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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882947/arginase-2-promotes-neurovascular-degeneration-during-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#1
Esraa Shosha, Zhimin Xu, Harumasa Yokota, Alan Saul, Modesto Rojas, R William Caldwell, Ruth B Caldwell, S Priya Narayanan
Retinal ischemia is a major cause of visual impairment and blindness and is involved in various disorders including diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, optic neuropathies and retinopathy of prematurity. Neurovascular degeneration is a common feature of these pathologies. Our lab has previously reported that the ureahydrolase arginase 2 (A2) is involved in ischemic retinopathies. Here, we are introducing A2 as a therapeutic target to prevent neurovascular injury after retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) insult. Studies were performed with mice lacking both copies of A2 (A2(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) controls (C57BL6J)...
November 24, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876394/postnatal-irradiation-induced-hippocampal-neuropathology-cognitive-impairment-and-aging
#2
REVIEW
Feng Ru Tang, Weng Keong Loke, Boo Cheong Khoo
Irradiation of the brain in early human life may set abnormal developmental events into motion that last a lifetime, leading to a poor quality of life for affected individuals. While the effect of irradiation at different early developmental stages on the late human life has not been investigated systematically, animal experimental studies suggest that acute postnatal irradiation with ⩾0.1Gy may significantly reduce neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and endotheliogenesis in cerebral vessels and induce cognitive impairment and aging...
November 19, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869302/brain-function-is-linked-to-ldl-cholesterol-in-older-adults-with-cardiovascular-risk
#3
Liesel-Ann C Meusel, Nicole D Anderson, Matthew D Parrott, William Yuen, Ekaterina Tchistiakova, Bradley J MacIntosh, Sid Feldman, Carol E Greenwood
OBJECTIVES: To determine how cardiovascular risk is associated with working memory task performance and task-related suppression of default-mode network (DMN) activity in cognitively intact older adults. DESIGN: A cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging study of older adults with cardiovascular risk factors. SETTING: Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Health Sciences. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty older adults with cardiovascular risk factors...
November 21, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865779/impairment-of-neurovascular-coupling-in-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-in-rats-is-prevented-by-pancreatic-islet-transplantation-and-reversed-by-a-semi-selective-pkc-inhibitor
#4
Francesco Vetri, Meirigeng Qi, Haoliang Xu, Jose Oberholzer, Chanannait Paisansathan
Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced chronic hyperglycemia has a detrimental effect on neurovascular coupling, linked to increased PKC-mediated phosphorylation and PKC isoform expression changes. Here, we sought to determine whether: 1) selective PKC-α/β/γ inhibitor, GF109203X, could reverse the effects of chronic hyperglycemia on cerebrovascular reactivity; 2) pancreatic islet transplantation could prevent the development of cerebrovascular impairment seen in a rat model of Type 1 Diabetes. We studied the effect of GF109203X in diabetic (DM), non-diabetic (ND), and transplanted (TR) Lewis rats during either sciatic nerve stimulation (SNS) or the topical applications of the large-conductance Ca(2+)-operated K(+) (BKCa) channel opener, NS1619, or the K(+) inward rectifier (Kir) channel agonist, KCl...
November 16, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864848/age-related-small-vessel-disease-a-potential-contributor-to-neurodegeneration-in-multiple-sclerosis
#5
REVIEW
Ruth Geraldes, Margaret M Esiri, Gabriele C DeLuca, Jacqueline Palace
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system wherein, after an initial phase of transient neurological defects, slow neurological deterioration due to progressive neuronal loss ensues. Age is a major determinant of MS progression onset and disability. Over the past years, several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the key drivers of neurodegeneration and disability accumulation in MS. However, the effect of commonly encountered age-related cerebral vessel disease, namely small vessel disease (SVD), has been largely neglected and constitutes the aim of this review...
November 19, 2016: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817869/prevalence-and-risk-of-migraine-in-patients-with-rosacea-a-population-based-cohort-study
#6
Alexander Egeberg, Messoud Ashina, David Gaist, Gunnar H Gislason, Jacob P Thyssen
BACKGROUND: Rosacea features increased neurovascular reactivity; migraine is a complex neurologic disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of headache associated with nausea and increased sensitivity to light and sound. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the prevalence and risk of new-onset migraine in patients with rosacea. METHODS: All Danish individuals 18 years of age or older were linked in nationwide registers. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox regression...
