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Human fasting

Petros Petrikis, Vassiliki A Boumba, Alexandros T Tzallas, Paraskevi V Voulgari, Dimitra T Archimandriti, Petros Skapinakis, Venetsanos Mavreas
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) plays an important role in neurogenesis and synaptogenesis and may be implicated in schizophrenia, although data so far have been inconclusive. The aim of our study was to compare levels of IGF-1 in drug-naïve patients with a first episode of schizophrenia and related disorders with matched healthy controls. Forty drug naïve first-episode patients with schizophrenia and related disorders and forty healthy subjects matched for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status were enrolled in the study...
September 28, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Brian J Martin, Chris McGlory, Martin J MacInnis, Mary K Allison, Stuart M Phillips, Martin J Gibala
We reported that supplementation with green tea extract (GTE) lowered the glycemic response to an oral glucose load following exercise but via an unknown mechanism. Here we examined the effect of supplementation with GTE on plasma glucose kinetics upon ingestion of a glucose beverage during exercise recovery. Eleven healthy, sedentary men (21±2 y; BMI=23±4 kg•m(-2), VO2peak=38±7 ml•kg(-1)•min(-1); mean±SD) ingested GTE (350 mg) or placebo (PLA) thrice daily for 7-d in a double-blind, crossover design...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Carey D Balaban, Joseph M Furman
This study provides the first clear evidence that the generation of optokinetic nystagmus fast phases is a decision process that is influenced by performance of a concurrent disjunctive reaction time task (DRT). Ten subjects performed an auditory DRT during constant velocity optokinetic stimulation. Eye movements were measured in three dimensions with a magnetic search coil. Slow phase (SP) durations were defined as the interval between fast phases (FPs). There were three main findings. Firstly, human optokinetic nystagmus SP durations are consistent with a model of a Gaussian basic interval generator (a type of biological clock), such that FPs can be triggered randomly at the end of a clock cycle (mean duration: 200-250 ms); Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests could not reject the modeled cumulative distribution for any data trials...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Welma Stonehouse, Grant D Brinkworth, Campbell H Thompson, Mahinda Y Abeywardena
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In vitro, ex vivo and animal studies suggest palm-based tocotrienols and carotenes enhance vascular function, but limited data in humans exists. The aim was to examine the effects of palm-tocotrienols (TRF- 80) and palm-carotene (CC-60) supplementation on vascular function and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adults at increased risk of impaired vascular function. METHODS: Ninety men and women (18-70 yr, 20-45 kg/m(2)) with type 2 diabetes, impaired fasting glucose and/or elevated waist circumference were randomised to consume either TRF-80 (420 mg/day tocotrienol + 132 mg/day tocopherol), CC-60 (21 mg/day carotenes) or placebo (palm olein) supplements for 8 weeks...
October 14, 2016: Atherosclerosis
Grzegorz Bauman, Francesco Santini, Orso Pusterla, Oliver Bieri
PURPOSE: To present a technique for simultaneous mapping of T1 , T2 , and relative spin density (M0 ) in human lung using inversion recovery ultra-fast steady-state free precession (IR-ufSSFP) imaging. METHODS: Pulmonary relaxometry with IR-ufSSFP is based on an interleaved time series acquisition of 2D images acquired at 1.5T. The technique was tested in a phantom and in four healthy volunteers using breath-hold and electrocardiogram triggering. Typically, 30 transient state images were acquired in a single breath-hold within < 10 s...
