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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890779/fast-triple-spin-echo-dixon-ftsed-sequence-for-water-and-fat-imaging
#1
R Korinek, K Bartusek, Z Starcuk
A number of 'Dixon' techniques based on fast spin echo (FSE) sequence have been proposed and successfully used in many branches of medicine. Some require only one scan, but most of them need multiple scans and long scan times. This article describes a new fast triple-spin-echo Dixon (FTSED) technique suitable for ultra-high field MRI, in which three specific time shifts are introduced in the echo train; thus, three images with defined water-fat phase-differences (0, π, 2π) are encoded in the phase of the acquired images without extreme restrictions upon the echo duration...
November 24, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851938/fast-motions-of-key-methyl-groups-in-amyloid-%C3%AE-fibrils
#2
Liliya Vugmeyster, Dmitry Ostrovsky, Matthew A Clark, Isaac B Falconer, Gina L Hoatson, Wei Qiang
Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide is the major component of plaques found in Alzheimer's disease patients. Using solid-state (2)H NMR relaxation performed on selectively deuterated methyl groups, we probed the dynamics in the threefold symmetric and twofold symmetric polymorphs of native Aβ as well as the protofibrils of the D23N mutant. Specifically, we investigated the methyl groups of two leucine residues that belong to the hydrophobic core (L17 and L34) as well as M35 residues belonging to the hydrophobic interface between the cross-β subunits, which has been previously found to be water-accessible...
November 15, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847981/knockout-of-arsenic-3-oxidation-state-methyltransferase-is-associated-with-adverse-metabolic-phenotype-in-mice-the-role-of-sex-and-arsenic-exposure
#3
Christelle Douillet, Madelyn C Huang, R Jesse Saunders, Ellen N Dover, Chongben Zhang, Miroslav Stýblo
Susceptibility to toxic effects of inorganic arsenic (iAs) depends, in part, on efficiency of iAs methylation by arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT). As3mt-knockout (KO) mice that cannot efficiently methylate iAs represent an ideal model to study the association between iAs metabolism and adverse effects of iAs exposure, including effects on metabolic phenotype. The present study compared measures of glucose metabolism, insulin resistance and obesity in male and female wild-type (WT) and As3mt-KO mice during a 24-week exposure to iAs in drinking water (0...
November 15, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824638/autism-spectrum-disorder-and-avoidant-restrictive-food-intake-disorder
#4
Jennifer Lucarelli, Demetra Pappas, Leah Welchons, Marilyn Augustyn
Kendra is a 4-year-old girl with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who presents for follow-up of feeding problems to her pediatric clinician. She is an only child in a family where both parents are scientists. Feeding concerns date to infancy, when she was diagnosed with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) associated with persistent bottle refusal and the acceptance of few pureed foods. At 13 months, milk and peanut allergies were diagnosed. Following a feeding clinic evaluation at 24 months, she was prescribed a soy milk supplement and an H2 blocker...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810557/ph-degradable-pva-based-nanogels-via-photo-crosslinking-of-thermo-preinduced-nanoaggregates-for-controlled-drug-delivery
#5
Wei Chen, Yong Hou, Zhaoxu Tu, Lingyan Gao, Rainer Haag
pH-Degradable PVA nanogels, which are prepared by photo-crosslinking thermo-preinduced PVA nanoaggregates in water without any surfactants or toxic organic solvents, are used for intracellular PTX release and anticancer treatment. These nanogels fast degraded at mildly acidic conditions with a pH-triggered PTX release, and the degradation products are only native PVA and poly(hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA) as well as acetaldehyde without any toxic byproducts. The nanogel sizes could be tailored by different temperatures during the crosslinking process...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800428/a-culture-independent-method-for-the-detection-of-aeromonas-sp-from-water-samples
#6
Fadua Latif-Eugenín, Roxana Beaz-Hidalgo, Figueras María José
The genus Aeromonas is present in a wide variety of water environments and is recognised as potentially pathogenic to humans and animals. Members of this genus are often confused with Vibrio when using automated, commercial identification systems that are culture-dependent. This study describes a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection method for Aeromonas that is culture-independent and that targets the glycerophospholopid-cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat) gene, which is specific for this genus. The GCAT-PCR was 100% specific in artificially inoculated water samples, with a detection limit that ranged from 2...
January 18, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797191/a-fast-magic-angle-spinning-three-dimensional-nmr-experiment-for-simultaneously-probing-h-h-and-n-h-proximities-in-solids
#7
G N Manjunatha Reddy, Michal Malon, Andrew Marsh, Yusuke Nishiyama, Steven P Brown
A fast magic-angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR experiment is presented that combines 1H Double-Quantum (DQ) and 14N-1H HMQC (Heteronuclear Multiple-Quantum Coherence) pulse-sequence elements, so as to simultaneously probe H-H and N-H proximities in molecular solids. The proposed experiment can be employed in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) versions: firstly, a 2D 14N HMQC-filtered 1H-DQ experiment provides specific DQ-SQ correlation peaks for proton pairs that are in close proximities to the nitrogen sites, thereby achieving spectral filtration...