November 3, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729477/blood-brain-barrier-disruption-and-neurovascular-unit-dysfunction-in-diabetic-mice-protection-with-the-mitochondrial-carbonic-anhydrase-inhibitor-topiramate
#7
Therese S Salameh, Gul N Shah, Tulin O Price, Melvin R Hayden, William A Banks
All forms of diabetes mellitus are characterized by chronic hyperglycemia resulting in the development of a number of microvascular and macrovascular pathologies. Diabetes is also associated with changes in brain microvasculature, leading to dysfunctions and ultimately disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). These changes are correlated with a decline in cognitive function. In diabetes, BBB damage is associated with increased oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS). This occurs because of the increased oxidative metabolism of glucose caused by hyperglycemia...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664828/neurovascular-unit-remodelling-in-the-subacute-stage-of-stroke-recovery
#8
Evelyn M R Lake, Paolo Bazzigaluppi, James Mester, Lynsie A M Thomason, Rafal Janik, Mary Brown, JoAnne McLaurin, Peter L Carlen, Dale Corbett, Greg J Stanisz, Bojana Stefanovic
Brain plasticity following focal cerebral ischaemia has been observed in both stroke survivors and in preclinical models of stroke. Endogenous neurovascular adaptation is at present incompletely understood yet its potentiation may improve long-term functional outcome. We employed longitudinal MRI, intracranial array electrophysiology, Montoya Staircase testing, and immunofluorescence to examine function of brain vessels, neurons, and glia in addition to forelimb skilled reaching during the subacute stage of ischemic injury progression...
September 21, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619153/binaural-blood-flow-control-by-astrocytes-listening-to-synapses-and-the-vasculature
#9
Anusha Mishra
Astrocytes are the most common glial cells in the brain with fine processes and endfeet that intimately contact both neuronal synapses and the cerebral vasculature. They play an important role in mediating neurovascular coupling (NVC) via several astrocytic Ca(2+) -dependent signalling pathways such as K(+) release through BK channels, and the production and release of arachidonic acid metabolites. They are also involved in maintaining the resting tone of the cerebral vessels by releasing ATP and COX-1 derivatives...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617449/vascular-endothelial-dysfunction-caused-by-oxidative-stress-is-a-predictor-factor-for-complications-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome
#10
K Kilic, B Aktan, M Sedat-Sakat, A Kızıltunç, O Yoruk
Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by repetitive episodes of upper airway obstruction that occur during sleep which leads to cardiovascular, neurovascular and metabolic diseases. The mechanisms of complications in these patients are unclear. In this report, we aimed to determine the cause of oxidative imbalance in patients with OSAS and to evaluate the vascular endothelial dysfunction as a suspect for complications of the disease. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients diagnosed as moderate or severe OSAS (AHI > 15) by polysomnography and 50 healthy volunteers are included in the study...
February 15, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604741/determination-of-vascular-reactivity-of-middle-cerebral-arteries-from-stroke-and-spinal-cord-injury-animal-models-using-pressure-myography
#11
Mohammad A Anwar, Ali H Eid
Stroke and other neurovascular derangements are main causes of global death. They, along with spinal cord injuries, are responsible for being the principal cause of disability due to neurological and cognitive problems. These problems then lead to a burden on scarce financial resources and societal care facilities as well as have a profound effect on patients' families. The mechanism of action in these debilitating diseases is complex and unclear. An important component of these problems arises from derangement of blood vessels, such as blockage due to clotting/embolism, endothelial dysfunction, and overreactivity to contractile agents, as well as alteration in endothelial permeability...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583476/effect-of-linagliptin-on-vascular-function-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-study
#12
Dimitrios Baltzis, Jody R Dushay, Jordan Loader, Jim Wu, Robert L Greenman, Matthieu Roustit, Aristidis Veves
CONTEXT: The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, linagliptin, possesses pleiotropic vasodilatory, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties in animals, independent of its glucose-lowering properties. Although large, randomized clinical trials are being conducted to better evaluate the efficacy and safety of linagliptin on cardiovascular outcomes, little is known about its effects on vascular function in humans. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to evaluate the effect of linagliptin on surrogates of vascular and mitochondrial function...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572110/impact-of-abnormal-cerebrovascular-reactivity-on-bold-fmri-a-preliminary-investigation-of-moyamoya-disease
#13
Erin L Mazerolle, Yuhan Ma, David Sinclair, G Bruce Pike
Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of patients with cerebrovascular disease have largely ignored the confounds associated with abnormal cerebral blood flow, vascular reactivity and neurovascular coupling. We studied BOLD fMRI activation and cerebrovascular reactivity in moyamoya disease. To characterize the impact of remote vascular demands on BOLD fMRI measurements, we varied the vascular territories engaged by manipulating the experimental task performed by the participants...
