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neurovascular reactivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577579/patterns-of-relapse-in-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-inferences-regarding-the-role-of-the-neuro-vascular-unit-and-monoclonal-antibodies-in-treating-occult-cns-disease
#1
Prakash Ambady, Rongwei Fu, Joao Prola Netto, Cymon Kersch, Jenny Firkins, Nancy D Doolittle, Edward A Neuwelt
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The radiologic features and patterns of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) at initial presentation are well described. High response rates can be achieved with first-line high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) based regimens, yet many relapse within 2 years of diagnosis. We describe the pattern of relapse and review the potential mechanisms involved in relapse. METHODS: We identified 78 consecutive patients who attained complete radiographic response (CR) during or after first-line treatment for newly diagnosed PCNSL (CD20+, diffuse large B cell type)...
June 2, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575111/the-role-of-insulin-resistance-in-experimental-diabetic-retinopathy-genetic-and-molecular-aspects
#2
Patrick Järgen, Axel Dietrich, Andreas W Herling, Hans-Peter Hammes, Paulus Wohlfart
BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by defects in the retinal neurovascular unit. The underlying mechanisms of impairment-including reactive intermediates and growth-factor dependent signalling pathways and their possible interplay are incompletely understood. This study aims to assess the relative role of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia alone or in combination on the gene expression patterning in the retina of animal models of diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: As insulinopenic, hyperglycemic model reflecting type 1 diabetes, male STZ-Wistar rats (60mg/kg BW; i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566094/assessment-of-cerebral-blood-flow-in-adult-patients-with-aortic-coarctation
#3
Rachel Wong, Waheed Ahmad, Allan Davies, Neil Spratt, Andrew Boyle, Christopher Levi, Peter Howe, Nicholas Collins
BACKGROUND: Survival into adult life in patients with aortic coarctation is typical following surgical and catheter-based techniques to relieve obstruction. Late sequelae are recognised, including stroke, hypertension, and intracerebral aneurysm formation, with the underlying mechanisms being unclear. We hypothesised that patients with a history of aortic coarctation may have abnormalities of cerebral blood flow compared with controls. METHODS: Patients with a history of aortic coarctation underwent assessment of cerebral vascular function...
June 1, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544033/impaired-neurovascular-reactivity-in-the-microvasculature-of-pregnant-women-with-preeclampsia
#4
Karine Ferreira Agra, Isabelle Eunice Albuquerque Pontes, José Roberto da Silva, José Natal Figueiroa, Geraldine F Clough, João Guilherme Bezerra Alves
Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with maternal vascular dysfunction, leading to serious cardiovascular risk both during and following pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: To assess microvascular reactivity in pregnant women with PE. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 36 pregnant women with PE and 36 normotensive pregnant women (C) in the third trimester. Skin microvascular blood flow was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry at rest (RF), during the maximum hyperaemic response to brief arterial occlusion (MF) and during the sympathetically-mediated constrictor response to deep inspiratory breath hold (IBH)...
May 19, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515043/brain-perivascular-macrophages-initiate-the-neurovascular-dysfunction-of-alzheimer-a%C3%AE-peptides
#5
Laibaik Park, Ken Uekawa, Lidia Garcia-Bonilla, Kenzo Koizumi, Michelle Murphy, Rose Pitstick, Linda H Younkin, Steven G Younkin, Ping Zhou, Geroge A Carlson, Josef Anrather, Costantino Iadecola
Rationale: Increasing evidence indicates that alterations of the cerebral microcirculation may play a role in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the leading cause of late-life dementia. The amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), a key pathogenic factor in AD, induces profound alterations in neurovascular regulation through the innate immunity receptor CD36, which, in turn, activates a Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase leading to cerebrovascular oxidative stress. Brain perivascular macrophages (PVM) located in the perivascular space, a major site of brain Aβ collection and clearance, are juxtaposed to the wall of intracerebral resistance vessels and are a powerful source of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
May 17, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476949/angiotensin-iv-receptors-mediate-the-cognitive-and-cerebrovascular-benefits-of-losartan-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Jessika Royea, Luqing Zhang, Xin-Kang Tong, Edith Hamel
The use of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) correlates with reduced onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The mechanism depicting how ARBs, such as losartan, restore cerebrovascular and cognitive deficits in AD is unknown. Here, we propose a mechanism underlying losartan's benefits by selectively blocking the effects of Angiotensin IV (AngIV) at its receptor (AT4R) with divalinal in mice overexpressing the AD-related Swedish and Indiana mutations of the human amyloid precursor protein (APP mice) and wild-type mice...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449313/neurovascular-unit-alteration-in-somatosensory-cortex-and-enhancement-of-thermal-nociception-induced-by-amphetamine-involves-central-at1-receptor-activation
#7
Victoria Belén Occhieppo, Natalia Andrea Marchese, Iara Diamela Rodríguez, Osvaldo Martin Basmadjian, Gustavo Baiardi, Claudia Bregonzio
The use of psychostimulants, such as amphetamine (Amph), is associated with inflammatory processes, involving glia and vasculature alterations. Brain Angiotensin II (Ang II), through AT1 -receptors (AT1 -R), modulates neurotransmission and plays a crucial role in inflammatory responses in brain vasculature and glia. Our aim for the present work was to evaluate the role of AT1 -R in long-term alterations induced by repeated exposure to Amph. Astrocyte reactivity, neuronal survival and brain microvascular network were analysed at the somatosensory cortex...
