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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353698/seasonal-pattern-of-anthropogenic-salinization-in-temperate-forested-headwater-streams
#1
Anthony J Timpano, Carl E Zipper, David J Soucek, Stephen H Schoenholtz
Salinization of freshwaters by human activities is of growing concern globally. Consequences of salt pollution include adverse effects to aquatic biodiversity, ecosystem function, human health, and ecosystem services. In headwater streams of the temperate forests of eastern USA, elevated specific conductance (SC), a surrogate measurement for the major dissolved ions composing salinity, has been linked to decreased diversity of aquatic insects. However, such linkages have typically been based on limited numbers of SC measurements that do not quantify intra-annual variation...
January 8, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348251/reducing-cardiovascular-disparities-through-community-engaged-implementation-research-a-national-heart-lung-and-blood-institute-workshop-report
#2
George A Mensah, Richard S Cooper, Anna Maria Siega-Riz, Lisa A Cooper, Justin D Smith, C Hendricks Brown, John M Westfall, Elizabeth O Ofili, LeShawndra N Price, Sonia Arteaga, Melissa C Green Parker, Cheryl R Nelson, Bradley J Newsome, Nicole Redmond, Rebecca A Roper, Bettina M Beech, Jada L Brooks, Debra Furr-Holden, Samson Y Gebreab, Wayne H Giles, Regina Smith James, Tené T Lewis, Ali H Mokdad, Kari D Moore, Joseph E Ravenell, Al Richmond, Nancy E Schoenberg, Mario Sims, Gopal K Singh, Anne E Sumner, Roberto P Treviño, Karriem S Watson, M Larissa Avilés-Santa, Jared P Reis, Charlotte A Pratt, Michael M Engelgau, David C Goff, Eliseo J Pérez-Stable
Cardiovascular disparities remain pervasive in the United States. Unequal disease burden is evident among population groups based on sex, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, educational attainment, nativity, or geography. Despite the significant declines in cardiovascular disease mortality rates in all demographic groups during the last 50 years, large disparities remain by sex, race, ethnicity, and geography. Recent data from modeling studies, linked micromap plots, and small-area analyses also demonstrate prominent variation in cardiovascular disease mortality rates across states and counties, with an especially high disease burden in the southeastern United States and Appalachia...
January 19, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345998/key-factors-inhibiting-legislative-progress-toward-smoke-free-coverage-in-appalachia
#3
J Travis Donahoe, Andrea R Titus, Nancy L Fleischer
The Appalachian Region has among the highest rates of smoking and smoking-related illness in the United States. Strong smoke-free legislation could help protect nonsmoking residents from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke. However, there is a dearth of state, county, city, and subcounty smoke-free law coverage throughout Appalachia. As of July 2016, only 21% of Appalachian residents were covered by comprehensive smoke-free laws (i.e., 100% coverage for workplaces, restaurants, and bars). Only 46% of Appalachians lived in places with 100% smoke-free workplace laws, only 30% lived in places with 100% smoke-free restaurant laws, and only 29% lived in places with 100% smoke-free bar laws...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339932/computerized-versus-hand-scored-health-literacy-tools-a-comparison-of-simple-measure-of-gobbledygook-smog-and-flesch-kincaid-in-printed-patient-education-materials
#4
Kelsey Leonard Grabeel, Jennifer Russomanno, Sandy Oelschlegel, Emily Tester, Robert Eric Heidel
Objective: The research compared and contrasted hand-scoring and computerized methods of evaluating the grade level of patient education materials that are distributed at an academic medical center in east Tennessee and sought to determine if these materials adhered to the American Medical Association's (AMA's) recommended reading level of sixth grade. Methods: Librarians at an academic medical center located in the heart of Appalachian Tennessee initiated the assessment of 150 of the most used printed patient education materials...
January 2018: Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298364/comprehension-of-pelvic-organ-prolapse-and-urinary-incontinence-in-southern-appalachian-women
#5
Danielle Hobdy, R Keith Huffaker, Beth Bailey
OBJECTIVES: Despite their growing prevalence, pelvic floor disorders (PFDs) remain undertreated and not well understood by patients, with treatment disparities noted in specific subgroups of women. The goal of the present study was to determine the basic understanding of PFDs of women in the southern Appalachian region of the United States, to determine factors that predict knowledge, and to explore the possible disparities in seeking access to care among women in this region who reported symptoms...
January 2018: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242676/program-active-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-to-treat-depression-in-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-in-rural-appalachia
#6
Mary de Groot, Todd Doyle, Jennifer Averyt
High rates of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and depression exist in rural Appalachia with limited access to psychotherapeutic treatment. No manualized cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment materials exist that are culturally tailored for individuals in this region with T2DM. We describe the development of the Program ACTIVE CBT intervention for use with adults with T2DM and depression by mental health providers in rural Appalachia. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to test the feasibility and acceptability of Program ACTIVE...
