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Water only fasting

Lasse Ingerslev Blaabjerg, Eleanor Lindenberg, Korbinian Löbmann, Holger Grohganz, Thomas Rades
The use of an enabling formulation technique, such as amorphization of a poorly water-soluble crystalline drug, can result in supersaturation with respect to the crystalline form of the drug and thus potentially in a higher degree of absorption after oral administration. The ease with which such drugs can be amorphized is known as their glass forming ability (GFA). In this study, a potential correlation between GFA and supersaturation propensity is investigated. The GFA of 23 different drugs was determined by melt quenching or milling the crystalline drugs to obtain their respective amorphous forms...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Feng-Ping Zhang, Frances Sussmilch, David S Nichols, Amanda A Cardoso, Timothy J Brodribb, Scott A M McAdam
Rapid biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) in the leaf, triggered by a decrease in cell volume, is essential for a functional stomatal response to vapour pressure deficit (VPD) in angiosperms. However, it is not known whether rapid biosynthesis of ABA is triggered in other plant tissues as well. Through the application of external pressure to flower, root and leaf tissues, we test whether a reduction in cell volume can trigger rapid increases in ABA levels across plant body in two species Solanum lycopersicum and Passiflora tarminiana...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Andrea Tummino, Jutta Toscano, Federica Sebastiani, Boris A Noskov, Imre Varga, Richard A Campbell
In this work we demonstrate the ability to tune the formation of extended structures in films of poly(sodium styrene sulfonate)/dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide at the air/water interface through control over the charge/structure of aggregates as well as the ionic strength of the subphase. Our methodology to prepare loaded polyelectrolyte/surfactant films from self-assembled liquid crystalline aggregates exploits their fast dissociation and Marangoni spreading of material upon contact with an aqueous subphase...
January 11, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
F Soglia, G Baldi, L Laghi, S Mudalal, C Cavani, M Petracci
In the past decades, the intense selection practices carried out in order to develop fast growing and high breast-yield turkey hybrids profoundly modified the muscle physiology leading to the development of growth-related alterations and muscular abnormalities. White striations of variable thickness have been particularly observed on the ventral surface of Pectoralis major muscle belonging from heavy male turkeys since several years. However, although the effects of white striping (WS) have been extensively studied on broilers, this condition was not considered as a main quality issue by both turkey producers and meat industry...
January 8, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Chengyu Liu, Zhengsheng Liu, Yuejie Chen, Zhen Chen, Huijun Chen, Yipshu Pui Feng Qian
The aim of this paper was to compare the in vitro dissolution and in vivo bioavailability of three solubility enhancement technologies for β-lapachone (LPC), a poorly water soluble compound with extremely high crystallization propensity. LPC cocrystal was prepared by co-grinding LPC with resorcinol. LPC crystalline and amorphous solid dispersions (CSD and ASD) were obtained by spray drying with Poloxamer 188 and HPMC-AS, respectively. The cocrystal structure was solved by single crystal x-ray diffraction. All formulations were characterized by WAXRD, DSC, POM and SEM...
January 2, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Allison M Meyers, Devry Mourra, Jeff A Beeler
The contribution of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) to metabolic disorder and obesity, independent of high fat, energy-rich diets, is controversial. While high-fat diets are widely accepted as a rodent model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and metabolic disorder, the value of HFCS alone as a rodent model of DIO is unclear. Impaired dopamine function is associated with obesity and high fat diet, but the effect of HFCS on the dopamine system has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to test the effect of HFCS on weight gain, glucose regulation, and evoked dopamine release using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry...
2017: PloS One
Rui Yang, Guojun Zhang, Furui Zhang, Zhanjiang Li, Chun Huang
The structural dynamics of membrane permeabilization are investigated systematically and compared between viral fusion peptides (VFPs) and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). It is revealed that the permeabilization process can be divided into two phases: a fast motion phase in water (first phase) and a slow diffusion phase in lipid (second phase). Difference in peptide permeability to neutrally or weakly charged mammalian membrane and to negatively charged bacterial membrane is primarily determined by the first phase, which is dominated by the direct electrostatic interaction between peptide and the hydrophilic surface of membranes...
