estimating the extirpation of freshwater aquatic benthic invertebrates by ionic mixtures dominated by HCO3(-) , SO4(2-) , and Ca(2+) measured as specific conductivity (SC). The estimate of extirpation was SC at the 95(th) centile (XC95 ) of a weighted cumulative frequency distribution (CFD) of a genus or species over a range of SC. A CFD of XC95 values was used to predict the SC at which 5% of genera were likely to be extirpated...
October 14, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023231/marketing-strategies-to-encourage-rural-residents-of-high-obesity-counties-to-buy-fruits-and-vegetables-in-grocery-stores
#8
Emily Liu, Tammy Stephenson, Jessica Houlihan, Alison Gustafson
INTRODUCTION: Obesity rates in Appalachia are among the highest in the United States, and knowledge of upstream approaches to decrease prevalence among this vulnerable population is limited. The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between healthy, diet-based, social marketing interventions in grocery stores and frequency of fruit and vegetable intake. METHODS: A social marketing campaign was conducted among 17 grocery stores (N = 240 participant surveys) over 4 months in 5 rural Kentucky counties...
October 12, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973621/trends-and-patterns-of-differences-in-chronic-respiratory-disease-mortality-among-us-counties-1980-2014
#9
Laura Dwyer-Lindgren, Amelia Bertozzi-Villa, Rebecca W Stubbs, Chloe Morozoff, Shreya Shirude, Mohsen Naghavi, Ali H Mokdad, Christopher J L Murray
Importance: Chronic respiratory diseases are an important cause of death and disability in the United States. Objective: To estimate age-standardized mortality rates by county from chronic respiratory diseases. Design, Setting, and Participants: Validated small area estimation models were applied to deidentified death records from the National Center for Health Statistics and population counts from the US Census Bureau, National Center for Health Statistics, and Human Mortality Database to estimate county-level mortality rates from 1980 to 2014 for chronic respiratory diseases...
September 26, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886119/intimate-partner-violence-related-hospitalizations-in-appalachia-and-the-non-appalachian-united-states
#10
Danielle M Davidov, Stephen M Davis, Motao Zhu, Tracie O Afifi, Melissa Kimber, Abby L Goldstein, Nicole Pitre, Kelly K Gurka, Carol Stocks
The highly rural region of Appalachia faces considerable socioeconomic disadvantage and health disparities that are recognized risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV). The objective of this study was to estimate the rate of IPV-related hospitalizations in Appalachia and the non-Appalachian United States for 2007-2011 and compare hospitalizations in each region by clinical and sociodemographic factors. Data on IPV-related hospitalizations were extracted from the State Inpatient Databases, which are part of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872699/psychosocial-correlates-of-ever-having-a-pap-test-and-abnormal-pap-results-in-a-sample-of-rural-appalachian-women
#11
Kristen P Mark, Richard A Crosby, Robin C Vanderpool
BACKGROUND: Despite known prevention and screening efforts, there are higher invasive cervical cancer rates in Appalachia than in other areas of the United States and higher mortality rates in the Appalachian region of Kentucky compared to Appalachian regions of other states. PURPOSE: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the association of psychosocial factors relevant to cervical cancer and the outcome of ever having a Pap test in a rural sample of women...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871287/bayesian-analysis-of-the-association-between-family-level-factors-and-siblings-dental-caries
#12
A Wen, R J Weyant, D W McNeil, R J Crout, K Neiswanger, M L Marazita, B Foxman
We conducted a Bayesian analysis of the association between family-level socioeconomic status and smoking and the prevalence of dental caries among siblings (children from infant to 14 y) among children living in rural and urban Northern Appalachia using data from the Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA). The observed proportion of siblings sharing caries was significantly different from predicted assuming siblings' caries status was independent. Using a Bayesian hierarchical model, we found the inclusion of a household factor significantly improved the goodness of fit...
July 2017: JDR Clinical and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857643/opioid-prescribing-in-rural-family-practices-a-qualitative-study
#13
Ivy A Click, Jeri Ann Basden, Joy M Bohannon, Heather Anderson, Fred Tudiver
BACKGROUND: Rural Tennessee, especially rural East Tennessee has seen a dramatic increase in rates of controlled drug prescriptions and controlled drug overdose deaths in recent years. However, little is known about the individual decisions to prescribe or continue prescriptions with relation to addiction concerns. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to learn more about what factors lead to physicians' prescribing control drugs for non-cancer pain through the use of focus groups...