August 2017: Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242138/a-high-prevalence-of-food-insecurity-among-university-students-in-appalachia-reflects-a-need-for-educational-interventions-and-policy-advocacy
#7
Laura Helena McArthur, Lanae Ball, Ariel C Danek, Donald Holbert
OBJECTIVES: To measure prevalence and correlates of food insecurity among college students in Appalachia, compare food-insecure and food-secure students on correlates, and identify predictor variables. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, online questionnaire. SETTING: University in Appalachia. PARTICIPANTS: Nonprobability, random sample of 1,093 students (317 male [30.1%]; 723 females [68.4%]). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Food insecurity, coping strategies, money expenditure, academic progress, and demographics...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204326/a-tyrannosauroid-metatarsus-from-the-merchantville-formation-of-delaware-increases-the-diversity-of-non-tyrannosaurid-tyrannosauroids-on-appalachia
#8
Chase D Brownstein
During the Late Cretaceous, the continent of North America was divided into two sections: Laramidia in the west and Appalachia in the east. Although the sediments of Appalachia recorded only a sparse fossil record of dinosaurs, the dinosaur faunas of this landmass were different in composition from those of Laramidia. Represented by at least two taxa (Appalachiosaurus montgomeriensis and Dryptosaurus aquilunguis), partial and fragmentary skeletons, and isolated bones, the non-tyrannosaurid tyrannosauroids of the landmass have attracted some attention...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201632/active-living-in-rural-appalachia-using-the-rural-active-living-assessment-rala-tools-to-explore-environmental-barriers
#9
Adam Hege, Richard W Christiana, Rebecca Battista, Hannah Parkhurst
People residing in rural communities are more likely to be physically inactive and subsequently have elevated risks for chronic disease. Recent evidence has shown this could stem from environmental barriers, inadequate programming and policies directed at the promotion of physical activity (PA) in rural settings. The objective of this research was to assess active living features in rural towns and townships (n = 16) across seven counties in northwestern North Carolina (NC). The study utilized the Town-Wide and Street Segment components of the Rural Active Living Assessment (RALA) as well as the 2014 American Community Survey results...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200341/health-disparities-in-appalachia
#10
Michael Hendryx, Juhua Luo, Ty Borders
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197312/development-of-multiple-primary-cancers-in-lung-cancer-patients-appalachian-versus-non-appalachian-populations-of-kentucky
#11
Vira Pravosud, Bin Huang, Thomas Tucker, Nathan L Vanderford
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with lung cancer in Appalachian Kentucky are more likely to develop multiple primary cancers than patients in non-Appalachian Kentucky. Additional analyses were conducted to identify other factors that may be associated with an increased hazard of developing multiple primary cancers in patients with lung cancer. METHODS: The data for this retrospective, population-based cohort study of 26,456 primary lung cancer patients were drawn from the Kentucky Cancer Registry...
December 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176103/neonatal-abstinence-syndrome-in-east-tennessee-characteristics-and-risk-factors-among-mothers-and-infants-in-one-area-of-appalachia
#12
Paul C Erwin, Laurie L Meschke, Samantha F Ehrlich, Lisa C Lindley
OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in a 16-county Appalachian area of eastern Tennessee. METHODS: The Tennessee Surveillance System for NAS provided data on maternal sources of opioids. Data linking hospital discharge diagnosis for NAS to birth certificate data allowed us to compare maternal, delivery, and infant characteristics for NAS births with those for non-NAS births. RESULTS: There were 339 cases of NAS in 2013 and 367 in 2014, for NAS rates of 25...
2017: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161158/drug-use-and-incarceration-among-rural-appalachian-women-findings-from-a-jail-sample
#13
Michele Staton, Gabriele Ciciurkaite, Carrie Oser, Martha Tillson, Carl Leukefeld, J Matthew Webster, Jennifer R Havens
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper is to examine drug use and incarceration history among rural Appalachian women. METHODS: This study involved random selection, screening, and interviews with rural women from local jails in Appalachia. RESULTS: Of the women randomly selected and screened, 97% met criteria for substance use intervention. Significant factors associated with incarceration history included age, education, custody status, and mental health...
November 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140240/case-report-strongyloides-stercoralis-hyperinfection-in-a-patient-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#14
Richelle Guerrero-Wooley, Ernesto Aranda-Aguirre, Wencheng Li, Aimee Wilkin, Elizabeth Palavecino
Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode that can cause disseminated infection in an immunocompromised host. It is most commonly acquired in developing countries. It was previously a common infection in many parts of the United States, particularly in the Appalachian region, but is rarely identified currently. Here, we describe a patient born and raised in Appalachia, with no history of travel outside the United States, who presented with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and S. stercoralis hyperinfection characterized by acute respiratory failure, altered mental status, and extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia...
