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Water + only + fasting

Robert J Harris, Timothy F Cloughesy, Linda M Liau, Phioanh L Nghiemphu, Albert Lai, Whitney B Pope, Benjamin M Ellingson
Acidity within the extracellular milieu is a hallmark of cancer. There is a current need for fast, high spatial resolution pH imaging techniques for clinical evaluation of cancers, including gliomas. Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI targeting fast-exchanging amine protons can be used to obtain high-resolution pH-weighted images, but conventional CEST acquisition strategies are slow. There is also a need for more accurate MR simulations to better understand the effects of amine CEST pulse sequence parameters on pH-weighted image contrast...
September 15, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Jorge R Espinosa, Alberto Zaragoza, Pablo Rosales-Pelaez, Caridad Navarro, Chantal Valeriani, Carlos Vega, Eduardo Sanz
The avoidance of water freezing is the holy grail in the cryopreservation of biological samples, food, and organs. Fast cooling rates are used to beat ice nucleation and avoid cell damage. This strategy can be enhanced by applying high pressures to decrease the nucleation rate, but the physics behind this procedure has not been fully understood yet. We perform computer experiments to investigate ice nucleation at high pressures consisting in embedding ice seeds in supercooled water. We find that the slowing down of the nucleation rate is mainly due to an increase of the ice I-water interfacial free energy with pressure...
September 23, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Johan Berglund, Mikael Skorpil
PURPOSE: To improve the accuracy and robustness to noise in water-fat separation by unifying the multiscale and graph cut based approaches to B0 -correction. METHODS: A previously proposed water-fat separation algorithm that corrects for B0 field inhomogeneity in 3D by a single quadratic pseudo-Boolean optimization (QPBO) graph cut was incorporated into a multi-scale framework, where field map solutions are propagated from coarse to fine scales for voxels that are not resolved by the graph cut...
October 6, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
H F M C Martiniano, N Galamba
We study, through molecular dynamics simulations, the structure and orientational dynamics of water next to a blocked hydrophobic amino acid, valine (Val), above and below the freezing point of water. The structure and the orientational dynamics of waters with four water neighbors (4WN) and less than four water neighbors (L4WN) in the Val's coordination sphere are deconvoluted. We find that in spite of the excluded volume effects waters with L4WN have faster librational dynamics than bulk water, reminiscent of water at the liquid-vapor interface, and faster orientational dynamics than waters with 4WN, at every temperature...
October 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Barbara Casentini, Fabiano Teo Falcione, Stefano Amalfitano, Stefano Fazi, Simona Rossetti
Different countries in Europe still suffer of elevated arsenic (As) concentration in groundwaters used for human consumption. In the case of households not connected to the distribution system, decentralized water supply systems, such as Point of Use (POU) and Point of Entry (POE), offer a direct benefit for the consumers. Field scale ex-situ treatment systems based on metallic iron (ZVI) are already available for the production of reduced volumes of drinking water in remote areas (village scale). To address drinking water needs at larger scale, we designed a pilot unit able to produce an elevated daily volume of water for human consumption...
September 28, 2016: Water Research
Victoria Vitali, Moira Sutka, Gabriela Amodeo, Osvaldo Chara, Marcelo Ozu
Plant cell vacuoles occupy up to 90% of the cell volume and, beyond their physiological function, are constantly subjected to water and solute exchange. The osmotic flow and vacuole volume dynamics relies on the vacuole membrane -the tonoplast- and its capacity to regulate its permeability to both water and solutes. The osmotic permeability coefficient (Pf ) is the parameter that better characterizes the water transport when submitted to an osmotic gradient. Usually, Pf determinations are made in vitro from the initial rate of volume change, when a fast (almost instantaneous) osmolality change occurs...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Nan Qin, Pablo Botas, Drosoula Giantsoudi, Jan Schuemann, Zhen Tian, Steve B Jiang, Harald Paganetti, Xun Jia
Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is commonly considered as the most accurate dose calculation method for proton therapy. Aiming at achieving fast MC dose calculations for clinical applications, we have previously developed a graphics-processing unit (GPU)-based MC tool, gPMC. In this paper, we report our recent updates on gPMC in terms of its accuracy, portability, and functionality, as well as comprehensive tests on this tool. The new version, gPMC v2.0, was developed under the OpenCL environment to enable portability across different computational platforms...
