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Zin Zayar Win, Phornpun Phokrai, Zarni Aung, Thein Zaw, Mary N Burtnick, Narisara Chantratita, Paul J Brett, Tin Maung Hlaing
Burkholderia pseudomallei , the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is an important but under-recognized cause of disease in the tropics. Although first described over a century ago as a septicemic illness associated with morphine addicts in Rangoon, Burma, there is little information regarding the incidence of melioidosis in present-day Myanmar. To address this issue, we used two recently developed and validated serological assays to detect B. pseudomallei -specific antibodies in 124 serum samples obtained from febrile patients in the delta region of Myanmar...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Laurence Thielemans, Gornpan Gornsawun, Borimas Hanboonkunupakarn, Moo Kho Paw, Pen Porn, Paw Khu Moo, Bart Van Overmeire, Stephane Proux, François Nosten, Rose McGready, Verena I Carrara, Germana Bancone
Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an inherited enzymatic disorder associated with severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and acute haemolysis after exposure to certain drugs or infections. The disorder can be diagnosed phenotypically with a fluorescent spot test (FST), which is a simple test that requires training and basic laboratory equipment. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic performances of the FST used on umbilical cord blood by locally-trained staff and to compare test results of the neonates at birth with the results after one month of age...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
Jinyoung Lee, Tae Im Kim, Jung-Mi Kang, Hojong Jun, Hương Giang Lê, Thị Lam Thái, Woon-Mok Sohn, Moe Kyaw Myint, Khin Lin, Tong-Soo Kim, Byoung-Kuk Na
BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD; EC deficiency is one of the most common X-linked recessive hereditary disorders in the world. Primaquine (PQ) has been used for radical cure of P. vivax to prevent relapse. Recently, it is also used to reduce P. falciparum gametocyte carriage to block transmission. However, PQ metabolites oxidize hemoglobin and generate excessive reactive oxygen species which can trigger acute hemolytic anemia in malaria patients with inherited G6PD deficiency...
March 16, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Seo Ah Hong, Karl Peltzer, Kyi Tun Lwin, La Seng Aung
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of underweight and overweight or obesity and their socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in a female adult population in Myanmar. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a national cross-sectional population-based survey in the 2015-16 Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey, 12,160 women aged 18-49 years and not currently pregnant completed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Nutritional status was determined using Asian body mass index cut-offs: underweight (BMI<18...
2018: PloS One
Nwet Nwet Win, So-Yeun Woo, Hla Ngwe, Prema, Chin Piow Wong, Takuya Ito, Yasuko Okamoto, Masami Tanaka, Hiroshi Imagawa, Yoshinori Asakawa, Ikuro Abe, Hiroyuki Morita
Two new tetrahydrofuran lignans, taungtangyiols A (1) and B (2), and eight known furofuran lignans (3-10), were isolated from the chloroform extract of Premna integrifolia wood collected in Myanmar. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic techniques. The X-ray crystal structure of 1 clearly indicated its relative configuration. Taungtangyiols A (1) and B (2) inhibited the deposition of melanin in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells, with IC50 values of 50.7 and 40.9 μM, respectively, without notable cytotoxicity...
March 11, 2018: Fitoterapia
Tin Aung, May Me Thet, May Sudhinaraset, Nadia Diamond-Smith
Myanmar has experienced slowly rising levels of contraceptive use in recent years. Between 2014 and 2016, Population Services International (PSI)/Myanmar implemented a multi-pronged intervention to increase contraceptive use by leveraging its social marketing clinics and providers, and providing additional community outreach. The aim of this study is to explore trends over time in contraceptive uptake and assess whether exposure to the PSI program was associated with women adopting a method. Baseline and end line data were collected using a repeated cross-sectional survey of married women of reproductive age in 2014 and 2016...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Christie Sampson, John McEvoy, Zaw Min Oo, Aung Myo Chit, Aung Nyein Chan, David Tonkyn, Paing Soe, Melissa Songer, A Christy Williams, Klaus Reisinger, George Wittemyer, Peter Leimgruber
In the southern Bago Yoma mountain range in Myanmar, Asian elephants are being killed at a disturbing rate. This emerging crisis was identified initially through a telemetry study when 7 of 19 of collared elephants were poached within a year of being fitted with a satellite-GPS collar. Subsequent follow up of ground teams confirmed the human caused death or disappearance of at least 19 elephants, including the seven collared individuals, within a 35 km2 area in less than two years. The carcasses of 40 additional elephants were found in areas located across south-central Myanmar once systematic surveys began by our team and collaborators...