November 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135050/belief-about-mandatory-school-vaccinations-and-vaccination-refusal-among-ohio-appalachian-parents-do-demographic-and-religious-factors-general-health-and-political-affiliation-play-a-role
#15
Jessica L Krok-Schoen, Brittany M Bernardo, Rory C Weier, Juan Peng, Mira L Katz, Paul L Reiter, Morgan S Richardson, Michael L Pennell, Cathy M Tatum, Electra D Paskett
PURPOSE: To examine how demographic, general health, religious, and political characteristics influenced beliefs about mandatory school vaccinations and history of vaccination refusal for children among Ohio Appalachian parents. METHODS: In 2013 and 2014, baseline data were obtained from parents (n = 337) of girls aged 9-17 from 12 counties in rural Ohio Appalachia enrolled in the Community Awareness, Resources and Education (CARE II) Project. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify correlates of parental beliefs about mandatory school vaccinations and history of refusing a doctor-recommended vaccine for their child(ren)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116886/coal-miner-participation-in-a-job-transfer-program-designed-to-prevent-progression-of-pneumoconiosis-united-states-1986-2016
#16
Laura Reynolds, Cara N Halldin, A Scott Laney, David J Blackley
The Part 90 program was designed to prevent progression of pneumoconiosis in U.S. coal miners by establishing their right to transfer to a less dusty job in the mine. We calculated the proportion of Part 90-eligible miners who participated during 1986-2016, examined participation by region, and compared characteristics of miners by participation status. Of the 3,547 eligible miners, 14.4% exercised their Part 90 option. Miners working in states outside central Appalachia, and those with more severe pneumoconiosis, were more likely to participate...
November 8, 2017: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098707/the-cancer-risk-associated-with-residential-exposure-to-soil-containing-radioactive-coal-combustion-residuals
#17
Kevin M Towle, Neva F B Jacobs, James J Keenan, Andrew D Monnot
Coal combustion residuals (CCRs) are composed of various constituents, including radioactive materials. The objective of this study was to utilize methodology on radionuclide risk assessment from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to estimate the potential cancer risks associated with residential exposure to CCR-containing soil. We evaluated potential radionuclide exposure via soil ingestion, inhalation of soil particulates, and external exposure to ionizing radiation using published CCR radioactivity values for (232) Th, (228) Ra, (238) U, and (226) Ra from the Appalachia, Illinois, and Powder River coal basins...
November 3, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058649/the-emergence-and-evolution-of-influenza-a-h1%C3%AE-viruses-in-swine-in-canada-and-the-united-states
#18
Martha I Nelson, Marie R Culhane, Nídia S Trovão, Devi P Patnayak, Rebecca A Halpin, Xudong Lin, Meghan H Shilts, Suman R Das, Susan E Detmer
Swine are a key reservoir host for influenza A viruses (IAVs), with the potential to cause global pandemics in humans. Gaps in surveillance in many of the world's largest swine populations impede our understanding of how novel viruses emerge and expand their spatial range in pigs. Although US swine are intensively sampled, little is known about IAV diversity in Canada's population of ~12 million pigs. By sequencing 168 viruses from multiple regions of Canada, our study reveals that IAV diversity has been underestimated in Canadian pigs for many years...
November 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057030/substance-use-in-rural-central-appalachia-current-status-and-treatment-considerations
#19
Lara Moody, Emily Satterwhite, Warren K Bickel
The burden of substance use and especially the unmatched rates of overdoses in rural Central Appalachia highlight the need for innovative approaches to curb the initiation to drug misuse and to address current substance use disorders. Effective substance use interventions involve a thorough understanding of the region. In Central Appalachia, many of the barriers to treatment are shared with other rural and impoverished areas, including a lack of access to health care and lack of health care providers with specialized training...
April 2017: Rural Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031003/step-by-step-calculation-and-spreadsheet-tools-for-predicting-stressor-levels-that-extirpate-genera-and-species
#20
Susan M Cormier, Lei Zheng, Erik W Leppo, Andrew Hamilton
In 2011, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) released a field-based method for estimating the extirpation of freshwater aquatic benthic invertebrates by ionic mixtures dominated by HCO3(-) , SO4(2-) , and Ca(2+) measured as specific conductivity (SC). The estimate of extirpation was SC at the 95(th) centile (XC95 ) of a weighted cumulative frequency distribution (CFD) of a genus or species over a range of SC. A CFD of XC95 values was used to predict the SC at which 5% of genera were likely to be extirpated...
October 14, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
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