October 31, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782692/interventional-dual-energy-imaging-feasibility-of-rapid-kv-switching-on-a-c-arm-ct-system
#8
K Müller, S Datta, M Ahmad, J-H Choi, T Moore, L Pung, C Niebler, G E Gold, A Maier, R Fahrig
PURPOSE: In the last years, dual-energy CT imaging has shown clinical value, thanks to its ability to differentiate materials based on their atomic number and to exploit different properties of images acquired at two different energies. C-arm CT systems are used to guide procedures in the interventional suite. Until now, there are no commercially available systems that employ dual-energy material decomposition. This paper explores the feasibility of implementing a fast kV-switching technique on a clinically available angiographic system for acquiring dual-energy C-arm CT images...
October 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777410/red-blood-cell-thickness-is-evolutionarily-constrained-by-slow-hemoglobin-restricted-diffusion-in-cytoplasm
#9
Sarah L Richardson, Pawel Swietach
During capillary transit, red blood cells (RBCs) must exchange large quantities of CO2 and O2 in typically less than one second, but the degree to which this is rate-limited by diffusion through cytoplasm is not known. Gas diffusivity is intuitively assumed to be fast and this would imply that the intracellular path-length, defined by RBC shape, is not a factor that could meaningfully compromise physiology. Here, we evaluated CO2 diffusivity (DCO2) in RBCs and related our results to cell shape. DCO2 inside RBCs was determined by fluorescence imaging of [H(+)] dynamics in cells under superfusion...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769492/a-fast-responsive-fluorescent-probe-based-on-bodipy-dye-for-sensitive-detection-of-hypochlorite-and-its-application-in-real-water-samples
#10
Yun Wang, Jinchen Xia, Juan Han, Xu Bao, Yuanyuan Li, Xu Tang, Liang Ni, Lei Wang, Mengmeng Gao
Hypochlorite serves as a powerful antimicrobial agent in human immune system, the detection of which is of great significance. Herein a novel fluorescent probe based on BODIPY dye and diaminomaleonitrile has been synthesized and characterized to sense hypochlorite. The fluorescence of the system is dramatically enhanced by ClO(-) due to the removal of C=N isomerization effect in physiological pH condition. The complete reaction only needs a few seconds, which enables the probe to facilitate real-time detection...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755735/within-and-among-population-variation-in-vital-rates-and-population-dynamics-in-a-variable-environment
#11
Simone Vincenzi, Marc Mangel, Dusˇan Jesensˇek, John C Garza, Alain J Crivelli
Understanding the causes of within- and among-population differences in vital rates, life histories, and population dynamics is a central topic in ecology. To understand how within- and among-population variation emerges, we need long-term studies that include episodic events and contrasting environmental conditions, data to characterize individual and shared variation, and statistical models that can tease apart shared and individual contribution to the observed variation. We used long-term tag-recapture data to investigate and estimate within- and among-population differences in vital rates, life histories, and population dynamics of marble trout Salmo marmoratus, an endemic freshwater salmonid with a narrow range...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717216/simulation-phantom-validation-and-clinical-evaluation-of-fast-ph-weighted-molecular-imaging-using-amine-chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer-echo-planar-imaging-cest-epi-in-glioma-at-3%C3%A2-t
#12
Robert J Harris, Timothy F Cloughesy, Linda M Liau, Phioanh L Nghiemphu, Albert Lai, Whitney B Pope, Benjamin M Ellingson
Acidity within the extracellular milieu is a hallmark of cancer. There is a current need for fast, high spatial resolution pH imaging techniques for clinical evaluation of cancers, including gliomas. Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI targeting fast-exchanging amine protons can be used to obtain high-resolution pH-weighted images, but conventional CEST acquisition strategies are slow. There is also a need for more accurate MR simulations to better understand the effects of amine CEST pulse sequence parameters on pH-weighted image contrast...
November 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715079/interfacial-free-energy-as-the-key-to-the-pressure-induced-deceleration-of-ice-nucleation
#13
Jorge R Espinosa, Alberto Zaragoza, Pablo Rosales-Pelaez, Caridad Navarro, Chantal Valeriani, Carlos Vega, Eduardo Sanz
The avoidance of water freezing is the holy grail in the cryopreservation of biological samples, food, and organs. Fast cooling rates are used to beat ice nucleation and avoid cell damage. This strategy can be enhanced by applying high pressures to decrease the nucleation rate, but the physics behind this procedure has not been fully understood yet. We perform computer experiments to investigate ice nucleation at high pressures consisting in embedding ice seeds in supercooled water. We find that the slowing down of the nucleation rate is mainly due to an increase of the ice I-water interfacial free energy with pressure...
