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Water + only + fasting

Avshalom Leibowitz, Ariel Bier, Mayan Gilboa, Edna Peleg, Iris Barshack, Ehud Grossman
Recent data indicate that artificial sweeteners (AS) may have deleterious effects on glucose metabolism. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of AS and the effects of a high fructose diet (HFrD) on glucose metabolism and insulin resistance (IR) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. SD rats were fed either regular chow, chow with saccharin (Sac) (0.1 mg/mL) placed in their water, or HFrD for seven weeks. Glucose, insulin, and triglycerides (Tg) levels were measured upon completion. A homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)-IR index was used to determine insulin resistance...
March 12, 2018: Nutrients
Xianqiang Tang, Qingyun Li, Zhenhua Wang, Yanping Hu, Yuan Hu, Miklas Scholz
Novel soil remediation equipment based on electro-kinetic geosynthetics (EKG) was developed for in situ isolation of metals from paddy soil. Two mutually independent field plot experiments A and B (with and without electric current applied) were conducted. After saturation using ferric chloride (FeCl3 ) and calcium chloride (CaCl2 ), soil water drainage capacity, soil cadmium (Cd) removal performance, energy consumption as well as soil residual of iron (Fe) and chloride (Cl) were assessed. Cadmium dissolved in the soil matrix and resulted in a 100% increase of diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extracted phyto-available Cd...
March 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Matthew J Skiles, Alexandra M Lai, Michael R Olson, James J Schauer, Benjamin de Foy
Two hundred sixty-three fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) samples collected on 3-day intervals over a 14-month period at two sites in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) were analyzed for organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and organic molecular markers. A unique source profile library was applied to a chemical mass balance (CMB) source apportionment model to develop monthly and seasonally averaged source apportionment results. Five major OC sources were identified: mobile sources, biomass burning, meat smoke, vegetative detritus, and secondary organic carbon (SOC), as inferred from OC not apportioned by CMB...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Chen Li, Lu Xu, Yi Y Zuo, Peng Yang
Amyloid formation of proteins is not only relevant for neurodegenerative diseases, but has recently emerged as a groundbreaking approach in materials science and biotechnology. However, amyloid aggregation of proteins in vitro generally requires a long incubation time under extremely harsh conditions, and the understanding of the structural motif to determine amyloid assembly is extremely limited. Herein we reveal that the integration of three important building blocks in typical globular proteins is crucial for superfast protein amyloid-like assembly including the segment required for high fibrillation propensity, abundant α-helix structures and intramolecular S-S bonds to lock the α-helix...
February 27, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Alice Jarošíková, Vojtěch Ettler, Martin Mihaljevič, Vít Penížek, Tomáš Matoušek, Adam Culka, Petr Drahota
Dust emissions from copper smelters processing arsenic-bearing ores represent a risk to soil environments due to the high levels of As and other inorganic contaminants. Using an in situ experiment in four different forest and grassland soils (pH 3.2-8.0) we studied the transformation of As-rich (>50 wt% As) copper smelter dust over 24 months. Double polyamide bags with 1 g of flue dust were buried at different depths in soil pits and in 6-month intervals; then those bags, surrounding soil columns, and soil pore waters were collected and analysed...
February 21, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Adolfo Rosati, Andrea Paoletti, Raeed Al Hariri, Alessio Morelli, Franco Famiani
It has long been debated whether tree growth is source limited, or whether photosynthesis is adjusted to the actual sink demand, directly regulated by internal and environmental factors. Many studies support both possibilities, but no studies have provided quantitative data at the whole-tree level, across different cultivars and fruit load treatments. This study investigated the effect of different levels of reproductive growth on whole-tree biomass growth across two olive cultivars with different growth rates (i...
February 21, 2018: Tree Physiology
Shi-Dan Zhu, Ya-Jun Chen, Qing Ye, Peng-Cheng He, Hui Liu, Rong-Hua Li, Pei-Li Fu, Guo-Feng Jiang, Kun-Fang Cao
Leaf turgor loss point (πtlp) indicates the capacity of a plant to maintain cell turgor pressure during dehydration, which has been proven to be strongly predictive of the plant response to drought. In this study, we compiled a data set of πtlp for 1752 woody plant individuals belonging to 389 species from nine major woody biomes in China, along with reduced sample size of hydraulic and leaf carbon economics data. We aimed to investigate the variation of πtlp across biomes varying in water availability. We also tested two hypotheses: (i) πtlp predicts leaf hydraulic safety margins and (ii) it is correlated with leaf carbon economics traits...
