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neurovascular reactivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447850/impact-of-baseline-co-2-on-blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-mri-measurements-of-cerebrovascular-reactivity-and-task-evoked-signal-activation
#1
Christiaan Hendrik Bas van Niftrik, Marco Piccirelli, Oliver Bozinov, Nicolai Maldaner, Catherine Strittmatter, Athina Pangalu, Antonios Valavanis, Luca Regli, Jorn Fierstra
Neurovascular coupling describes the cascade between neuronal activity and subsequent Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD) signal increase. Based on this premise, the correlation of this BOLD signal increase with a particular task, such as finger-tapping, is used to map neuronal activation. This signal increase may be dampened in brain areas exhibiting impaired cerebrovascular reactivity (BOLD-CVR), leading to false negative activation. Blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) has also been used to optimize task evoked BOLD signal changes...
February 12, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432609/impaired-cerebral-hemodynamics-and-frailty-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-disease
#2
Miri Lutski, Salo Haratz, Galit Weinstein, Uri Goldbourt, David Tanne
Background: Recent studies suggest that impaired cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), a marker of cerebral microvascular damage, is associated with a higher risk of stroke, cognitive decline and mortality. We tested whether abnormal cerebrovascular status is associated with late-life frailty among men with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. Methods: A subset of 327 men (mean age at baseline 56.7±6.5 years) who previously participated in the Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention (BIP) trial (1990-1997) and then in the BIP Neurocognitive study underwent a neurovascular evaluation 14...
February 8, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405550/treatment-with-the-mitochondrial-targeted-antioxidant-peptide-ss-31-rescues-neurovascular-coupling-responses-and-cerebrovascular-endothelial-function-and-improves-cognition-in-aged-mice
#3
Stefano Tarantini, Noa M Valcarcel-Ares, Andriy Yabluchanskiy, Gabor A Fulop, Peter Hertelendy, Tripti Gautam, Eszter Farkas, Aleksandra Perz, Peter S Rabinovitch, William E Sonntag, Anna Csiszar, Zoltan Ungvari
Moment-to-moment adjustment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) via neurovascular coupling has an essential role in maintenance of healthy cognitive function. In advanced age, increased oxidative stress and cerebromicrovascular endothelial dysfunction impair neurovascular coupling, likely contributing to age-related decline of higher cortical functions. There is increasing evidence showing that mitochondrial oxidative stress plays a critical role in a range of age-related cellular impairments, but its role in neurovascular uncoupling remains unexplored...
February 6, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382846/a-novel-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-blood-brain-barrier-model-applicability-to-study-antibody-triggered-receptor-mediated-transcytosis
#4
Maria Ribecco-Lutkiewicz, Caroline Sodja, Julie Haukenfrers, Arsalan S Haqqani, Dao Ly, Peter Zachar, Ewa Baumann, Marguerite Ball, Jez Huang, Marina Rukhlova, Marzia Martina, Qing Liu, Danica Stanimirovic, Anna Jezierski, Mahmud Bani-Yaghoub
We have developed a renewable, scalable and transgene free human blood-brain barrier model, composed of brain endothelial cells (BECs), generated from human amniotic fluid derived induced pluripotent stem cells (AF-iPSC), which can also give rise to syngeneic neural cells of the neurovascular unit. These AF-iPSC-derived BECs (i-BEC) exhibited high transendothelial electrical resistance (up to 1500 Ω cm2) inducible by astrocyte-derived molecular cues and retinoic acid treatment, polarized expression of functional efflux transporters and receptor mediated transcytosis triggered by antibodies against specific receptors...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373286/trpc-proteins-contribute-to-development-of-diabetic-retinopathy-and-regulate-glyoxalase-1-activity-and-methylglyoxal-accumulation
#5
Robin Sachdeva, Andrea Schlotterer, Dagmar Schumacher, Christin Matka, Ilka Mathar, Nadine Dietrich, Rebekka Medert, Ulrich Kriebs, Jihong Lin, Peter Nawroth, Lutz Birnbaumer, Thomas Fleming, Hans-Peter Hammes, Marc Freichel
OBJECTIVE: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is induced by an accumulation of reactive metabolites such as ROS, RNS, and RCS species, which were reported to modulate the activity of cation channels of the TRPC family. In this study, we use Trpc1/4/5/6-/- compound knockout mice to analyze the contribution of these TRPC proteins to diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: We used Nanostring- and qPCR-based analysis to determine mRNA levels of TRPC channels in control and diabetic retinae and retinal cell types...