October 3, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
André Ravel, Katarina Pintar, Andrea Nesbitt, Frank Pollari
BACKGROUND: Campylobacteriosis is a prominent bacterial gastrointestinal infection worldwide with several transmission pathways. Its non-foodborne routes have been less documented and quantified. The study aimed to quantitatively explore the role of potential risk factors not directly associated with food for sporadic cases of C. jejuni infection in Canada. METHODS: This retrospective matched case-control study was built on an enhanced campylobacteriosis surveillance system and on a survey of healthy people and their behaviour with regards to potential risk factors for gastrointestinal infections that occurred in the same area in Canada...
September 27, 2016: BMC Public Health
Osama W Amro, Jessica K Paulus, Farzad Noubary, Ronald D Perrone
BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) affects millions of people worldwide. Vasopressin promotes disease progression. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial with equal (1:1) allocation. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: This trial examined the effect of combining a low-osmolar (low-sodium [1,500mg/d], low-protein [0.8g per kilogram of body weight]) diet and adjusted water intake on vasopressin secretion in 34 patients with ADPKD...
September 20, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Azadeh Mesripour, Fatemeh Moghimi, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaie
Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) has a wide range of beneficial effects including mild glucose lowering activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether cinnamon bark extract has the potential to improve memory performance and glucose profiles in diabetic mice. Memory was assessed by the novel object recognition task in male Balb/c mice. In this method, the difference between exploration time of a familiar object and a novel object was considered as an index of memory performance (recognition index, RI)...
July 2016: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
Alhussain Aodah, Rawan S Bafail, Mutasem Rawas-Qalaji
In this study, we formulated and evaluated the effects of tablet dimensions and drug load on the characteristics of atropine sulfate (AS) fast-disintegrating sublingual tablets (FDSTs). We aim to develop AS FDSTs as an alternative non-invasive and portable dosage form for the emergency treatment of organophosphate (OP) toxicity. AS autoinjector, AtroPen®, is the only self-administered dosage form available as an antidote for-out-of-hospital emergency use, but it is associated with several limitations and drawbacks...
September 20, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
Christopher Dean Goodman, Ingvild Austarheim, Vanessa Mollard, Bertin Mikolo, Karl Egil Malterud, Geoffrey I McFadden, Helle Wangensteen
BACKGROUND: Zanthoxylum heitzii (Rutaceae) (olon) is used in traditional medicine in Central and West Africa to treat malaria. To identify novel compounds with anti-parasitic activity and validate medicinal usage, extracts and compounds isolated from this tree were tested against the erythrocytic stages of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and for inhibition of transmission in rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. RESULTS: Hexane bark extract showed activity against P...
2016: Malaria Journal
Tomonori Ohba, Keiko Ideta, Koichiro Hata, Seong-Ho Yoon, Jin Miyawaki, Kenji Hata
Water in carbon nanotubes is surrounded by hydrophobic carbon surfaces and shows anomalous structural and fast transport properties. However, the dynamics of water in hydrophobic nanospaces is only phenomenologically understood. In this study, water dynamics in hydrophobic carbon nanotubes is evaluated based on water relaxation using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. Extremely fast relaxation (0.001 s) of water confined in carbon nanotubes of 1 nm in diameter on average is observed; the relaxation times of water confined in carbon nanotubes with an average diameter of 2 nm (0...
September 20, 2016: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
A A Karatzas, S N Politis, D M Rekkas
The purpose of this study was the development of novel, fast disintegrating, effervescent pellets by employing the direct pelletization technique as a single step process. In line with the Quality by Design (QbD) regulatory framework, statistical experimental design was extensively applied to correlate significant formulation and process variables with the critical quality attributes of the product. Pellets were studied with regards to sphericity, size and size distribution. In contrast to the existing multiparticulate platforms, this development integrated only water-soluble excipients to facilitate the multifunctional use of the final dosage form...