February 21, 2018: Tree Physiology
Haoran Wang, Xiaomin Li, Mingjian Yuan, Xuyong Yang
Despite the recent advances in the performance of perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs), the effects of water on the perovskite emissive layer and its electroluminescence are still unclear, even though it has been previously demonstrated that moisture has a significant impact on the quality of perovskite films in the fabrication process of perovskite solar cells and is a prerequisite for obtaining high-performance PeLEDs. Here, the effects of postmoisture on the luminescent CH3 NH3 PbBr3 (MAPbBr3 ) perovskite films are systematically investigated...
February 23, 2018: Small
John S Finnell, Bradley C Saul, Alan C Goldhamer, Toshia R Myers
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that fasting, during which only water is consumed, results in potentially health promoting physiological effects. However, peer-reviewed research assessing the safety of water-only fasting is lacking. To address this, we conducted a chart review to describe adverse events (AEs) that occurred during medically supervised, water-only fasting. METHODS: Electronic charts from patient visits to a residential medical facility from 2006 to 2011 were reviewed...
February 20, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
V Mojto, A Gvozdjakova, J Kucharska, Z Rausova, O Vancova, J Valuch
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to observe the influence of 11-days complete water fasting (WF) and regeneration diet (RD) on renal function, body weight, blood pressure and oxidative stress. BACKGROUND: Therapeutic WF is considered a healing method. METHODS: Ten volunteers drank only water for 11 days, followed by RD for the next 11 days. Data on body weight, blood pressure, kidney functions, antioxidants, lipid peroxidation, cholesterols, triacylglycerols and selected biochemical parameters were obtained...
2018: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Xinzeng Wang, Ali Pirasteh, James Brugarolas, Neil M Rofsky, Robert E Lenkinski, Ivan Pedrosa, Ananth J Madhuranthakam
PURPOSE: To develop a whole-body MRI technique at 3T with improved lesion conspicuity for metastatic cancer detection using fast, high-resolution and high SNR T 2 -weighted (T 2 W) imaging with simultaneous fat and fluid suppression. THEORY AND METHODS: The proposed dual-echo T 2 -weighted acquisition for enhanced conspicuity of tumors (DETECT) acquires 4 images, in-phase (IP) and out-of-phase (OP) at a short and a long TE using single-shot turbo spin echo. The IP/OP images at the short and long TEs are reconstructed using the standard Dixon and shared-field-map Dixon reconstruction respectively, for robust fat-water separation...
February 14, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Khalid Shahin, Jose Gustavo Ramirez-Paredes, Graham Harold, Benjamin Lopez-Jimena, Alexandra Adams, Manfred Weidmann
Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) is the causative agent of piscine francisellosis in warm water fish including tilapia. The disease induces chronic granulomatous inflammation with high morbidity and can result in high mortality. Early and accurate detection of Fno is crucial to set appropriate outbreak control measures in tilapia farms. Laboratory detection of Fno mainly depends on bacterial culture and molecular techniques. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is a novel isothermal technology that has been widely used for the molecular diagnosis of various infectious diseases...
2018: PloS One
Shaohua Jiang, Nicolas Helfricht, Georg Papastavrou, Andreas Greiner, Seema Agarwal
Poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) hydrogels are well known for their temperature-dependent water uptake and release. Hence, they are ideal candidates for water management applications. However, efficiency and rate of water uptake and release, respectively, have to be optimized. Here, highly stable 3D PNIPAM sponges that show a sufficiently low density and high specific pore volume, required for maximizing the amount and rate of water absorption-desorption, are presented. They are prepared by a top-down approach based on freeze-drying a dispersion of short crosslinked PNIPAM fibers coated with crosslinked PNIPAM...
February 13, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Hyun-Wook Kim, Ji-Han Kim, Jin-Kyu Seo, Derico Setyabrata, Yuan H Brad Kim
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aging/freezing sequence and freezing rate on quality attributes and oxidative stability of frozen/thawed pork loins (M. longissimus lumborum, n = 6). Six treatments were prepared by combining 3 aging/freezing sequences (FT, freezing/thawing only; AFT, aging prior to freezing/thawing; and FTA, freezing/thawing and aging) with 2 freezing rates (slow- and fast-freezing). The lowest purge/thaw loss and drip loss were found for AFT, in which fast-freezing reduced total exudate loss (P < 0...
