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Water only fasting

Z Z Hossain, J Ferdous, S M Tulsiani, P M Jensen, A Begum
The devastating diarrheal disease cholera is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Nucleic acid extraction is the primary step for several molecular detection approaches. In order to identify the sources of cholera illness, an efficient, fast and easy DNA extraction method for toxigenic Vibrio cholerae is desired which can be applied on diverse type of samples. This methodology developmental setup study was performed in the Environmental Microbiology Lab, Department of Microbiology, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh from March 2015 to May 2015 attempted to compare three DNA extraction methods for efficient detection and quantification of Vibrio cholerae...
April 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Francis Claret, Sylvain Grangeon, Annick Loschetter, Christophe Tournassat, Wout De Nolf, Nicholas Harker, Faiza Boulahya, Stéphane Gaboreau, Yannick Linard, Xavier Bourbon, Alejandro Fernandez-Martinez, Jonathan Wright
To understand the main properties of cement, a ubiquitous material, a sound description of its chemistry and mineralogy, including its reactivity in aggressive environments and its mechanical properties, is vital. In particular, the porosity distribution and associated sample carbonation, both of which affect cement's properties and durability, should be quantified accurately, and their kinetics and mechanisms of formation known both in detail and in situ . However, traditional methods of cement mineralogy analysis ( e...
March 1, 2018: IUCrJ
Yunxia Ma, Yonglei Chen, Juanjuan Liu, Yangxia Han, Sudai Ma, Xingguo Chen
As we know, hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) was usually used as an additive to improve the color fastness during the printing and dyeing process, and thus posing tremendous threat to our health and living quality. In this work, the dual emissive carbon dots (DECDs) were synthesized through hydrothermal treatment of m-aminophenol and oxalic acid. The obtained DECDs not only exhibited dual emission fluorescence peaks (430 nm, 510 nm) under the single excitation wavelength of 380 nm, but also possessed good water solubility and excellent fluorescence stability...
August 1, 2018: Talanta
Rino Rappuoli, Emmanuel Hanon
Vaccination remains the most cost-effective public health intervention after clean water, and the benefits impressively outweigh the costs. The efforts needed to fulfill the steadily growing demands for next-generation and novel vaccines designed for emerging pathogens and new indications are only realizable in a sustainable business model. Vaccine development can be fast-tracked through strengthening international collaborations, and the continuous innovation of technologies to accelerate their design, development, and manufacturing...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
Kailun Yang, Kaiwei Wang, Luis M Bergasa, Eduardo Romera, Weijian Hu, Dongming Sun, Junwei Sun, Ruiqi Cheng, Tianxue Chen, Elena López
Navigational assistance aims to help visually-impaired people to ambulate the environment safely and independently. This topic becomes challenging as it requires detecting a wide variety of scenes to provide higher level assistive awareness. Vision-based technologies with monocular detectors or depth sensors have sprung up within several years of research. These separate approaches have achieved remarkable results with relatively low processing time and have improved the mobility of impaired people to a large extent...
May 10, 2018: Sensors
Lieven Pouillon, Valérie Laurent, Marc Pouillon, Peter Bossuyt, Christiana Bonifacio, Silvio Danese, Parakkal Deepak, Edward V Loftus, David H Bruining, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet
Cross-sectional MRI is an attractive alternative to endoscopy for the objective assessment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Diffusion-weighted imaging is a specialised technique that maps the diffusion of water molecules in biological tissues and can be done without intravenous gadolinium contrast injection. Diffusion-weighted imaging further expands the capability of traditional MRI sequences in IBD. However, the use of quantitative parameters, such as the apparent diffusion coefficient, is limited by low reproducibility...
June 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Xue Teng, Jianying Wang, Lvlv Ji, Yaokang Lv, Zuofeng Chen
The design of cost-efficient earth-abundant catalysts with superior performance for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is extremely important for future renewable energy production. Herein, we report a facile strategy for constructing Ni nanotube arrays (NTAs) on a Ni foam (NF) substrate through cathodic deposition of NiCu alloy followed by anodic stripping of metallic Cu. Based on Ni NTAs, the as-prepared NiSe2 NTA electrode by NiSe2 electrodeposition and the NiFeOx NTA electrode by dipping in Fe3+ solution exhibit excellent HER and OER performance in alkaline conditions...
