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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829292/fast-neural-style-transfer-for-motion-data
#1
Daniel Holden, Ikhsanul Habibie, Ikuo Kusajima, Taku Komura
Automating motion style transfer can help save animators time by allowing them to produce a single set of motions, which can then be automatically adapted for use with different characters. The proposed fast, efficient technique for performing neural style transfer of human motion data uses a feed-forward neural network trained on a large motion database. The proposed framework can transform the style of motion thousands of times faster than previous approaches that use optimization.
2017: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828856/a-smart-self-assembled-organic-nanoprobe-for-protein-specific-detection-design-synthesis-application-and-mechanism-studies
#2
Tang Gao, Shuqi Yang, Xiaozheng Cao, Jie Dong, Ning Zhao, Peng Ge, Wenbin Zeng, Zhen Cheng
Specific detection or imaging protein has high potential to contribute greatly to medical diagnosis, biological research and therapeutic applications. The level of Human Serum Albumin (HSA) in blood is related to a variety of diseases and thus serves as an important biomarker for fast clinical diagnosis. Here we report the use of aggregation-induced emission (AIE) based supramolecular assembly to design biomolecular responsive smart organic nanomaterials for detection protein HSA. The designed nanoprobes were aggregates of small molecules and silent in fluorescence, but in the presence of HSA they disassembled and produced a clear turn-on fluorescent signal...
August 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827792/characterization-of-monkeypox-virus-infection-in-african-rope-squirrels-funisciurus-sp
#3
Elizabeth A Falendysz, Juan G Lopera, Jeffrey B Doty, Yoshinori Nakazawa, Colleen Crill, Faye Lorenzsonn, Lem's N Kalemba, Monica D Ronderos, Andres Mejia, Jean M Malekani, Kevin Karem, Darin S Carroll, Jorge E Osorio, Tonie E Rocke
Monkeypox (MPX) is a zoonotic disease endemic in Central and West Africa and is caused by Monkeypox virus (MPXV), the most virulent orthopoxvirus affecting humans since the eradication of Variola virus (VARV). Many aspects of the MPXV transmission cycle, including the natural host of the virus, remain unknown. African rope squirrels (Funisciurus spp.) are considered potential reservoirs of MPXV, as serosurveillance data in Central Africa has confirmed the circulation of the virus in these rodent species [1,2]...
August 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827365/capturing-lta4-hydrolase-in-action-insights-to-the-chemistry-and-dynamics-of-chemotactic-ltb4-synthesis
#4
Alena Stsiapanava, Bengt Samuelsson, Jesper Z Haeggström
Human leukotriene (LT) A4 hydrolase/aminopeptidase (LTA4H) is a bifunctional enzyme that converts the highly unstable epoxide intermediate LTA4 into LTB4, a potent leukocyte activating agent, while the aminopeptidase activity cleaves and inactivates the chemotactic tripeptide Pro-Gly-Pro. Here, we describe high-resolution crystal structures of LTA4H complexed with LTA4, providing the structural underpinnings of the enzyme's unique epoxide hydrolase (EH) activity, involving Zn(2+), Y383, E271, D375, and two catalytic waters...
August 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827077/high-potential-defense-mechanisms-of-neocortex-in-a-rat-model-of-transient-asphyxia-induced-cardiac-arrest
#5
Gerburg Keilhoff, Torben Esser, Maximilian Titze, Uwe Ebmeyer, Lorenz Schild
Cardiac arrest (CA) is a common cause of disability and mortality and thus an important risk for human health. Circulatory failure has dramatic consequences for the brain as one of the most oxygen-consuming organs. Hippocampus, striatum and neocortex rate among the most vulnerable brain regions. The neocortex is less sensitive to hypoxia/reperfusion in comparison with the hippocampal CA1 region. That implicates the existence of efficient defense mechanisms in the neocortex against hypoxia/reperfusion injury, which we analyzed in a well-established CA rat model...
August 18, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826878/assessment-of-passive-intestinal-permeability-using-an-artificial-membrane-insert-system
#6
Philippe Berben, Joachim Brouwers, Patrick Augustijns
Despite reasonable predictive power of current cell-based and cell-free absorption models for the assessment of intestinal drug permeability, high costs and/or lengthy preparation steps hamper their use. The use of a simple artificial membrane (without any lipids present) as intestinal barrier substitute would overcome these hurdles. In the present study, a set of 14 poorly water-soluble drugs, dissolved in two different media [fasted state simulated/human intestinal fluids (FaSSIF/FaHIF)], were applied to the donor compartment of an artificial membrane insert system (AMI-system) containing a regenerated cellulose membrane...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822878/in-vitro-method-to-evaluate-the-barrier-properties-of-medical-devices-for-cutaneous-use
#7
Antonella Casiraghi, Francesco Ranzini, Umberto M Musazzi, Silvia Franzè, Marisa Meloni, Paola Minghetti
Barrier creams (BC) are marketed as cosmetic products or locally-applied medical devices to protect skin against damages induced by chemical agents or physical insults. However, the determination of the BC effectiveness is still a matter of discussion at both the clinical and the regulatory level. In this context, this work aimed at the development of a reliable, reproducible and easy-to-perform experimental protocol for the evaluation of BC performances. Preliminarily, an in vivo method based on the measurement of trans-epidermal water loss had been matter of investigation and was discarded: it required too much time and was not robust and sensitive enough...