2018: PloS One
Suparak Para, Punchalee Mungkalasut, Makamas Chanda, Issarang Nuchprayoon, Srivicha Krudsood, Chalisa Louicharoen Cheepsunthorn
Background: The protective effect of α-thalassemia, a common hematological disorder in Southeast Asia, against Plasmodium falciparum malaria has been well established. However, there is much less understanding of the effect of α-thalassemia against P. vivax . Here, we aimed to investigate the proportion of α-thalassemia including the impact of α-thalassemia and HbE on the parasitemia of P. vivax in Southeast Asian malaria patients in Thailand. Methods: A total of 210 malaria patients, admitted to the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Thailand during 2011-2012, consisting of 159 Myanmeses, 13 Karens, 26 Thais, 3 Mons, 3 Laotians, and 6 Cambodians were recruited...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
Krongkaew Seesui, Kanokwan Imtawil, Phimphakon Chanetmahun, Porntip Laummaunwai, Thidarut Boonmars
Molecular techniques have been introduced for malaria diagnosis because they offer greater sensitivity and specificity than microscopic examinations. Therefore, DNA isolation methods have been developed for easy preparation and cost effectiveness. The present study described a simple protocol for Plasmodium DNA isolation from EDTA-whole blood. This study demonstrated that after heating infected blood samples with Tris-EDTA buffer and proteinase K solution, without isolation and purification steps, the supernatant can be used as a DNA template for amplification by PCR...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Sidhartha Giri, R Priya Hemavathy, Rajesh Arumugam, Jeevan B Sherchand, Hlaing Myat Thu, Geethani Galagoda, Theingi Win Myat, Nihal Abeysinghe, Madhava Gunasekara, Navaratnasingam Janakan, Rahul Pradhan, Vinod Bura, Pushparanjan Wijesinghe, Gagandeep Kang
BACKGROUND: In Asia, rotavirus accounts for approximately 45% of admissions due to acute gastroenteritis in children <5 years, and causes about 145,000 deaths every year. We studied the distribution of rotavirus strains from Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Nepal during 2009-2015. METHODS: Stool samples collected from children <5 years of age hospitalized with acute diarrhea in the three sites and positive for rotavirus antigen by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were sent to the Christian Medical College, Vellore from 2009 to 2015...
March 5, 2018: Vaccine
Carrie C Hoefer, Emily J Brick, Ann Savariar, David F Kisor, Amy Dawson, Ahmad Khatri, Brian Henriksen
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate 60 SNPs pertaining to drug metabolism and pharmacodynamics in the Burmese refugee population in the Fort Wayne, Indiana area to better inform patient care. MATERIALS & METHODS: Sixty-two self-identified Burmese refugees were genotyped for 60 common SNPs pertaining to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic pharmacogenes. The resulting allelic frequencies were compared with Ensembl's database for surrounding populations to Myanmar and America...
March 8, 2018: Pharmacogenomics
Martin W Seltmann, Samuli Helle, Mark J Adams, Khyne U Mar, Mirkka Lahdenperä
Data on personality for long-lived, highly social wild mammals with high cognitive abilities are rare. We investigated the personality structure of Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus ) by using a large sample of semi-captive timber elephants in Myanmar. Data were collected during 2014-2017 using questionnaires, for which elephant riders (mahouts) rated 28 behavioural adjectives of elephants. Repeated questionnaires were obtained for each elephant from several raters whenever possible, resulting in 690 ratings of 150 female and 107 male elephants...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Jun Feng, Hong Tu, Li Zhang, Shaosen Zhang, Shan Jiang, Zhigui Xia, Shuisen Zhou
BACKGROUND: China has initiated the National Malaria Elimination Action Plan, which aims to eliminate malaria by 2020. However, the transmission of malaria occurs sporadically or in distinct foci, which greatly hampers progress toward elimination in China and other countries. The object of this study was to foci categorization and evaluates whether the response met the requirements issued by the nation or WHO. METHODS: Residual transmissions were investigated and located with fine spatial resolution mapping from parasitological confirmed malaria cases by use of routine national surveillance data...