May 8, 2018: Nanoscale
Edson Nogueira Junior, Mayank Kumar, Stan Pankratz, Adetoyese Olajire Oyedun, Amit Kumar
This study develops life cycle water footprints for the production of fuels and chemicals via thermochemical conversion of algae biomass. This study is based on two methods of feedstock production - ponds and photobioreactors (PBRs) - and four conversion pathways - fast pyrolysis, hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), conventional gasification, and hydrothermal gasification (HTG). The results show the high fresh water requirement for algae production and the necessity to recycle harvested water or use alternative water sources...
April 25, 2018: Water Research
Karol Plesiński, Aneta Bylak, Artur Radecki-Pawlik, Tomasz Mikołajczyk, Krzysztof Kukuła
Block ramps offer an opportunity to combine hydrotechnical structures with fish passages. The primary study objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a block ramp for upstream fish movement in a mountain stream. Geodetic measurements of the bottom surface and water level were taken for three cross-sections. The description of the geometric and hydrodynamic parameters of the block ramp was supplemented with information on the width and length of crevices between boulders. Measurements of the geometric and hydrodynamic parameters of the block ramp were performed at 76 measurement sites, at three different types of discharge...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Madelyn C Huang, Christelle Douillet, Ellen N Dover, Miroslav Stýblo
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is an established environmental diabetogen. The link between iAs exposure and diabetes is supported by evidence from adult human cohorts and adult laboratory animals. The contribution of prenatal iAs exposure to the development of diabetes and underlying mechanisms are understudied. The role of factors that modulate iAs metabolism and toxicity in adults and their potential to influence diabetogenic effects of prenatal iAs exposure are also unclear. The goal of this study was to determine if prenatal exposure to iAs impairs glucose metabolism in mice and if maternal supplementation with folate and methylcobalamin (B12) can modify this outcome...
May 2, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Estefanía Concha-Graña, Gerardo Fernández-Martínez, Purificación López-Mahía, Darío Prada-Rodríguez, Soledad Muniategui-Lorenzo
In this work, a novel, fast, and sensitive method was developed for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and PFOS precursor's determination in seawater. The proposed method consists in a vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VALLME) combined with liquid chromatography (LC) and LTQ-Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (LTQ-Orbitrap HRMS) determination. Several parameters affecting both the HPLC-LTQ Orbitrap HRMS determination and the VALLME were studied, with special attention to blank contamination problem...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Meric Selbes, Wilson Beita-Sandí, Daekyun Kim, Tanju Karanfil
N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a probable human carcinogen disinfection by-product, has been detected in chloraminated drinking water systems. Understanding its formation over time is important to control NDMA levels in distribution systems. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the role of chloramine species (i.e., monochloramine and dichloramine); and the factors such as pH, sulfate, and natural organic matter (NOM) influencing the formation of NDMA. Five NDMA precursors (i.e., dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA), N,N-dimethylisopropylamine (DMiPA), N,N-dimethylbenzylamine (DMBzA), and ranitidine (RNTD)) were carefully selected based on their chemical structures and exposed to varying ratios of monochloramine and dichloramine...
April 16, 2018: Water Research
Ellen Hildebrandt, Hermann Nirschl, Robbert Jan Kok, Gero Leneweit
Adsorption of phosphatidylcholines at oil/water interfaces strongly deviates from spread monolayers at air/water surfaces. Understanding its nature and consequences could vastly improve applications in medical nanoemulsions and biotechnologies. Adsorption kinetics at interfaces of water with different oil phases were measured by profile analysis tensiometry. Adsorption kinetics for 2 different phospholipids, DPPC and POPC, as well as 2 organic phases, squalene and squalane, show that formation of interfacial monolayers is initially dominated by stress-relaxation in the first minutes...
April 27, 2018: Soft Matter
Lucia Gusmaroli, Sara Insa, Mira Petrovic
During the last decades, the quality of aquatic ecosystems has been threatened by increasing levels of pollutions, caused by the discharge of man-made chemicals, both via accidental release of pollutants as well as a consequence of the constant outflow of inadequately treated wastewater effluents. For this reason, the European Union is updating its legislations with the aim of limiting the release of emerging contaminants. The Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2015/495 published in March 2015 drafts a "Watch list" of compounds to be monitored Europe-wide...