August 16, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822563/effect-of-pericardial-fat-volume-and-density-on-markers-of-insulin-resistance-and-inflammation-in-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#8
Chris T Longenecker, Seunghee Margevicius, Yiying Liu, Mark D Schluchter, Chun-Ho Yun, Hiram G Bezerra, Grace A McComsey
Treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is characterized by ectopic fat deposition, a persistent inflammatory state, and increased cardiometabolic risk. In this secondary analysis of a placebo controlled trial of rosuvastatin among 147 HIV+ subjects (median age 46; 78% men) on stable antiretroviral therapy, we aimed to evaluate longitudinal associations between computed tomography (CT) measures of pericardial fat (PCF) volume and density, insulin resistance, and inflammation. We measured PCF volume and density (mean attenuation in Hounsfield units) by noncontrast gated CT at baseline and week 96...
July 24, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822000/effects-of-fusariotoxin-co-exposure-on-thp-1-human-immune-cells
#9
Marie-Caroline Smith, Stéphanie Madec, Samuel Troadec, Emmanuel Coton, Nolwenn Hymery
Deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin (T2), fumonisin B1 (FB1), zearalenone (ZEA), and moniliformin (MON) mycotoxins are common food and feed contaminants produced by Fusarium spp. However, while they are usually found to co-occur in a large range of commodities, only few data are available on mycotoxin co-exposure effects and cellular response mechanisms. In this study, the individual and combined toxic effects of these fusariotoxins were evaluated on the THP-1 human immune cell line as major fusariotoxins are mostly potent immunomodulators...
August 18, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821572/rolling-neutrophils-form-tethers-and-slings-under-physiologic-conditions-in-vivo
#10
Alex Marki, Konrad Buscher, Zbigniew Mikulski, Axel Pries, Klaus Ley
Human and mouse neutrophils are known to form tethers when rolling on selectins in vitro. Tethers are ∼0.2 μm thin, ∼5-10 μm-long structures behind rolling cells that can swing around to form slings that serve as self-adhesive substrates. Here, we developed a mouse intravital imaging method, where the neutrophil surface is labeled by injecting fluorescently labeled mAb to Ly-6G. Venules in the cremaster muscle of live mice were imaged at a high frame rate using a confocal microscope equipped with a fast resonant scanner...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821228/sg-adviser-mtdna-a-web-server-for-mitochondrial-dna-annotation-with-data-from-200-samples-of-a-healthy-aging-cohort
#11
Manuel Rueda, Ali Torkamani
BACKGROUND: Whole genome and exome sequencing usually include reads containing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Yet, state-of-the-art pipelines and services for human nuclear genome variant calling and annotation do not handle mitochondrial genome data appropriately. As a consequence, any researcher desiring to add mtDNA variant analysis to their investigations is forced to explore the literature for mtDNA pipelines, evaluate them, and implement their own instance of the desired tool. This task is far from trivial, and can be prohibitive for non-bioinformaticians...
August 18, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821097/thiolated-pectin-doxorubicin-conjugates-synthesis-characterization-and-anticancer-activity-studies
#12
Kamonrak Cheewatanakornkool, Sathit Niratisai, Somkamol Manchun, Crispin R Dass, Pornsak Sriamornsak
In this paper, pectin was cross-linked by a coupling reaction with either thioglycolic acid or cystamine dihydrochloride to form thiolated pectins. The thiolated pectins were then coupled with doxorubicin (DOX) derivative to obtain thiolated pectin-DOX conjugates by two different methods, disulfide bond formation and disulfide bond exchange. The disulfide bond exchange method provided a simple, fast, and efficient approach for synthesis of thiolated pectin-DOX conjugates, compared to the disulfide bond formation...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821014/efficient-and-accurate-causal-inference-with-hidden-confounders-from-genome-transcriptome-variation-data
#13
Lingfei Wang, Tom Michoel
Mapping gene expression as a quantitative trait using whole genome-sequencing and transcriptome analysis allows to discover the functional consequences of genetic variation. We developed a novel method and ultra-fast software Findr for higly accurate causal inference between gene expression traits using cis-regulatory DNA variations as causal anchors, which improves current methods by taking into consideration hidden confounders and weak regulations. Findr outperformed existing methods on the DREAM5 Systems Genetics challenge and on the prediction of microRNA and transcription factor targets in human lymphoblastoid cells, while being nearly a million times faster...
