keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Human fasting

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474740/differences-in-nonclinical-pharmacokinetics-between-species-and-prediction-of-human-pharmacokinetics-of-tak-272-sco-272-a-novel-orally-active-renin-inhibitor
#1
Takuya Ebihara, Mitsuhiro Nishihara, Junzo Takahashi, Fumihiro Jinno, Yoshihiko Tagawa
In the search for orally available drugs, the prediction of human pharmacokinetics (PK) is essential to successfully select compounds that will be clinically useful. This report describes the selection of TAK-272 (SCO-272), a novel orally active renin inhibitor, as a clinical candidate via the detailed investigation of nonclinical PK data and human PK prediction. The bioavailability (BA) of TAK-272 after oral administration to rats and monkeys was low, especially in fasted monkeys, and the systemic exposure of TAK-272 was highly variable in monkeys...
February 23, 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474550/developmental-plasticity-and-its-relevance-to-assisted-human-reproduction
#2
Tessa J Roseboom
The advent of assisted reproduction has allowed the conception of millions of individuals who otherwise would not have existed. Although most ART children are born healthy, there is increasing awareness of the plasticity of the human embryo causing concerns about potential long-term consequences of ART for the growth, development and health of this growing population of individuals. Evidence from studies in animals and humans suggest that physiology and metabolism may be permanently affected by ART. It suggests that ART children may be at increased risk of later cardiometabolic diseases...
February 21, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473904/sinus-bradycardia-in-carriers-of-the-scn5a-1795insd-mutation-unraveling-the-mechanism-through-computer-simulations
#3
Ronald Wilders
The SCN5A gene encodes the pore-forming α-subunit of the ion channel that carries the cardiac fast sodium current ( INa ). The 1795insD mutation in SCN5A causes sinus bradycardia, with a mean heart rate of 70 beats/min in mutation carriers vs. 77 beats/min in non-carriers from the same family (lowest heart rate 41 vs. 47 beats/min). To unravel the underlying mechanism, we incorporated the mutation-induced changes in INa into a recently developed comprehensive computational model of a single human sinoatrial node cell (Fabbri-Severi model)...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473432/human-neutrophil-lipocalin-hnl-as-a-biomarker-of-acute-infections
#4
Per Venge
The early and accurate discrimination between bacterial and viral causes of acute infections is the key to a better use of antibiotics and will help slow down the fast-growing resistance to commonly used antibiotics. This discrimination is in the vast majority of cases possible to achieve by blood assay of the biomarker human neutrophil lipocalin (HNL), which we showed to be uniquely increased in patients suffering from bacterial infections. In serum, sensitivities and specificities of >90% are achieved in both adults and children...
February 23, 2018: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472850/slow-is-also-fast-feedback-delay-affects-anxiety-and-outcome-evaluation
#5
Xukai Zhang, Yi Lei, Hang Yin, Peng Li, Hong Li
Performance-related feedback plays an important role in improving human being's adaptive behavior. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), previous studies have associated a particular component, i.e., reward positivity (RewP), with outcome evaluation processing and found that this component was affected by waiting time before outcome evaluation. Prior research has also suggested that anxious individuals are more prone to detecting threats and susceptible to negative emotions, and show different patterns of brain activity in outcome evaluation...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472570/the-po-delta-is-restarting-progradation-geomorphological-evolution-based-on-a-47-years-earth-observation-dataset
#6
A Ninfo, P Ciavola, P Billi
From the 1950s, the Po delta, one of the largest anthropogenic world deltas, has been subjected to a fast degradation and shoreline retreat due a marked reduction of sediment supply, mainly controlled by human impacts/factors, including subsidence. Through the interpretation of satellite images, coupled with the analysis of the flow discharge, and of the annual frequency of marine storms, we show that recently (>2010) the Po River has resumed delta progradation, especially in its northern portion. This happens after decades of erosion, followed by alternating regrowth and degradation phases, indicating conditions of substantial stability (1970-2000)...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472294/impact-of-the-epoxide-hydrolase-ephd-on-the-metabolism-of-mycolic-acids-in-mycobacteria
#7
Jan Madacki, Françoise Laval, Anna Grzegorzewicz, Anne Lemassu, Monika Záhorszká, Michael Arand, Michael McNeil, Mamadou Daffé, Mary Jackson, Marie-Antoinette Lanéelle, Jana Korduláková
Mycolic acids are the hallmark of the cell envelope in mycobacteria, which include the important human pathogens Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. leprae Mycolic acids are very long C60-C90 α-alkyl β-hydroxy fatty acids having a variety of functional groups on their hydrocarbon chain that define several mycolate types. Mycobacteria also produce an unusually large number of putative epoxide hydrolases, but the physiological functions of these enzymes are still unclear. Here, we report that the mycobacterial epoxide hydrolase EphD is involved in mycolic acid metabolism...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471074/do-humans-still-forage-in-an-obesogenic-environment-mechanisms-and-implications-for-weight-maintenance
#8
Jeffrey M Brunstrom, Bobby K Cheon
Many people struggle to control their food intake and bodyweight. This is often interpreted as evidence that humans are generally predisposed to consume food when it is available, because adiposity offered insurance against the threat of starvation in our ancestral environment. In this paper we suggest that modern humans have actually inherited a far broader range of foraging skills that continue to influence our dietary behaviour. To evaluate this idea, we identify three challenges that would need to be addressed to achieve efficient foraging; (1) monitoring the 'procurement cost' of foods, (2) determining the energy content of foods, and (3) proactively adapting to perceived food insecurity...