October 19, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Vamsee D Myneni, Aisha Mousa, Mari T Kaartinen
F13A1 gene, which encodes for Factor XIII-A blood clotting factor and a transglutaminase enzyme, was recently identified as a potential causative gene for obesity in humans. In our previous in vitro work, we showed that FXIII-A regulates preadipocyte differentiation and modulates insulin signaling via promoting plasma fibronectin assembly into the extracellular matrix. To understand the role of FXIII-A in whole body energy metabolism, here we have characterized the metabolic phenotype of F13a1-/- mice. F13a1-/- and F13a1+/+ type mice were fed chow or obesogenic, high fat diet for 20 weeks...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yim Tong Szeto, Kam Shing Wong, Andrea Han, Sok Cheon Pak, Wouter Kalle
AIM: The aim of this clinical study is to provide scientific evidence for supporting traditional Chinese application and usage to the patients. For this purpose, we tested the ability if Panax ginseng extract to lower oxidative damage to nuclear DNA in human lymphocytes by comparing the effect of cooked Chinese turnip on this effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven healthy subjects (4 males and 3 females from 37 to 60 years) participated two occasions which were at least 2 weeks apart...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Seong-Tshool Hong
The human intestine contains a massive and complex microbial community called gut microbiota. A typical human carries 100 trillion microbes in his/her body which is 10 times greater than the number of their host cells, i.e. whole number of human cells. A combined microbial genome constituting gut microbiota is well excess our own human genome. The microbial composition of gut microbiotata and its role on diseases became a booming area of research, presenting a new paradigm of opportunities for modern medicines...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ming Liu, Lihua Li, Jihong Chu, Guoliang Dai, Wenzheng Ju, Zhenxing Wang, Zhuyuan Fang
OBJECTIVE: Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) is a novel histone methylation modulator that regulates energy metabolism, and NNMT knockdown prevents diet-induced obesity in mice. However, whether NNMT plays a role in human obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains to be elucidated. NNMT catalyzes methylation of nicotinamide to generate N-methylnicotinamide (me-NAM). We aimed to investigate the associations of serum me-NAM with obesity and T2DM in Chinese. DESIGN AND METHOD: The study subjects (n = 1160) were recruited from Dali, a city of Yunan province, in southwest China...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Roland Schmieder, Christian Ott, Peter Linz, Agnes Jumar, Stefanie Friedrich, Jens Titze, Matthias Hammon, Michael Uder, Iris Kistner
OBJECTIVE: Sodium tissue content by Na magnetic resonance imaging (Na-MRI) has been validated in experimental and human studies. SGLT-2 inhibition blocks the reabsorption of glucose and, in parallel, of sodium in the proximal tubular cells in a 1:1 fashion. We hypothesized that SGLT-2 inhibition in patients with type 2 diabetes leads to decreased tissue sodium content due to its pharmacological action. DESIGN AND METHOD: In a prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, cross-over trial 59 patients (61 ± 7...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Carles Soler, Jesús Contell, Lorena Bori, MarIa Sancho, Almudena García-Molina, Anthony Valverde, Jan Segarvall
This work provides information on the blue fox ejaculated sperm quality needed for seminal dose calculations. Twenty semen samples, obtained by masturbation, were analyzed for kinematic and morphometric parameters by using CASA-Mot and CASA-Morph system and principal component (PC) analysis. For motility, eight kinematic parameters were evaluated, which were reduced to PC1, related to linear variables, and PC2, related to oscillatory movement. The whole population was divided into three independent subpopulations: SP1, fast cells with linear movement; SP2, slow cells and nonoscillatory motility; and SP3, medium speed cells and oscillatory movement...
September 30, 2016: Asian Journal of Andrology
Quynh C Nguyen, Dapeng Li, Hsien-Wen Meng, Suraj Kath, Elaine Nsoesie, Feifei Li, Ming Wen
BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that where people live, play, and work can influence health and well-being. However, the dearth of neighborhood data, especially data that is timely and consistent across geographies, hinders understanding of the effects of neighborhoods on health. Social media data represents a possible new data resource for neighborhood research. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to build, from geotagged Twitter data, a national neighborhood database with area-level indicators of well-being and health behaviors...
October 17, 2016: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Diane J Davies, Jon R Heylings, Heather Gayes, Timothy J McCarthy, M Catherine Mack
A new in vitro model based on the electrical resistance properties of the skin barrier has been established in this laboratory. The model utilises a tape stripping procedure in dermatomed pig skin that removes a specific proportion of the stratum corneum, mimicking impaired barrier function observed in humans with damaged skin. The skin penetration and distribution of chemicals with differing physicochemical properties, namely; Benzoic acid, 3-Aminophenol, Caffeine and Sucrose has been assessed in this model...