September 23, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714826/multi-scale-graph-cut-algorithm-for-efficient-water-fat-separation
#14
Johan Berglund, Mikael Skorpil
PURPOSE: To improve the accuracy and robustness to noise in water-fat separation by unifying the multiscale and graph cut based approaches to B0 -correction. METHODS: A previously proposed water-fat separation algorithm that corrects for B0 field inhomogeneity in 3D by a single quadratic pseudo-Boolean optimization (QPBO) graph cut was incorporated into a multi-scale framework, where field map solutions are propagated from coarse to fine scales for voxels that are not resolved by the graph cut...
October 6, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711518/fast-and-slow-dynamics-and-the-local-structure-of-liquid-and-supercooled-water-next-to-a-hydrophobic-amino-acid
#15
H F M C Martiniano, N Galamba
We study, through molecular dynamics simulations, the structure and orientational dynamics of water next to a blocked hydrophobic amino acid, valine (Val), above and below the freezing point of water. The structure and the orientational dynamics of waters with four water neighbors (4WN) and less than four water neighbors (L4WN) in the Val's coordination sphere are deconvoluted. We find that in spite of the excluded volume effects waters with L4WN have faster librational dynamics than bulk water, reminiscent of water at the liquid-vapor interface, and faster orientational dynamics than waters with 4WN, at every temperature...
October 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710797/arsenic-removal-by-discontinuous-zvi-two-steps-system-for-drinking-water-production-at-household-scale
#16
Barbara Casentini, Fabiano Teo Falcione, Stefano Amalfitano, Stefano Fazi, Simona Rossetti
Different countries in Europe still suffer of elevated arsenic (As) concentration in groundwaters used for human consumption. In the case of households not connected to the distribution system, decentralized water supply systems, such as Point of Use (POU) and Point of Entry (POE), offer a direct benefit for the consumers. Field scale ex-situ treatment systems based on metallic iron (ZVI) are already available for the production of reduced volumes of drinking water in remote areas (village scale). To address drinking water needs at larger scale, we designed a pilot unit able to produce an elevated daily volume of water for human consumption...
September 28, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695468/the-water-to-solute-permeability-ratio-governs-the-osmotic-volume-dynamics-in-beetroot-vacuoles
#17
Victoria Vitali, Moira Sutka, Gabriela Amodeo, Osvaldo Chara, Marcelo Ozu
Plant cell vacuoles occupy up to 90% of the cell volume and, beyond their physiological function, are constantly subjected to water and solute exchange. The osmotic flow and vacuole volume dynamics relies on the vacuole membrane -the tonoplast- and its capacity to regulate its permeability to both water and solutes. The osmotic permeability coefficient (Pf ) is the parameter that better characterizes the water transport when submitted to an osmotic gradient. Usually, Pf determinations are made in vitro from the initial rate of volume change, when a fast (almost instantaneous) osmolality change occurs...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694712/recent-developments-and-comprehensive-evaluations-of-a-gpu-based-monte-carlo-package-for-proton-therapy
#18
Nan Qin, Pablo Botas, Drosoula Giantsoudi, Jan Schuemann, Zhen Tian, Steve B Jiang, Harald Paganetti, Xun Jia
Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is commonly considered as the most accurate dose calculation method for proton therapy. Aiming at achieving fast MC dose calculations for clinical applications, we have previously developed a graphics-processing unit (GPU)-based MC tool, gPMC. In this paper, we report our recent updates on gPMC in terms of its accuracy, portability, and functionality, as well as comprehensive tests on this tool. The new version, gPMC v2.0, was developed under the OpenCL environment to enable portability across different computational platforms...
October 3, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677338/non-food-related-risk-factors-of-campylobacteriosis-in-canada-a-matched-case-control-study
#19
André Ravel, Katarina Pintar, Andrea Nesbitt, Frank Pollari
BACKGROUND: Campylobacteriosis is a prominent bacterial gastrointestinal infection worldwide with several transmission pathways. Its non-foodborne routes have been less documented and quantified. The study aimed to quantitatively explore the role of potential risk factors not directly associated with food for sporadic cases of C. jejuni infection in Canada. METHODS: This retrospective matched case-control study was built on an enhanced campylobacteriosis surveillance system and on a survey of healthy people and their behaviour with regards to potential risk factors for gastrointestinal infections that occurred in the same area in Canada...
September 27, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663039/low-osmolar-diet-and-adjusted-water-intake-for-vasopressin-reduction-in-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-a%C3%A2-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Osama W Amro, Jessica K Paulus, Farzad Noubary, Ronald D Perrone
BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) affects millions of people worldwide. Vasopressin promotes disease progression. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial with equal (1:1) allocation. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: This trial examined the effect of combining a low-osmolar (low-sodium [1,500mg/d], low-protein [0.8g per kilogram of body weight]) diet and adjusted water intake on vasopressin secretion in 34 patients with ADPKD...
December 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
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