March 7, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
P Linn Aung, Tassanee Silawan, Tassanee Rawiworrakul, Myo Min
Background: Village health volunteers (VHVs) are key agents for malaria control in community. The Myanmar Medical Association-Malaria (MMA-Malaria) Project has promoted effective malaria control in endemic and high-risk townships by supporting roles of VHVs. Objectives: To assess the roles of VHVs on malaria control and factors enhancing their roles in rural Myanmar. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in five townships where the MMA-Malaria Project has been implemented...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Public Health
Ledis Regalado, Alexander R Schmidt, Marc S Appelhans, Bork Ilsemann, Harald Schneider, Michael Krings, Jochen Heinrichs
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
A J Nguyen, C Lee, M Schojan, P Bolton
Background: Recent political changes in Myanmar provide opportunities to expand mental health (MH) services. Given Myanmar's unique situation, we felt a need to assemble and interpret available local information on MH in Myanmar to inform service design, rather than simply drawing lessons from other countries. We reviewed academic and gray literature on the experience of MH problems in Myanmar and the suitability, availability, and effectiveness of MH and psychosocial programming. Methods: We searched: (1) Google Scholar; (2) PubMed; (3) PsychInfo; (4) English-language Myanmar journals and databases; (5) the Mental Health and Psychosocial Support (MHPSS) Network resources website; (6) websites and (7) local contacts of organizations identified during 2010 and 2013 mapping exercise of MHPSS providers; (8) the Myanmar Information Management Unit (MIMU) website; (9) University libraries in Yangon and Mandalay; and (10) identified local MH professionals...
2018: Global Mental Health
Eli Coleman, Mariette Pathy Allen, Jessie V Ford
This article describes the gender identity, gender expression, and sexual orientation of male spirit mediums in Myanmar. Our analysis is based on ethnographic work, field observation, and 10 semi-structured interviews. These observations were conducted from 2010 to 2015, mostly in Mandalay, with some fieldwork in Yangon and Bagan. The focus of this investigation was specifically on achout (gender variant individuals) who were spirit mediums (nat kadaw). Semi-structured interviews explored the ways that participants understood their gender identity, gender expression, and sexuality in relation to their work as spirit mediums and broader social life...
March 1, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Eliza Schioldann, Mohammad Afzal Mahmood, Mya Myitzu Kyaw, Dale Halliday, Khin Thida Thwin, Nyein Nyein Chit, Robert Cumming, David Bacon, Sam Alfred, Julian White, David Warrell, Chen Au Peh
BACKGROUND: Snakebite is a major public health problem in many developing countries. Farmers are particularly exposed to snakes, and due to their rural location often experience delays in accessing formal healthcare. The reasons to use traditional healers may include difficulties in accessing formal healthcare, certain beliefs about snakes and snake venom, tradition, and trust in the capacity of traditional healers. Traditional healing, however, may have serious consequences in terms of delays or added complications...
February 28, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Sandar Aye, Suman S Majumdar, Myo Minn Oo, Jaya Prasad Tripathy, S Satyanarayana, Nang Thu Thu Kyaw, Khine Wut Yee Kyaw, Nay Lynn Oo, Saw Thein, Myat Kyaw Thu, Kyaw Thu Soe, Si Thu Aung
OBJECTIVES: We assessed the effect of an active case finding (ACF) project on tuberculosis (TB) case notification and the yields from a household and neigbourhood intervention (screening contacts of historical index TB patients diagnosed >24months ago) and a community intervention (screening attendants of health education sessions/mobile clinics). DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of project records, township TB registers and annual TB reports. RESULTS: In the household and neigbourhood intervention, of 56,709 people screened, 1,076 were presumptive TB and 74 patients were treated for active TB with a screening yield of 0...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Nan Phyu Sin Toe Myint, Ne Myo Aung, Myint Soe Win, Thu Ya Htut, Anna P Ralph, David A Cooper, Myo Lwin Nyein, Mar Mar Kyi, Josh Hanson
BACKGROUND: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a major cause of premature death in low and middle-income countries. The greatest barrier to RHD control is neglect of the disease in national health policies and a lack of prevalence data that might inform control efforts. Myanmar is making remarkable progress against many infectious diseases, but there are almost no data to define the clinical burden of RHD in the country. This prospective audit was performed in an adult medical ward of a tertiary-referral hospital in Yangon, to gain an insight into the prevalence of RHD in Myanmar...
2018: PloS One
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