October 14, 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Zheping Yuan, Chengguo Liu, Yiping Tian, Xuhui Zhang, Huaizhuang Ye, Lifeng Jin, Liansheng Ruan, Zhanhang Sun, Yimin Zhu
Magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) are essential for numerous kinds of metabolisms in human body. To investigate the associations between Mg and Ca and the ratio of Ca to Mg (Ca/Mg) in whole blood with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a Chinese population, a matched case-control study including 204 MetS patients and 204 healthy controls (aged 48-89) was carried out in 2011. MetS were diagnosed according to the criteria of Chinese Diabetes Society. Controls had no abnormal metabolic components and were matched with cases by age, gender and region...
October 18, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Duncan K Ralph, Frederick A Matsen
The human immune system depends on a highly diverse collection of antibody-making B cells. B cell receptor sequence diversity is generated by a random recombination process called "rearrangement" forming progenitor B cells, then a Darwinian process of lineage diversification and selection called "affinity maturation." The resulting receptors can be sequenced in high throughput for research and diagnostics. Such a collection of sequences contains a mixture of various lineages, each of which may be quite numerous, or may consist of only a single member...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Dick C Chan, P Hugh R Barrett, Gerald F Watts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dysregulated lipoprotein metabolism leads to increased plasma concentrations of atherogenic lipoproteins. We highlight the findings from recent studies of the effect of lipid-regulating therapies on apolipoprotein metabolism in humans employing endogenous labelling with stable isotopically labelled isotopomers. RECENT FINDINGS: Fish oil supplementation and niacin treatment both reduce fasting and postprandial triglyceride levels by decreasing the hepatic secretion of VLDL-apoB-100 (apoB) and apoB-48-containing chylomicron particles in obese and/or type 2 diabetes...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Alessandro Piai, Qingshan Fu, Jyoti Dev, James Jeiwen Chou
Structural characterization of transmembrane proteins in isotropic bicelles has become an increasingly popular application of solution NMR spectroscopy, as the fast-tumbling bicelles are membrane-like yet can often yield spectral quality comparable to those of detergent micelles. While larger bicelles are closer to the true lipid bilayer, it remains unclear how large the bicelles need to be to allow accurate assessment of protein transmembrane partition in lipid bilayer. Here, we address the above question from the perspective of protein residing in the bicelles, through systematic measurement of protein chemical shift and transmembrane partition at different lipid:detergent ratios (q), ranging from 0...
October 17, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Yu-Bin Yan, Norm C Duke, Mei Sun
Rhizophora species are the most widely distributed mangrove trees in the Indo-West Pacific (IWP) region. Comparative studies of these species with shared life history traits can help identify evolutionary factors that have played most important roles in determining genetic diversity within and between populations in ocean-current dispersed mangrove tree species. We sampled 935 individuals from 54 natural populations for genotyping with 13 microsatellite markers to investigate the level of genetic variation, population structure, and gene flow on a broad geographic scale in Rhizophora apiculata, Rhizophora mucronata, and Rhizophora stylosa across the IWP region...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Christoph Zinner, David Morales-Alamo, Niels Ørtenblad, Filip J Larsen, Tomas A Schiffer, Sarah J Willis, Miriam Gelabert-Rebato, Mario Perez-Valera, Robert Boushel, Jose A L Calbet, Hans-Christer Holmberg
To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the differences in adaptation of arm and leg muscles to sprint training, over a period of 11 days 16 untrained men performed six sessions of 4-6 × 30-s all-out sprints (SIT) with the legs and arms, separately, with a 1-h interval of recovery. Limb-specific VO2peak, sprint performance (two 30-s Wingate tests with 4-min recovery), muscle efficiency and time-trial performance (TT, 5-min all-out) were assessed and biopsies from the m. vastus lateralis and m. triceps brachii taken before and after training...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Damien Benis, Olivier David, Brigitte Piallat, Astrid Kibleur, Laurent Goetz, Manik Bhattacharjee, Valérie Fraix, Eric Seigneuret, Paul Krack, Stéphan Chabardès, Julien Bastin
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a critical role during action inhibition, perhaps by acting like a fast brake on the motor system when inappropriate responses have to be rapidly suppressed. However, the mechanisms involving the STN during motor inhibition are still unclear, particularly because of a relative lack of single-cell responses reported in this structure in humans. In this study, we used extracellular microelectrode recordings during deep brain stimulation surgery in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) to study STN neurophysiological correlates of inhibitory control during a stop signal task...
September 21, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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