August 30, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558201/fingolimod-fty720-reduces-cortical-infarction-and-neurological-deficits-during-ischemic-stroke-through-potential-maintenance-of-microvascular-patency
#14
Michael K Schuhmann, Miloš Krstić, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Felix Fluri
Fingolimod (FTY720) a functional sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) antagonist reduces infarct volume and improves neurological deficits in different rodent stroke models by modulating inflammatory and immune processes. However, studies on FTY720 regarding its non-immunological efficacy on ischemic cerebral tissue are sparse. Here we investigated whether FTY720 has cytoprotective and restorative properties following ischemic stroke in mice. Male C57Bl/6 mice received FTY720 (1mg/kg) or a vehicle solution intraperitoneally immediately prior to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO; 30 min...
August 23, 2016: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485237/effects-of-sildenafil-on-cerebrovascular-reactivity-in-patients-with-becker-muscular-dystrophy
#15
Ulrich Lindberg, Nanna Witting, Stine Lundgaard Jørgensen, John Vissing, Egill Rostrup, Henrik Bo Wiberg Larsson, Christina Kruuse
Patients suffering from Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) have dysfunctional dystrophin proteins and are deficient in neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in muscles. This causes functional ischemia and contributes to muscle wasting. Similar functional ischemia may be present in brains of patients with BMD, who often have mild cognitive impairment, and nNOS may be important for the regulation of the microvascular circulation in the brain. We hypothesized that treatment with sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor that potentiates nitric oxide responses, would augment both the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with BMD...
August 2, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389178/losartan-improves-cerebrovascular-function-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-with-combined-overproduction-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-and-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1
#16
Panayiota Papadopoulos, Xin-Kang Tong, Hans Imboden, Edith Hamel
Alterations of the renin-angiotensin system have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. We tested the efficacy of losartan (10 mg/kg/day for three months), a selective angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, in alleviating cerebrovascular and cognitive deficits in double-transgenic mice (six months at endpoint) that overexpress a mutated form of the human amyloid precursor protein (APPSwe,Ind) and a constitutively active form of the transforming growth factor-β1, thereafter named A/T mice...
July 7, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27371188/evaluation-of-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-children-with-migraine-a-marker-of-subclinical-atherosclerosis
#17
Hatice Gamze Poyrazoglu, Umit Erkan Vurdem, Alev Arslan, Salih Uytun
Migraine is a commonly seen neurovascular disorder during childhood. Inflammation induced by the activation of cytokines and neuropeptides is implied in its pathophysiology. There is an association between inflammation and atherosclerosis in patients with migraine. In addition, there is a strong correlation between early atherosclerotic wall lesions and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). The study population consisted of 57 migraine patients aged 5-17 years, as well as 47 healthy children who served as the control group...
October 2016: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358581/cerebral-hemodynamics-and-vascular-reactivity-in-mild-and-severe-ischemic-rodent-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-stroke-models
#18
Jeongeun Sim, Areum Jo, Bok-Man Kang, Sohee Lee, Oh Young Bang, Chaejeong Heo, Gil-Ja Jhon, Youngmi Lee, Minah Suh
Ischemia can cause decreased cerebral neurovascular coupling, leading to a failure in the autoregulation of cerebral blood flow. This study aims to investigate the effect of varying degrees of ischemia on cerebral hemodynamic reactivity using in vivo real-time optical imaging. We utilized direct cortical stimulation to elicit hyper-excitable neuronal activation, which leads to induced hemodynamic changes in both the normal and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) ischemic stroke groups. Hemodynamic measurements from optical imaging accurately predict the severity of occlusion in mild and severe MCAO animals...
June 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354962/linking-multiple-pathogenic-pathways-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
REVIEW
Rami Bou Khalil, Elie Khoury, Salam Koussa
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder presenting as progressive cognitive decline with dementia that does not, to this day, benefit from any disease-modifying drug. Multiple etiologic pathways have been explored and demonstrate promising solutions. For example, iron ion chelators, such as deferoxamine, are a potential therapeutic solution around which future studies are being directed. Another promising domain is related to thrombin inhibitors. In this minireview, a common pathophysiological pathway is suggested for the pathogenesis of AD to prove that all these mechanisms converge onto the same cascade of neuroinflammatory events...
June 22, 2016: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27345270/hyperglycemia-exacerbates-antiretroviral-drug-combination-induced-blood-brain-barrier-endothelial-toxicity
#20
Shikha Prasad, Ravi K Sajja, Mohammad A Kaisar, Luca Cucullo
In this study, we sought to investigate how concomitant hyperglycemia influences the impact of combination antiretroviral therapy on blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelial function. Immortalized human brain microvascular endothelial cell line (hCMEC/D3) was exposed to azidothymidine (AZT; a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor) and/or indinavir (IND; protease inhibitor) in normal glycemic (5.5mM) or hyperglycemic (HG; 25mM) media containing D-glucose for 24-72h. Cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondria-specific superoxide levels were assayed in addition to membrane potential to determine the extent of mitochondrial dysfunction...
September 2016: Neurotoxicology
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