January 5, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320772/a-perfect-storm-the-role-of-the-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-mtor-in-cerebrovascular-dysfunction-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-mini-review
#6
Candice E Van Skike, Veronica Galvan
Cerebrovascular dysfunction is detected prior to the onset of cognitive and histopathological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing evidence indicates a critical role of cerebrovascular dysfunction in the initiation and progression of AD. Recent studies identified the mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) as a critical effector of cerebrovascular dysfunction in AD. mTOR has a key role in the regulation of metabolism, but some mTOR-dependent mechanisms are uniquely specific to the regulation of cerebrovascular function...
January 11, 2018: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285816/arterialized-collateral-capillaries-progress-from-non-reactive-to-capable-of-increasing-perfusion-in-an-ischemic-tree
#7
Kenneth H Gouin, Sara K Hellstrom, Lindsay E Clegg, Joshua Cutts, Feilim Mac Gabhann, Trevor R Cardinal
OBJECTIVE: Collateral capillary arteriogenenesis (CCA), outward remodeling of capillaries that anastomose two arteriolar trees with different parent feed arteries, may represent a therapeutic target for patients who lack collaterals. Arterialized collateral capillaries (ACCs) can reperfuse an ischemic tree, but their functional capacity is unknown. Therefore, we determined if ACCs mature into resistance vessels that regulate blood flow following arterial occlusion. METHODS: We ligated the lateral spinotrapezius feed artery in Balb/C mice, which induces CCA...
December 28, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162554/sustained-administration-of-corticosterone-at-stress-like-levels-after-stroke-suppressed-glial-reactivity-at-sites-of-thalamic-secondary-neurodegeneration
#8
Katarzyna Zalewska, Giovanni Pietrogrande, Lin Kooi Ong, Mahmoud Abdolhoseini, Murielle Kluge, Sarah J Johnson, Frederick R Walker, Michael Nilsson
Secondary neurodegeneration (SND) is an insidious and progressive condition involving the death of neurons in regions of the brain that were connected to but undamaged by the initial stroke. Our group have published compelling evidence that exposure to psychological stress can significantly exacerbate the severity SND, a finding that has considerable clinical implications given that stroke-survivors often report experiencing high and unremitting levels of psychological stress. It may be possible to use one or more targeted pharmacological approaches to limit the negative effects of stress on the recovery process but in order to move forward with this approach the most critical stress signals have to be identified...
November 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123083/identification-of-a-peptide-recognizing-cerebrovascular-changes-in-mouse-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Aman P Mann, Pablo Scodeller, Sazid Hussain, Gary B Braun, Tarmo Mölder, Kadri Toome, Rajesh Ambasudhan, Tambet Teesalu, Stuart A Lipton, Erkki Ruoslahti
Cerebrovascular changes occur in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using in vivo phage display, we searched for molecular markers of the neurovascular unit, including endothelial cells and astrocytes, in mouse models of AD. We identified a cyclic peptide, CDAGRKQKC (DAG), that accumulates in the hippocampus of hAPP-J20 mice at different ages. Intravenously injected DAG peptide homes to neurovascular unit endothelial cells and to reactive astrocytes in mouse models of AD. We identified connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a matricellular protein that is highly expressed in the brain of individuals with AD and in mouse models, as the target of the DAG peptide...