September 13, 2016: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Botao Song
Superhydrophobic metal wire mesh (SMWM) has frequently been applied for the selective and efficient separation of oil/water mixture due to its porous structure and special wettability. However, current methods for the modification of metal wire mesh to be superhydrophobic suffered from problems with respect to complex experimental procedures or time-consuming process. In this study, a very simple, time-saving and single-step electrospray method was proposed to fabricate SMWM and the whole procedure required about only 2min...
September 10, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Zeynep Aytac, Zehra Irem Yildiz, Fatma Kayaci-Senirmak, Nalan Oya San Keskin, Semran Ipek Kusku, Engin Durgun, Turgay Tekinay, Tamer Uyar
We have proposed a new strategy for preparing free-standing nanofibrous webs from an inclusion complex (IC) of a well-known flavor/fragrance compound (limonene) with three modified cyclodextrins (HPβCD, MβCD, and HPγCD) via electrospinning (CD/limonene-IC-NFs) without using a polymeric matrix. The experimental and computational modeling studies proved that the stoichiometry of the complexes was 1:1 for CD/limonene systems. MβCD/limonene-IC-NF released much more limonene at 37, 50, and 75 °C than HPβCD/limonene-IC-NF and HPγCD/limonene-IC-NF because of the greater amount of preserved limonene...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Payal Kohli, Joshua W Knowles, Ashish Sarraju, David D Waters, Gerald Reaven
The goal of this analysis was to evaluate the ability of insulin resistance, identified by the presence of prediabetes mellitus (PreDM) combined with either an elevated triglyceride (TG >1.7 mmol/l) or body mass index (BMI ≥27.0 kg/m(2)), to identify increased risk of statin-associated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Consequently, a retrospective analysis of data from subjects without diabetes in the Treating to New Targets and the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels randomized controlled trials was performed, subdividing participants into 4 experimental groups: (1) normal fasting glucose (NFG) and TG ≤1...
August 12, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
Shigeru Amemiya, Ran Chen, Nikoloz Nioradze, Jiyeon Kim
Carbon materials are tremendously important as electrode materials in both fundamental and applied electrochemistry. Recently, significant attention has been given not only to traditional carbon materials, but also to carbon nanomaterials for various electrochemical applications in energy conversion and storage as well as sensing. Importantly, many of these applications require fast electron-transfer (ET) reactions between a carbon surface and a redox-active molecule in solution. It, however, has not been well understood how heterogeneous ET kinetics at a carbon/solution interface is affected by the electronic structure, defect, and contamination of the carbon surface...
September 20, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
B Radha, A Esfandiar, F C Wang, A P Rooney, K Gopinadhan, A Keerthi, A Mishchenko, A Janardanan, P Blake, L Fumagalli, M Lozada-Hidalgo, S Garaj, S J Haigh, I V Grigorieva, H A Wu, A K Geim
Nanometre-scale pores and capillaries have long been studied because of their importance in many natural phenomena and their use in numerous applications. A more recent development is the ability to fabricate artificial capillaries with nanometre dimensions, which has enabled new research on molecular transport and led to the emergence of nanofluidics. But surface roughness in particular makes it challenging to produce capillaries with precisely controlled dimensions at this spatial scale. Here we report the fabrication of narrow and smooth capillaries through van der Waals assembly, with atomically flat sheets at the top and bottom separated by spacers made of two-dimensional crystals with a precisely controlled number of layers...
September 7, 2016: Nature
Ana T M Viveiros, Marcelo C Leal, Thales S França, Izabella L G Almeida, Ziara A Isaú
Osmolality and composition of the activating solution on motility of fresh and frozen Prochilodus lineatus sperm were evaluated. Sperm was triggered in 11 solutions prepared with reverse osmosis (RO) water (∼0mOsmkg(-1)), and glucose or NaCl adjusted to 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250mOsmkg(-1). Sperm motility rate and velocities (curvilinear=VCL, among others) were evaluated in fresh sperm at 10, 30 and 50s post-activation (spa), and in frozen sperm at 10 spa only. Sperm was frozen under a standardized methodology for this species...
October 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
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