December 22, 2017: Biochimie
Min Sun Lee, Joong Hyun Kim, Jin Chul Paeng, Keon Wook Kang, Jae Min Jeong, Dong Soo Lee, Jae Sung Lee
Personalized dosimetry with high accuracy is becoming more important because of the growing interests in personalized medicine and targeted radionuclide therapy. Voxel-based dosimetry using dose point kernel or voxel S-value (VSV) convolution is available. However, these approaches do not consider medium heterogeneity. Here, we propose a new method for whole-body voxel-based personalized dosimetry for heterogeneous media with non-uniform activity distributions, which is referred to as the multiple VSV approach...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Jiheng Ding, Hongran Zhao, Yan Zheng, Qiaolei Wang, Hao Chen, Huimin Dou, Haibin Yu
Based on the unique material properties, two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials such as graphene, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), and boron nitride (BN) have been attracting increasing research interest. The potential of 2D materials in the form of nanoplatelets used as new materials will be important to both nanomaterials and advanced materials. Usually water is considered as the ideal dispersed medium, while the essential hydrophobicity of 2D nanoplatelets and limitation of mass production became the quite serious obstacles for the usage in various fields...
December 8, 2017: Nanotechnology
Lei Zhang, Qi-Le Zhou, Xiu-Wei Yang
This study was conducted to determine the variations of ginsenosides in Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma when using different preparation solvents, and explore the major factors for changes. With an established ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry method which could quantify 52 ginsenosides, the extraction differences were characterized and compared using different solvents (water, 70% aqueous ethanol and ethanol). Subsequently, a series of aqueous solutions with different pH were prepared to test the influence of pH to the changes of ginsenosides...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
Emilia V Silletta, María B Franzoni, Gustavo A Monti, Rodolfo H Acosta
Two-dimension (2D) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance relaxometry experiments are a powerful tool extensively used to probe the interaction among different pore structures, mostly in inorganic systems. The analysis of the collected experimental data generally consists of a 2D numerical inversion of time-domain data where T2-T2 maps are generated. Through the years, different algorithms for the numerical inversion have been proposed. In this paper, two different algorithms for numerical inversion are tested and compared under different conditions of exchange dynamics; the method based on Butler-Reeds-Dawson (BRD) algorithm and the fast-iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm (FISTA) method...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Xiao-Min Xu, Bai-Fen Huang, Jiao-Jiao Xu, Zeng-Xuan Cai, Jing Zhang, Qing Chen, Jian-Long Han
Saxitoxin (STX) and neosaxitoxin (NEO) are water-soluble toxins and their cleanup in bio-matrix is a hot topic but difficult problem. A fast and quantitative determination method for STX and NEO in urine was developed using ultra performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) based on the cleanup of solid phase extraction (SPE) with hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) mechanism. Acetonitrile/methanol/water mixture was used to extract the toxins in urine. Polyamide (PA) was used as HILIC SPE material to clean the toxins in sample matrix...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Kazuyuki Sakuma, Alex Malins, Hironori Funaki, Hiroshi Kurikami, Tadafumi Niizato, Takahiro Nakanishi, Koji Mori, Kazuhiro Tada, Takamaru Kobayashi, Akihiro Kitamura, Masaaki Hosomi
The Oginosawa River catchment lies 15 km south-west of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant and covers 7.7 km2. Parts of the catchment were decontaminated between fall 2012 and March 2014 in preparation for the return of the evacuated population. The General-purpose Terrestrial Fluid-flow Simulator (GETFLOWS) code was used to study sediment and 137Cs redistribution within the catchment, including the effect of decontamination on redistribution. Fine resolution grid cells were used to model local features of the catchment, such as paddy fields adjacent to the Oginosawa River...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Silvia F Benozzi, Gisela Unger, Amparo Campion, Graciela L Pennacchiotti
Introduction: Currently available recommendations regarding fasting requirements before phlebotomy do not specify any maximum water intake volume permitted during the fasting period. The aim was to study the effects of 300 mL water intake 1 h before phlebotomy on specific analytes. Materials and methods: Blood was collected from 20 women (median age (min-max): 24 (22 - 50) years) in basal state (T0) and 1 h after 300 mL water intake (T1). Glucose, total proteins (TP), urea, creatinine, cystatin C, total bilirubin (BT), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides (Tg), uric acid (UA), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), alanine-aminotransferase and lactate-dehydrogenase (LD) were studied...