November 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018233/altered-neurovascular-coupling-as-measured-by-optical-imaging-a-biomarker-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Konstantin Kotliar, Christine Hauser, Marion Ortner, Claudia Muggenthaler, Janine Diehl-Schmid, Susanne Angermann, Alexander Hapfelmeier, Christoph Schmaderer, Timo Grimmer
Neurovascular coupling can be directly assessed by retinal vessel response to flickering light using optical imaging methods. The response is altered in a number of ocular and cardiovascular diseases. Whether it is altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is investigated. Retinal vessel reaction to monochromatic flicker stimulation was examined by Dynamic Vessel Analyzer independent of the commercial software in elderly subjects: 15 patients with mild-to-moderate dementia due to AD (ADD); 24 patients with mild cognitive impairment due to AD (MCI); 15 cognitively healthy controls (HC)...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986176/diffuse-gliomas-exhibit-whole-brain-impaired-cerebrovascular-reactivity
#11
Jorn Fierstra, Christiaan van Niftrik, Marco Piccirelli, Oliver Bozinov, Athina Pangalu, Niklaus Krayenbühl, Antonios Valavanis, Michael Weller, Luca Regli
PURPOSE: Cerebral diffuse gliomas exhibit perilesional impaired cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), yet the degree of impairment as well as its full spatial extent in the brain remains unknown. With quantitative fMRI, we studied twelve subjects with untreated brain diffuse glioma and twelve healthy controls to assess CVR impairment and determine its distribution throughout the brain. METHODS: In a prospective case-control study, quantitative CVR measurements were derived from BOLD fMRI volumes during standardized iso-oxic changes in carbon dioxide...
October 3, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942458/diabetic-retinopathy-hyperglycaemia-oxidative-stress-and-beyond
#12
REVIEW
Hans-Peter Hammes
Diabetic retinopathy remains a relevant clinical problem. In parallel with diagnostic and therapeutic improvements, the role of glycaemia and reactive metabolites causing cell stress and biochemical abnormalities as treatment targets needs continuous re-evaluation. Furthermore, the basic mechanisms of physiological angiogenesis, remodelling and pruning give important clues about the origins of vasoregression during the very early stages of diabetic retinopathy and can be modelled in animals. This review summarises evidence supporting a role for the neurovascular unit-composed of neuronal, glial and vascular cells-as a responder to the biochemical changes imposed by reactive metabolites and high glucose...
September 24, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925083/selective-knockout-of-astrocytic-na-h-exchanger-isoform-1-reduces-astrogliosis-bbb-damage-infarction-and-improves-neurological-function-after-ischemic-stroke
#13
Gulnaz Begum, Shanshan Song, Shaoxia Wang, Hanshu Zhao, Mohammad Iqbal H Bhuiyan, Eric Li, Rachel Nepomuceno, Qing Ye, Ming Sun, Michael Joseph Calderon, Donna B Stolz, Claudette St Croix, Simon C Watkins, Yinhuai Chen, Pingnian He, Gary E Shull, Dandan Sun
Stimulation of Na(+) /H(+) exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) in astrocytes causes ionic dysregulation under ischemic conditions. In this study, we created a Nhe1(flox/flox) (Nhe1(f/f) ) mouse line with exon 5 of Nhe1 flanked with two loxP sites and selective ablation of Nhe1 in astrocytes was achieved by crossing Nhe1(f/f) mice with Gfap-Cre(ERT2) Cre-recombinase mice. Gfap-Cre(ERT2+/-) ;Nhe1(f/f) mice at postnatal day 60-90 were treated with either corn oil or tamoxifen (Tam, 75 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 5 days. After 30 days post-injection, mice underwent transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) to induce ischemic stroke...
January 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804779/language-mapping-using-t2-prepared-bold-functional-mri-in-the-presence-of-large-susceptibility-artifacts-initial-results-in-patients-with-brain-tumor-and-epilepsy
#14
Jun Hua, Xinyuan Miao, Shruti Agarwal, Chetan Bettegowda, Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa, John Laterra, Peter C M Van Zijl, James J Pekar, Jay J Pillai
At present, presurgical functional mapping is the most prevalent clinical application of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Signal dropouts and distortions caused by susceptibility effects in the current standard echo planar imaging (EPI)-based fMRI images are well-known problems and pose a major hurdle for the application of fMRI in several brain regions, many of which are related to language mapping in presurgical planning. Such artifacts are particularly problematic in patients with previous surgical resection cavities, craniotomy hardware, hemorrhage, and vascular malformation...
June 2017: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782084/brain-perivascular-macrophages-characterization-and-functional-roles-in-health-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Giuseppe Faraco, Laibaik Park, Josef Anrather, Costantino Iadecola
Perivascular macrophages (PVM) are a distinct population of resident brain macrophages characterized by a close association with the cerebral vasculature. PVM migrate from the yolk sac into the brain early in development and, like microglia, are likely to be a self-renewing cell population that, in the normal state, is not replenished by circulating monocytes. Increasing evidence implicates PVM in several disease processes, ranging from brain infections and immune activation to regulation of the hypothalamic-adrenal axis and neurovascular-neurocognitive dysfunction in the setting of hypertension, Alzheimer disease pathology, or obesity...