August 31, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826342/perceptions-of-nursing-in-appalachia-a-state-of-the-science-paper
#14
Evelyn P Brewer
INTRODUCTION: Nursing practice is continuously evolving in response to global health care need, sociopolitical culture, and advancing medical knowledge necessitating ongoing evaluation of professional practice. The purpose of this state of this science paper was to explore current perceptions of nursing and critique the depth of knowledge specific to nursing practice in the Appalachian region. METHODOLOGY: A review of the literature in multiple databases was conducted to explore perceptions of nursing in Appalachia...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Transcultural Nursing: Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814109/older-adults-in-rural-appalachia-preference-and-expectations-for-future-care
#15
Raven H Weaver, Karen A Roberto, Rosemary Blieszner
Little is known about how rural-dwelling older adults anticipate and plan for future care needs. Using a mixed-method explanatory design, structural equation modeling ( n = 535) revealed significant associations between concerns about using services on preference for type of help; preference was associated with likelihood of using future services. Content analysis of interview data from 19 older adults who needed but were not receiving help revealed how they conceptualize their need for assistance and anticipated future care arrangements...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Aging & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812927/a-community-health-advisor-program-to-reduce-cancer-screening-disparities-in-the-deep-south-and-appalachia-the-american-cancer-society-s-cha-collaborative
#16
Kara S Riehman, Marcie Fisher-Borne, Jeremy M Martinez, Morgan Daven, Letitia Thompson, Mona N Fouad, Edward E Partridge
INTRODUCTION: Cancer disparities continue to exist in the United States. Community health advisors (CHAs) can play a critical role in addressing cancer disparities. The American Cancer Society (ACS) implemented a 3-year pilot CHA program in the South based on an evidence-based program to increase breast cancer screening. STUDY DESIGN: Evaluation assessed the extent to which ACS successfully implemented the program. Quantitative data were tracked and reported by ACS staff, and qualitative data were collected through focus groups and interviews with volunteer participants...
September 2017: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791281/orthodontic-treatment-completion-and-discontinuation-in-a-rural-sample-from-north-central-appalachia-in-the-usa
#17
Chris A Martin, Breana M Dieringer, Daniel W McNeil
BACKGROUND: Orthodontics has inherent demands, requiring regular appointments and active patient engagement, but relatively little is established in regard to rates of completion of treatment and possible factors affecting successful completion. These factors may be particularly important for cultural minority groups, such as those in rural Appalachia, given the environmental, social, and economic complexities affecting access to and utilization of treatment. DESIGN AND METHODS: A naturalistic study design was employed, using retrospective data from a rural outpatient general dental office in July 2012...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771155/tracking-the-downstream-impacts-of-inadequate-sanitation-in-central-appalachia
#18
Jacob Cantor, Leigh-Anne Krometis, Emily Sarver, Nicholas Cook, Brian Badgley
Poor sanitation in rural infrastructure is often associated with high levels of fecal contamination in adjacent surface waters, which presents a community health risk. Although microbial source tracking techniques have been widely applied to identify primary remediation needs in urban and/or recreational waters, use of human-specific markers has been more limited in rural watersheds. This study quantified the human source tracking marker Bacteroides-HF183, along with more general fecal indicators (i.e. culturable Escherichia coli and a molecular Enterococcus marker), in two Appalachian streams above and below known discharges of untreated household waste...
August 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738262/systematic-review-of-community-health-impacts-of-mountaintop-removal-mining
#19
REVIEW
Abee L Boyles, Robyn B Blain, Johanna R Rochester, Raghavendhran Avanasi, Susan B Goldhaber, Sofie McComb, Stephanie D Holmgren, Scott A Masten, Kristina A Thayer
BACKGROUND: The objective of this evaluation is to understand the human health impacts of mountaintop removal (MTR) mining, the major method of coal mining in and around Central Appalachia. MTR mining impacts the air, water, and soil and raises concerns about potential adverse health effects in neighboring communities; exposures associated with MTR mining include particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals, hydrogen sulfide, and other recognized harmful substances...
October 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733798/silence-surrounding-hepatitis-c-status-in-risk-relationships-among-rural-people-who-use-drugs
#20
Megan G Hofmeister, Jennifer R Havens, April M Young
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has reached epidemic proportions in rural Central Appalachia in recent years. We sought to identify demographic, behavioral, and interpersonal characteristics associated with HCV serostatus disclosure among high risk people who use drugs (PWUD) in Appalachian Kentucky. HCV antibody-positive participants (n = 243), drawn from the fifth follow-up assessment of a longitudinal study of rural PWUD, completed interviewer-administered questionnaires eliciting demographic and interpersonal characteristics, risk behaviors, and information about HCV disclosure...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Primary Prevention
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