February 19, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470426/surface-plasmon-resonance-and-bending-loss-based-u-shaped-plastic-optical-fiber-biosensors
#9
Ariadny da S Arcas, Fábio da S Dutra, Regina C S B Allil, Marcelo M Werneck
Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) is a large and diverse bacteria group that inhabits the intestinal tract of many mammals. Most E. coli strains are harmless, however some of them are pathogenic, meaning they can make one sick if ingested. By being in the feces of animals and humans, its presence in water and food is used as indicator of fecal contamination. The main method for this microorganism detection is the bacterial culture medium that is time-consuming and requires a laboratory with specialized personnel...
February 22, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468823/molecularly-selective-regulation-of-delivery-fluxes-employing-supramolecular-bindings-in-layer-by-layer-films
#10
Tao Huang, Xinglong Luan, Qi Xia, Shaofeng Pan, Qi An, Yaling Wu, Yihe Zhang
The molecularly selective regulation of molecular fluxes in a biomaterial that delivers simultaneously multiple chemical species is still beyond the touch of materials scientists. We developed a delivery material using layer-by-layer (LbL) technique that discriminatively regulates the delivery flux of bioactive small molecules, represented by a peptide containing RGD fragment and the chemotherapy drug DOX. Molecularly selective flux regulations in layer-by-layer films are realized using fast reversible supramolecular bindings between cyclodextrin and its guests...
February 22, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467628/anatomical-evidence-for-a-direct-projection-from-purkinje-cells-in-the-mouse-cerebellar-vermis-to-medial-parabrachial-nucleus
#11
Mitsuhiro Hashimoto, Akihiro Yamanaka, Shigeki Kato, Manabu Tanifuji, Kazuto Kobayashi, Hiroyuki Yaginuma
Cerebellar malformations cause changes to the sleep-wake cycle, resulting in sleep disturbance. However, it is unclear how the cerebellum contributes to the sleep-wake cycle. To examine the neural connections between the cerebellum and the nuclei involved in the sleep-wake cycle, we investigated the axonal projections of Purkinje cells in the mouse posterior vermis by using an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector (serotype rh10) as an anterograde tracer. When an AAV vector expressing humanized renilla green fluorescent protein was injected into the cerebellar lobule IX, hrGFP and synaptophysin double-positive axonal terminals were observed in the region of medial parabrachial nucleus (MPB)...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466682/no-effect-of-acute-normobaric-hypoxia-on-plasma-triglyceride-levels-in-fasting-healthy-men
#12
Bimit Mahat, Étienne Chassé, Clare Lindon, Jean-François Mauger, Pascal Imbeault
Circulating fatty acids are a major systemic energy source in the fasting state as well as a determinant of hepatic triglyceride (TG)-rich very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) production. Upon acute hypoxia, sympathetic arousal induces adipose tissue lipolysis, resulting in an increase in circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Animal studies suggest that TG clearance may also be strongly reduced under hypoxia, though this effect has been shown to be dependent on temperature. Whether the hypoxia-induced rise in blood fatty acid concentrations effects fasting TG levels in humans under thermoneutral conditions remains unknown...
February 21, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466430/cholinergic-signaling-mediates-the-effects-of-xenin-25-on-secretion-of-pancreatic-polypeptide-but-not-insulin-or-glucagon-in-humans-with-impaired-glucose-tolerance
#13
Songyan Wang, Lauren Z Oestricker, Michael J Wallendorf, Karin Sterl, Judit Dunai, C Rachel Kilpatrick, Bruce W Patterson, Dominic N Reeds, Burton M Wice
We previously demonstrated that infusion of an intestinal peptide called xenin-25 (Xen) amplifies the effects of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) on insulin secretion rates (ISRs) and plasma glucagon levels in humans. However, these effects of Xen, but not GIP, were blunted in humans with type 2 diabetes. Thus, Xen rather than GIP signaling to islets fails early during development of type 2 diabetes. The current crossover study determines if cholinergic signaling relays the effects of Xen on insulin and glucagon release in humans as in mice...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464177/tb-or-not-tb-mycobacterium-celatum-mimicking-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-a-case-of-mistaken-identity
#14
Michael Chavarria, Larry Lutwick, Bonny L Dickinson
Mycobacterium celatum is a slow-growing, non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) and a rare cause of infection in humans. Infection occurs primarily by inhalation or direct inoculation from environmental sources, and this pathogen has been reported to cause localized infections in the lungs and lymph nodes of both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients, and disseminated disease in immunocompromised patients. Here, we present a case of pulmonary infection with M. celatum in an immunocompetent 68-year-old male with clinical features similar to tuberculosis...