November 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676848/neuroinflammation-and-infection-molecular-mechanisms-associated-with-dysfunction-of-neurovascular-unit
#16
REVIEW
Abolghasem Tohidpour, Andrey V Morgun, Elizaveta B Boitsova, Natalia A Malinovskaya, Galina P Martynova, Elena D Khilazheva, Natalia V Kopylevich, Galina E Gertsog, Alla B Salmina
Neuroinflammation is a complex inflammatory process in the central nervous system, which is sought to play an important defensive role against various pathogens, toxins or factors that induce neurodegeneration. The onset of neurodegenerative diseases and various microbial infections are counted as stimuli that can challenge the host immune system and trigger the development of neuroinflammation. The homeostatic nature of neuroinflammation is essential to maintain the neuroplasticity. Neuroinflammation is regulated by the activity of neuronal, glial, and endothelial cells within the neurovascular unit, which serves as a "platform" for the coordinated action of pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655813/neurovascular-unit-protection-from-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-radical-containing-nanoparticles-in-mice
#17
Hisayuki Hosoo, Aiki Marushima, Yukio Nagasaki, Aki Hirayama, Hiromu Ito, Sandra Puentes, Arnela Mujagic, Hideo Tsurushima, Wataro Tsuruta, Kensuke Suzuki, Hirofumi Matsui, Yuji Matsumaru, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Akira Matsumura
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Reperfusion therapy by mechanical thrombectomy is used to treat acute ischemic stroke. However, reactive oxygen species generation after reperfusion therapy causes cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, which aggravates cerebral infarction. There is limited evidence for clinical efficacy in stroke for antioxidants. Here, we developed a novel core-shell type nanoparticle containing 4-amino-4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (nitroxide radical-containing nanoparticles [RNPs]) and investigated its ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species and confer neuroprotection...
August 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577579/patterns-of-relapse-in-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-inferences-regarding-the-role-of-the-neuro-vascular-unit-and-monoclonal-antibodies-in-treating-occult-cns-disease
#18
Prakash Ambady, Rongwei Fu, Joao Prola Netto, Cymon Kersch, Jenny Firkins, Nancy D Doolittle, Edward A Neuwelt
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The radiologic features and patterns of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) at initial presentation are well described. High response rates can be achieved with first-line high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) based regimens, yet many relapse within 2 years of diagnosis. We describe the pattern of relapse and review the potential mechanisms involved in relapse. METHODS: We identified 78 consecutive patients who attained complete radiographic response (CR) during or after first-line treatment for newly diagnosed PCNSL (CD20+, diffuse large B cell type)...
June 2, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575111/the-role-of-insulin-resistance-in-experimental-diabetic-retinopathy-genetic-and-molecular-aspects
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Patrick Järgen, Axel Dietrich, Andreas W Herling, Hans-Peter Hammes, Paulus Wohlfart
BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by defects in the retinal neurovascular unit. The underlying mechanisms of impairment-including reactive intermediates and growth-factor dependent signalling pathways and their possible interplay are incompletely understood. This study aims to assess the relative role of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia alone or in combination on the gene expression patterning in the retina of animal models of diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: As insulinopenic, hyperglycemic model reflecting type 1 diabetes, male STZ-Wistar rats (60mg/kg BW; i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566094/assessment-of-cerebral-blood-flow-in-adult-patients-with-aortic-coarctation
#20
Rachel Wong, Waheed Ahmad, Allan Davies, Neil Spratt, Andrew Boyle, Christopher Levi, Peter Howe, Nicholas Collins
BACKGROUND: Survival into adult life in patients with aortic coarctation is typical following surgical and catheter-based techniques to relieve obstruction. Late sequelae are recognised, including stroke, hypertension, and intracerebral aneurysm formation, with the underlying mechanisms being unclear. We hypothesised that patients with a history of aortic coarctation may have abnormalities of cerebral blood flow compared with controls. METHODS: Patients with a history of aortic coarctation underwent assessment of cerebral vascular function...
June 1, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
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