April 24, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Josef N Stern, Thomas Loerting
The influence of the protocol of preparation on the crystallisation temperature TX of very high-density amorphous ice (VHDA) was studied by varying the annealing pressure (1.1, 1.6 and 1.9 GPa) and temperature (160, 167 and 175 K, respectively). TX increases by up to 4 K in the pressure range of 0.7 to 1.8 GPa for samples annealed at 1.9 GPa compared to samples annealed at 1.1 GPa. Concomitantly, secondary crystallisation channels are suppressed, indicating the absence of structural inhomogeneities. For VHDA prepared at 1...
April 25, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Linfan Cui, Panpan Zhang, Yukun Xiao, Yuan Liang, Hanxue Liang, Zhihua Cheng, Liangti Qu
The use of abundant solar energy for regeneration and desalination of water is a promising strategy to address the challenge of a global shortage of clean water. Progress has been made to develop photothermal materials to improve the solar steam generation performance. However, the mass production rate of water is still low. Herein, by a rational combination of photo-electro-thermal effect on an all-graphene hybrid architecture, solar energy can not only be absorbed fully and transferred into heat, but also converted into electric power to further heat up the graphene skeleton frame for a much enhanced generation of water vapor...
April 23, 2018: Advanced Materials
Bárbara Werle Nunes, Keila Fernanda Hedlund, Maria Angelica Oliveira, Elvis Carissimi
  Aquatic ecosystems are very prone to contamination. The fast and accurate assessment of the toxicity of water is an important tool for environmental safety. The aim of this study was to assess the possible toxic effects of acrylamide on physiological parameters of the Chlorophyceae Desmodesmus quadricauda. Cells in exponential growth phase were exposed for 72 h to different concentrations of acrylamide. Light microscopy analysis documented cell density, number of cells per coenobia, cell dimensions, and biovolume; chlorophyll a concentration was also determined...
May 1, 2018: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Silvia I R Franke, Patrícia Molz, Camila Mai, Joel H Ellwanger, Fernanda F Zenkner, Jorge A Horta, Daniel Prá
We evaluated the influence of hesperidin and vitamin C (VitC) on glycemic parameters, lipid profile, and DNA damage in male Wistar rats treated with sucrose overload. Rats were divided into six experimental groups: I-water control; II-sucrose control; III-hesperidin control; IV-VitC control; V-co-treatment of sucrose plus hesperidin; VI-co-treatment of sucrose plus VitC. We measured the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c, fasting glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (A1C). DNA damage was evaluated in blood and brain cells using the comet assay and the micronucleus test was used to evaluate chromosomal damages in the rat bone marrow...
April 16, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Jiaqi Lan, Sheikh Mokhlesur Rahman, Na Gou, Tao Jiang, Michael J Plewa, Akram Alshawabkeh, April Z Gu
Genotoxicity is considered the major concern for drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs). Of over 700 DBPs identified to date, only a small number of has been assessed with limited information for DBP genotoxicity mechanism(s). In this study we evaluated genotoxicity of 20 regulated and un-regulated DBPs applying a quantitative toxicogenomics approach. We used GFP-fused yeast strains that examine protein expression profiling of 38 proteins indicative of all known DNA damage and repair pathways. The toxicogenomics assay detected genotoxicity potential of these DBPs in consistent with conventional genotoxicity assays endpoints...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Ahmed M A Elsakka, Mohamed Abdel Bary, Eman Abdelzaher, Mostafa Elnaggar, Miriam Kalamian, Purna Mukherjee, Thomas N Seyfried
Few advances have been made in overall survival for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in more than 40 years. Here, we report the case of a 38-year-old man who presented with chronic headache, nausea, and vomiting accompanied by left partial motor seizures and upper left limb weakness. Enhanced brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a solid cystic lesion in the right partial space suggesting GBM. Serum testing revealed vitamin D deficiency and elevated levels of insulin and triglycerides. Prior to subtotal tumor resection and standard of care (SOC), the patient conducted a 72-h water-only fast...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
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