February 15, 2018: Biochemia Medica: časopis Hrvatskoga Društva Medicinskih Biokemičara
Stefanie Fingerhut, Ann-Christin Niehoff, Michael Sperling, Astrid Jeibmann, Werner Paulus, Thomas Niederstadt, Thomas Allkemper, Walter Heindel, Markus Holling, Uwe Karst
Due to its paramagnetic properties resulting from seven unpaired f-electrons, Gd is frequently applied in magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Due to the acute toxicity of free Gd3+, ligand ions based on polyaminocarboxylic acids are used to create thermodynamically stable linear or macrocyclic complexes. The highly water soluble Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are known to be excreted fast and unmetabolized, mostly via the kidneys. Nevertheless, recent studies showed that Gd traces persists not only in animal but also in human brain...
January 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Ji-Yuan Zhang, Xiao-Qian Liu, Li-Xin Yang, Wei-Hong Feng, Zhi-Min Wang, Chun Li
To investigate the stability and degradation kinetics of febrifugine. The results showed that within 24 hours, febrifugine content was decreased by only 1% in mobile phase solvent, but its content was decreased to be 90% of the initial content in the water, methanol, 50% methanol and 10% acetonitrile solution. When the pH value of the solution was between 3 and 7, the retention rate of febrifugine in 24 hours was over 98%, but its content was decreased by about 12% in alkaline solution (pH 9.0). The higher the temperature, the worse the stability of febrifugine...
August 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Alex Virgilio, Joaquim A Nóbrega, George L Donati
Multi-isotope calibration (MICal) is a novel approach to calibration for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In MICal, only two calibration solutions are required: solution A, composed of 50% v v(-1) of sample and 50% v v(-1) of a standard solution containing the analytes, and solution B, composed of 50% v v(-1) of sample and 50% v v(-1) of a blank solution. MICal is based on monitoring the signal intensities of several isotopes of the same analyte in solutions A and B. By plotting the analytical signals from solution A in the x-axis, and from solution B in the y-axis, the analyte concentration in the sample is calculated using the slope of that graph and the concentration of the reference standard added to solution A...
November 22, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Ariane S S Pinto, Marcelo P A Ribeiro, Cristiane S Farinas
One of the main challenges of second generation (2G) ethanol production is the high quantities of phenolic compounds and furan derivatives generated in the pretreatment of the lignocellulosic biomass, which inhibit the enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation steps. Fast monitoring of these inhibitory compounds could provide better control of the pretreatment, hydrolysis, and fermentation processes by enabling the implementation of strategic process control actions. We investigated the feasibility of monitoring these inhibitory compounds by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy associated with partial least squares (PLS) regression...
November 14, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Takuji Tanaka, Kunihiro Kawabata, Shigeyuki Sugie
Background: Obesity and diabetes mellitus are associated with lifestyle-related carcinogenesis. They are also risk factors of esophageal adenocarcinoma, but there are only a few reports on association between obesity/diabetes and development of squamous cell carcinoma in the oral cavity and esophagus. In this study, we therefore aimed to determine whether obesity and diabetes affect oral and esophageal carcinogenesis using model mice of obesity and diabetes, the Tsumura Suzuki obese diabetes (TSOD) and Tsumura Suzuki non-obesity (TSNO) control mice, which were treated with 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO) to produce tongue and esophageal carcinomas...
August 2017: World Journal of Oncology
Jing-Qi Chi, Wen-Kun Gao, Jia-Hui Lin, Bin Dong, Kai-Li Yan, Jun-Feng Qin, Zi-Zhang Liu, Yong-Ming Chai, Chen-Guang Liu
MoO4(2-)@aniline-pyrrole (MoO4(2-)@polymer) spheres as precursors have been used to synthesize unique core-shell nanostructure consisting of molybdenum carbide and molybdenum phosphide composites encapsulated into uniformly dual N, P-doped carbon shells (Mo2C/MoP@NPC) through a facile two-step strategy. Firstly, porous core-shell N-doped Mo2C@C (Mo2C@NC) nanospheres have been synthesized with ultrafine Mo2C nanoparticles as core and ultrathin NC as shell by a annealing route. Secondly, Mo2C/MoP@NPC has been obtained maintaining intact spherical-like morphology through a phosphidation reaction in high temperature...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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