January 31, 2018: Meat Science
Jelena M Poljarević, G Tamás Gál, Nóra V May, Gabriella Spengler, Orsolya Dömötör, Aleksandar R Savić, Sanja Grgurić-Šipka, Éva A Enyedy
Five Ru(II)(η6-toluene) complexes formed with 2-picolinic acid and its various derivatives have been synthesized and characterized. X-ray structures of four complexes are also reported. Complex formation processes of [Ru(II)(η6-toluene)(H2O)3]2+ organometallic cation with the metal-free ligands were studied in aqueous solution in the presence of chloride ions by the combined use of 1H NMR spectroscopy, UV-visible spectrophotometry and pH-potentiometry. Solution stability, chloride ion affinity and lipophilicity of the complexes were characterized together with in vitro cytotoxic and antiproliferative activity in cancer cell lines being sensitive and resistant to classic chemotherapy and in normal cells as well...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Stephanie Krüger, Gertrud E Morlock
Colored wheat varieties and crosses were analyzed to figure out their anthocyanin profiles, and thus, their potential as health-related food. After method development, the obtained 94 anthocyanin fingerprints allowed the clear differentiation of the blue aleurone and purple pericarp genotypes as well as their breeding lines. The method was trimmed so that the complete analysis of the whole grain flour including sample preparation of up to 20 samples on one plate took less than 3 h (<9 min per sample) and total costs including sample preparation were <1...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Raul Torres Rodrigues, Paulo Victor Morais, Cristina S F Nordi, Michael J Schoning, José Roberto Siqueira Junior, Luciano Caseli
Algal polysaccharides (EPS) and carbon nanotubes (CNT) were adsorbed on dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB) Langmuir monolayers to serve as a matrix for the incorporation of urease. The physico-chemical properties of the supramolecular system as a monolayer at the air-water interface were investigated by surface pressure-area isotherms, surface potential-area isotherms, interfacial shear rheology, vibrational spectroscopy and Brewster angle microscopy. The floating monolayers were transferred to hydrophilic solid supports, quartz, mica or capacitive electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) devices, through the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique, forming mixed films, which were investigated by quartz crystal microbalance, fluorescence spectroscopy, and field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy...
February 3, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Pradeep Tyagi, Joseph Janicki, Chan-Hong Moon, Jonathan Kaufman, Christopher Chermansky
PURPOSE: Instillation of novel contrast mixture (NCM) was recently shown to improve the contrast resolution of rat bladder wall with high contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Here, the clinical safety and the feasibility of NCM-enhanced MRI to achieve artifact-free visualization of human bladder wall suitable for quantitative measurement of the magnetic resonance (MR) longitudinal relaxation time (T1) was assessed. METHODS: Six female subjects [two controls and two with Hunner-type interstitial cystitis IC and two with non-Hunner-type IC] consented for MRI at 3 T before and after instillation of NCM [4 mM gadobutrol and 5 mM ferumoxytol in 50 mL of sterile water for injection]...
February 1, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
U S Krüger, F Bak, J Aamand, O Nybroe, N Badawi, B F Smets, A Dechesne
In this study, we developed a method that provides community-level surface dispersal profiles under controlled hydration conditions from environmental samples and enables us to isolate and uncover the diversity of the fastest bacterial dispersers. The method expands on the Porous Surface Model (PSM), previously used to monitor dispersal of individual bacterial strains in liquid films at the surface of a porous ceramic disc. The novel procedure targets complex communities and captures the dispersed bacteria on a solid medium for growth and detection...
January 26, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Gemma Sangüesa, Mar Cascales, Christian Griñán, Rosa María Sánchez, Núria Roglans, Mercè Pallàs, Juan Carlos Laguna, Marta Alegret
Excessive sugar intake has been related to cognitive alterations, but it remains unclear whether these effects are related exclusively to increased energy intake, and the molecular mechanisms involved are not fully understood. We supplemented Sprague-Dawley female rats with 10% w/v fructose in drinking water or with isocaloric glucose solution for 7 months. Cognitive function was assessed through the Morris water maze (MWM) and the novel object recognition (NOR) tests. Plasma parameters and protein/mRNA expression in the frontal cortex and hippocampus were determined...
January 26, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
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