2018: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463885/machine-learning-for-the-meta-analyses-of-microbial-pathogens-volatile-signatures
#15
Susana I C J Palma, Ana P Traguedo, Ana R Porteira, Maria J Frias, Hugo Gamboa, Ana C A Roque
Non-invasive and fast diagnostic tools based on volatolomics hold great promise in the control of infectious diseases. However, the tools to identify microbial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) discriminating between human pathogens are still missing. Artificial intelligence is increasingly recognised as an essential tool in health sciences. Machine learning algorithms based in support vector machines and features selection tools were here applied to find sets of microbial VOCs with pathogen-discrimination power...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463217/elucidation-of-cross-species-proteomic-effects-in-human-and-hominin-bone-proteome-identification-through-a-bioinformatics-experiment
#16
F Welker
BACKGROUND: The study of ancient protein sequences is increasingly focused on the analysis of older samples, including those of ancient hominins. The analysis of such ancient proteomes thereby potentially suffers from "cross-species proteomic effects": the loss of peptide and protein identifications at increased evolutionary distances due to a larger number of protein sequence differences between the database sequence and the analyzed organism. Error-tolerant proteomic search algorithms should theoretically overcome this problem at both the peptide and protein level; however, this has not been demonstrated...
February 20, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462789/positioning-the-5-flap-junction-in-the-active-site-controls-the-rate-of-flap-endonuclease-1-catalyzed-dna-cleavage
#17
Bo Song, Samir M Hamdan, Manju M Hingorani
Flap endonucleases catalyze cleavage of single-stranded DNA flaps formed during replication, repair and recombination, and are therefore essential for genome processing and stability. Recent crystal structures of DNA-bound human flap endonuclease (hFEN1) offer new insights into how conformational changes in the DNA and hFEN1 may facilitate the reaction mechanism. For example, previous biochemical studies of DNA conformation performed under non-catalytic conditions with Ca2+ have suggested that base unpairing at the 5'-flap:template junction is an important step in the reaction, but the new structural data suggest otherwise...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462191/higher-serum-choline-and-betaine-levels-are-associated-with-better-body-composition-in-male-but-not-female-population
#18
Xiang Gao, Edward Randell, Haicheng Zhou, Guang Sun
BACKGROUND: Animal studies proved that choline and betaine have beneficial effect on reducing body fat. However, evidence in humans is scarce. We aim to investigate the association between serum choline and betaine levels with body composition in general population. METHODS: This is an observational cross-sectional study performed in 1081 subjects from the CODING (Complex Disease in Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics) study. Serum choline and betaine levels were measured based on liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry technology...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461972/diet-enriched-with-fresh-coconut-decreases-blood-glucose-levels-and-body-weight-in-normal-adults
#19
Venugopal Vijayakumar, Nagashree R Shankar, Ramesh Mavathur, A Mooventhan, Sood Anju, N K Manjunath
Background There exist controversies about the health effects of coconut. Fresh coconut consumption on human health has not been studied substantially. Fresh coconut consumption is a regular part of the diet for many people in tropical countries like India, and thus there is an increasing need to understand the effects of fresh coconut on various aspects of health. Aim To compare the effects of increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) and fiber intake, provided by fresh coconut, versus monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and fiber intake, provided by a combination of groundnut oil and groundnuts, on anthropometry, serum insulin, glucose levels and blood pressure in healthy adults...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461018/analysis-of-new-psychoactive-substances-in-human-urine-by-ultra-high-performance-supercritical-fluid-and-liquid-chromatography-validation-and-comparison
#20
Lucie Borovcová, Volodymyr Pauk, Karel Lemr
New psychoactive substances represent serious social and health problem as tens of new compounds are detected in Europe annually. They often show structural proximity or even isomerism which complicates their analysis. Two methods based on ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography and ultra high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection were validated and compared. A simple dilute-filter-and-shoot protocol utilizing propan-2-ol or methanol for supercritical fluid or liquid chromatography, respectively, was proposed to detect and quantify 15 cathinones and phenethylamines in human urine...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
keyword
keyword
92705
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"