April 27, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401931/early-neurovascular-dysfunction-in-a-transgenic-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Illsung L Joo, Aaron Y Lai, Paolo Bazzigaluppi, Margaret M Koletar, Adrienne Dorr, Mary E Brown, Lynsie A M Thomason, John G Sled, JoAnne McLaurin, Bojana Stefanovic
Alzheimer's disease (AD), pathologically characterized by amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) accumulation, neurofibrillary tangle formation, and neurodegeneration, is thought to involve early-onset neurovascular abnormalities. Hitherto studies on AD-associated neurovascular injury have used animal models that exhibit only a subset of AD-like pathologies and demonstrated some Aβ-dependent vascular dysfunction and destabilization of neuronal network. The present work focuses on the early stage of disease progression and uses TgF344-AD rats that recapitulate a broader repertoire of AD-like pathologies to investigate the cerebrovascular and neuronal network functioning using in situ two-photon fluorescence microscopy and laminar array recordings of local field potentials, followed by pathological analyses of vascular wall morphology, tau hyperphosphorylation, and amyloid plaques...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344073/role-of-thrombin-par1-pkc%C3%AE-%C3%AE-axis-in-brain-pericytes-in-thrombin-induced-mmp-9-production-and-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-in-vitro
#9
Takashi Machida, Shinya Dohgu, Fuyuko Takata, Junichi Matsumoto, Ikuya Kimura, Mariko Koga, Keiko Nakamoto, Atsushi Yamauchi, Yasufumi Kataoka
Thrombin, an essential component in the coagulation cascade, participates in the pathogenesis of brain diseases, such as ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease through blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. It is thought that the thrombin-matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 axis is an important process in the pathogenesis of neurovascular disease, such as BBB dysfunction. We recently reported that brain pericytes are the most MMP-9-releasing cells in response to thrombin stimulation among the BBB-constituting cells...
May 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237318/strokes-are-possible-complications-of-cannabinoids-use
#10
REVIEW
Valérie Wolff, Emilie Jouanjus
It is critically important to identify all factors that may play a role in the recent increase of the incidence of stroke among the young population. Considering the worldwide use of cannabinoids (cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids), the recent legalization of their consumption in some countries, and their supposed involvement in cardiovascular events, we evaluated their role in the occurrence of neurovascular complications among the young. Ninety-eight patients were described in the literature as having a cannabinoids-related stroke (85 after cannabis use and 13 after synthetic cannabinoids)...
February 23, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152241/invalidation-of-fmri-experiments-secondary-to-neurovascular-uncoupling-in-patients-with-cerebrovascular-disease
#11
Andrea E Para, Kevin Sam, Julien Poublanc, Joseph A Fisher, Adrian P Crawley, David J Mikulis
PURPOSE: Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique used to infer neuronal activity from the observed changes in blood flow. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is the ability of arterioles to increase blood flow in response to vasodilatory stimulus. We hypothesize that in areas of disease where there is exhausted vascular reserve and impaired CVR there will be diminished blood flow response following neuronal activation, and that these areas would appear as false-negative tests on BOLD fMRI...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112024/inversion-of-neurovascular-coupling-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in%C3%A2-vivo
#12
Matilde Balbi, Masayo Koide, George C Wellman, Nikolaus Plesnila
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) induces acute changes in the cerebral microcirculation. Recent findings ex vivo suggest neurovascular coupling (NVC), the process that increases cerebral blood flow upon neuronal activity, is also impaired after SAH. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether this occurs also in vivo. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to either sham surgery or SAH by filament perforation. Twenty-four hours later NVC was tested by forepaw stimulation and CO2 reactivity by inhalation of 10% CO2...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057519/col4a1-mutation-generates-vascular-abnormalities-correlated-with-neuronal-damage-in-a-mouse-model-of-hanac-syndrome
#13
Alix Trouillet, Henri Lorach, Elisabeth Dubus, Brahim El Mathari, Ivana Ivkovic, Julie Dégardin, Manuel Simonutti, Michel Paques, Xavier Guillonneau, Florian Sennlaub, José-Alain Sahel, Pierre Ronco, Emmanuelle Plaisier, Serge Picaud
The HANAC syndrome is caused by mutations in the gene coding for collagen4a1, a major component of blood vessel basement membranes. Ocular symptoms include an increase in blood vessel tortuosity and occasional hemorrhages. To examine how vascular defects can affect neuronal function, we analyzed the retinal phenotype of a HANAC mouse model. Heterozygous mutant mice displayed both a thinning of the basement membrane in retinal blood vessels and in Bruch's membrane resulting in vascular leakage. Homozygous mice had additional vascular changes, including greater vessel coverage and tortuosity...