August 18, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819274/distinct-carbon-sources-affect-structural-and-functional-maturation-of-cardiomyocytes-derived-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#14
Cláudia Correia, Alexey Koshkin, Patrícia Duarte, Dongjian Hu, Ana Teixeira, Ibrahim Domian, Margarida Serra, Paula M Alves
The immature phenotype of human pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) constrains their potential in cell therapy and drug testing. In this study, we report that shifting hPSC-CMs from glucose-containing to galactose- and fatty acid-containing medium promotes their fast maturation into adult-like CMs with higher oxidative metabolism, transcriptional signatures closer to those of adult ventricular tissue, higher myofibril density and alignment, improved calcium handling, enhanced contractility, and more physiological action potential kinetics...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819205/fast-wide-volume-functional-imaging-of-engineered-in-vitro-brain-tissues
#15
G Palazzolo, M Moroni, A Soloperto, G Aletti, G Naldi, M Vassalli, T Nieus, F Difato
The need for in vitro models that mimic the human brain to replace animal testing and allow high-throughput screening has driven scientists to develop new tools that reproduce tissue-like features on a chip. Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro cultures are emerging as an unmatched platform that preserves the complexity of cell-to-cell connections within a tissue, improves cell survival, and boosts neuronal differentiation. In this context, new and flexible imaging approaches are required to monitor the functional states of 3D networks...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818785/a-single-tube-approach-for-in-vitro-diagnostics-using-diatomaceous-earth-and-optical-sensor
#16
Fei Zhao, Bonhan Koo, Huifang Liu, Choong Eun Jin, Yong Shin
Versatile, simple and efficient sample preparation is desirable for point-of-care testing of emerging diseases such as zoonoses, but current sample preparation assays are insensitive, labour-intensive and time-consuming and require multiple instruments. We developed a single-tube sample preparation approach involving direct pathogen enrichment and extraction from human specimens using diatomaceous earth (DE). Amine-modified DE was used to directly enrich a zoonotic pathogen, Brucella, in a large sample volume...
August 12, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817247/assessing-predictions-of-fitness-effects-of-missense-mutations-in-sumo-conjugating-enzyme-ube2i
#17
Jing Zhang, Lisa N Kinch, Qian Cong, Jochen Weile, Song Sun, Atina G Cote, Frederick P Roth, Nick V Grishin
The exponential growth of genomic variants uncovered by next-generation sequencing necessitates efficient and accurate computational analyses to predict their functional effects. A number of computational methods have been developed for the task, but few unbiased comparisons of their performance are available. To fill the gap, The Critical Assessment of Genome Interpretation (CAGI) comprehensively assesses phenotypic predictions on newly collected experimental datasets. Here, we present the results of the SUMO conjugase challenge where participants were predicting functional effects of missense mutations in human SUMO-conjugating enzyme UBE2I...
September 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815446/a-human-pet-study-of-11-c-hms011-a-potential-radioligand-for-ampa-receptors
#18
Keisuke Takahata, Yasuyuki Kimura, Chie Seki, Masaki Tokunaga, Masanori Ichise, Kazunori Kawamura, Maiko Ono, Soichiro Kitamura, Manabu Kubota, Sho Moriguchi, Tatsuya Ishii, Yuhei Takado, Fumitoshi Niwa, Hironobu Endo, Tomohisa Nagashima, Yoko Ikoma, Ming-Rong Zhang, Tetsuya Suhara, Makoto Higuchi
BACKGROUND: α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptor is a primary mediator of fast glutamatergic excitatory signaling in the brain and has been implicated in diverse neuropsychiatric diseases. We recently developed a novel positron emission tomography (PET) ligand, 2-(1-(3-([(11)C]methylamino)phenyl)-2-oxo-5-(pyrimidin-2-yl)-1,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl) benzonitrile ([(11)C]HMS011). This compound is a radiolabelled derivative of perampanel, an antiepileptic drug acting on AMPA receptors, and was demonstrated to have promising in vivo properties in the rat and monkey brains...
August 16, 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814387/effects-of-nk1-receptors-on-gastric-motor-functions-and-satiation-in-healthy-humans-results-from-a-controlled-trial-with-the-nk1-antagonist-aprepitant
#19
Deepti Jacob, Irene A Busciglio, Duane D Burton, Houssam Halawi, Ibironke Oduyebo, Deborah Rhoten, Michael Ryks, W Scott Harmsen, Michael Camilleri
Aprepitant, an NK1 receptor antagonist, is approved for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced or postoperative emesis by blocking NK1 receptors in the brain stem vomiting center. Effects of NK1 receptors on gastric functions and postprandial symptoms in humans are unclear; a single, crossover study did not show a significant effect of aprepitant on gastrointestinal transit. Our aim was to compare, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study (12 healthy volunteers per group), effects of aprepitant vs...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814154/a-low-cost-three-dimensional-laser-surface-scanning-approach-for-defining-body-segment-parameters
#20
Petros Pandis, Anthony Mj Bull
Body segment parameters are used in many different applications in ergonomics as well as in dynamic modelling of the musculoskeletal system. Body segment parameters can be defined using different methods, including techniques that involve time-consuming manual measurements of the human body, used in conjunction with models or equations. In this study, a scanning technique for measuring subject-specific body segment parameters in an easy, fast, accurate and low-cost way was developed and validated. The scanner can obtain the body segment parameters in a single scanning operation, which takes between 8 and 10 s...
August 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
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