January 3, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047432/su-g-iep1-11-resting-state-fluctuation-of-bold-signal-amplitude-for-mapping-cerebrovascular-reactivity-in-presurgical-functional-mri
#14
P Wang, P Hou, S Kesler, R Colen, A Kumar, S Prabhu, H Liu
PURPOSE: Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) MRI with hypercapnia challenges, such as a breath-hold (BH) task, has been proposed to indicate areas with neurovascular uncoupling potentials for presurgical functional MRI (fMRI). This study aimed to explore the use of resting-state (RS) fMRI, in particular, the RS fluctuation of amplitude (RSFA) for detecting the impaired CVR and compare with BH MRI in patients with gliomas. METHODS: The BH and RS fMRI from six patients as part of their presurgical fMRI studies were analyzed...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038898/demographic-and-systemic-hemodynamic-influences-in-mechanisms-of-cerebrovascular-regulation-in-healthy-adults
#15
João Madureira, Pedro Castro, Elsa Azevedo
OBJECTIVES: A competent cerebrovascular regulation maintains an adequate cerebral blood flow by 3 major mechanisms: cerebral autoregulation (CA), vasomotor reactivity (VMR), namely to CO2, and neurovascular coupling (NVC). However, most studies generalize their results based on a response to a single parameter. Using a full battery of neurovascular stress tests, our study aims to evaluate the relationships among grades of CA, VMR, and NVC, and how their interplay is influenced by demographic and systemic hemodynamic factors...
March 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882947/arginase-2-promotes-neurovascular-degeneration-during-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#16
Esraa Shosha, Zhimin Xu, Harumasa Yokota, Alan Saul, Modesto Rojas, R William Caldwell, Ruth B Caldwell, S Priya Narayanan
Retinal ischemia is a major cause of visual impairment and blindness and is involved in various disorders including diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, optic neuropathies and retinopathy of prematurity. Neurovascular degeneration is a common feature of these pathologies. Our lab has previously reported that the ureahydrolase arginase 2 (A2) is involved in ischemic retinopathies. Here, we are introducing A2 as a therapeutic target to prevent neurovascular injury after retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) insult. Studies were performed with mice lacking both copies of A2 (A2(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) controls (C57BL6J)...
November 24, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876394/postnatal-irradiation-induced-hippocampal-neuropathology-cognitive-impairment-and-aging
#17
REVIEW
Feng Ru Tang, Weng Keong Loke, Boo Cheong Khoo
Irradiation of the brain in early human life may set abnormal developmental events into motion that last a lifetime, leading to a poor quality of life for affected individuals. While the effect of irradiation at different early developmental stages on the late human life has not been investigated systematically, animal experimental studies suggest that acute postnatal irradiation with ⩾0.1Gy may significantly reduce neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and endotheliogenesis in cerebral vessels and induce cognitive impairment and aging...
April 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869302/brain-function-is-linked-to-ldl-cholesterol-in-older-adults-with-cardiovascular-risk
#18
Liesel-Ann C Meusel, Nicole D Anderson, Matthew D Parrott, William Yuen, Ekaterina Tchistiakova, Bradley J MacIntosh, Sid Feldman, Carol E Greenwood
OBJECTIVES: To determine how cardiovascular risk is associated with working memory task performance and task-related suppression of default-mode network (DMN) activity in cognitively intact older adults. DESIGN: A cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging study of older adults with cardiovascular risk factors. SETTING: Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Health Sciences. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty older adults with cardiovascular risk factors...
November 21, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865779/impairment-of-neurovascular-coupling-in-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-in-rats-is-prevented-by-pancreatic-islet-transplantation-and-reversed-by-a-semi-selective-pkc-inhibitor
#19
Francesco Vetri, Meirigeng Qi, Haoliang Xu, Jose Oberholzer, Chanannait Paisansathan
Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced chronic hyperglycemia has a detrimental effect on neurovascular coupling, linked to increased PKC-mediated phosphorylation and PKC isoform expression changes. Here, we sought to determine whether: 1) selective PKC-α/β/γ inhibitor, GF109203X, could reverse the effects of chronic hyperglycemia on cerebrovascular reactivity; 2) pancreatic islet transplantation could prevent the development of cerebrovascular impairment seen in a rat model of Type 1 Diabetes. We studied the effect of GF109203X in diabetic (DM), non-diabetic (ND), and transplanted (TR) Lewis rats during either sciatic nerve stimulation (SNS) or the topical applications of the large-conductance Ca(2+)-operated K(+)(BKCa) channel opener, NS1619, or the K(+) inward rectifier (Kir) channel agonist, KCl...
January 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864848/age-related-small-vessel-disease-a-potential-contributor-to-neurodegeneration-in-multiple-sclerosis
#20
REVIEW
Ruth Geraldes, Margaret M Esiri, Gabriele C DeLuca, Jacqueline Palace
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system wherein, after an initial phase of transient neurological defects, slow neurological deterioration due to progressive neuronal loss ensues. Age is a major determinant of MS progression onset and disability. Over the past years, several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the key drivers of neurodegeneration and disability accumulation in MS. However, the effect of commonly encountered age-related cerebral vessel disease, namely small vessel disease (SVD), has been largely neglected and constitutes the aim of this review...
November 19, 2016: Brain Pathology
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