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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129473/dominant-negative-loss-of-function-arises-from-a-second-more-frequent-variant-within-the-sand-domain-of-autoimmune-regulator-aire
#1
Jordan K Abbott, Yu-San Huoh, Paul R Reynolds, Liping Yu, Marian Rewers, Monica Reddy, Mark S Anderson, Sun Hur, Erwin W Gelfand
A genetic variant in the SAND domain of autoimmune regulator (AIRE), R247C, was identified in a patient with type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and his mother with rheumatoid arthritis. In vitro, the variant dominantly inhibited AIRE; however, typical features of Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy Candidiasis and Ectodermal Dysplasia (APECED) were not seen in the subjects. Rather, early manifestation of autoimmunity appeared to be dependent on additional genetic factors. On a population level, diverse variants were identified in this region...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111323/the-role-of-the-ptsi-gene-on-ai-2-internalization-and-pathogenesis-of-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#2
Xiaoka Wu, Xiaolong Lv, Jinye Lu, Shengqing Yu, Yawei Jin, Jiangang Hu, Jiakun Zuo, Rongsheng Mi, Yan Huang, Kezong Qi, Zhaoguo Chen, Xiangan Han
The LuxS/AI-2 quorum sensing mechanism can regulate the physiological functions of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) through internalization of the small molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2). The ptsI gene encodes enzyme I, which participates in the phosphotransferase system (PTS) that regulates the virulence and AI-2 internalization of bacteria. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of ptsI on AI-2 internalization and other pathogenesis process in APEC using a ptsI mutant of the APEC strain DE17 (serotype O2), namely DE17ΔptsI...
October 27, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102113/different-activated-methyl-cycle-pathways-affect-the-pathogenicity-of-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#3
Da Xu, Jiakun Zuo, Zhaoguo Chen, Xiaolong Lv, Jiangang Hu, Xiaoka Wu, Kezong Qi, Rongsheng Mi, Yan Huang, Jingfeng Miao, Wei Jiang, Shaohui Wang, Chengming Wang, Xiangan Han
The activated methyl cycle (AMC) regulates the cellular levels of S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH) in bacteria, which plays a crucial role in bacterial pathogenicity. There are two AMC pathways in bacteria: one is a two-step reaction pathway (named the LuxS/Pfs pathway) in which LuxS and Pfs catalyze the conversion of SAH to l-homocysteine and autoinducer-2 (AI-2), and the other is a one-step reaction (named the SahH pathway) mediated by S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (SahH), which completes this cycle without producing AI-2...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075235/commentary-comparative-analysis-of-phylogenetic-assignment-of-human-and-avian-expec-and-fecal-commensal-escherichia-coli-using-the-previous-and-revised-clermont-phylogenetic-typing-methods-and-its-impact-on-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-apec-classification
#4
COMMENT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040287/antimicrobial-activity-of-carbon-monoxide-releasing-molecule-mn-co-3-tpa-%C3%AE%C2%BA3n-br-versus-multidrug-resistant-isolates-of-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-and-its-synergy-with-colistin
#5
Jonathan Betts, Christopher Nagel, Ulrich Schatzschneider, Robert Poole, Robert M La Ragione
Antimicrobial resistance is a growing global concern in human and veterinary medicine, with an ever-increasing void in the arsenal of clinicians. Novel classes of compounds including carbon monoxoide-releasing molecules (CORMs), for example the light-activated metal complex [Mn(CO)3(tpa-κ3N)]Br, could be used as alternatives/to supplement traditional antibacterials. Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) represent a large reservoir of antibiotic resistance and can cause serious clinical disease in poultry, with potential as zoonotic pathogens, due to shared serotypes and virulence factors with human pathogenic E...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924584/an-evaluation-of-the-virulence-and-adherence-properties-of-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#6
Kyle LeStrange, Sarah M Markland, Dallas G Hoover, Manan Sharma, Kalmia E Kniel
Avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) cause disease primarly in poultry; however, the link between APEC and infections in humans is questionable. In this current study, a total of 100 APEC strains isolated from chickens in Delmarva were evaluated for the presence of virulence genes to investigate their zoonotic potential in humans. A total of 28 isolates possessed one Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) virulence factor each and 87 isolates possessed up to 5 extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) virulence factors...
December 2017: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911037/a-biologically-conjugated-polysaccharide-vaccine-delivered-by-attenuated-salmonella-typhimurium-provides-protection-against-challenge-of-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-o1-infection
#7
Yue Han, Qing Liu, Jie Yi, Kang Liang, Yunan Wei, Qingke Kong
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes avian airsacculitis and colibacillosis, resulting in significant economic loss to the poultry industry. O1, O2 and O78 are the three predominant serotypes. O-antigen of lipopolysaccharide is serotype determinant and highly immunogenic, and O-antigen polysaccharide-based vaccines have great potential for preventing bacterial infections. In this study, we utilized a novel yeast/bacterial shuttle vector pSS26 to clone the 10.8 kb operon synthesizing APEC O1 O-antigen polysaccharide...
November 30, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895515/escherichia-coli-type-iii-secretion-system-2-regulator-etra-promotes-virulence-of-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#8
Shaohui Wang, Xuan Xu, Xin Liu, Dong Wang, Hua Liang, Xiaojun Wu, Mingxing Tian, Chan Ding, Guijun Wang, Shengqing Yu
The Escherichia coli type III secretion system 2 (ETT2) is found in most E. coli strains, including pathogenic and commensal strains. Although many ETT2 gene clusters carry multiple genetic mutations or deletions, ETT2 is known to be involved in bacterial virulence. In enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), ETT2 affects adhesion through the regulator EtrA, which regulates transcription and secretion of the type III secretion system (T3SS) encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). To date, no studies have been conducted on the role of EtrA in the virulence of avian pathogenic E...
September 12, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878764/molecular-cloning-characterization-and-anti-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-innate-immune-response-of-the-cherry-valley-duck-ciita-gene
#9
Rong Li, Mengjiao Guo, Jing Lin, Tongjie Chai, Liangmeng Wei
Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) transactivator (CIITA) is a member of the pattern recognition receptor in cytoplasm, which is involved in host innate immune responses. In this study, the full-length cDNA of Cherry Valley duck CIITA (duCIITA) was cloned from the spleen of healthy Cherry Valley ducks for the first time. The CDs of duCIITA have 3648 bp and encode 1215 amino acids. The homology analysis of CIITAs amino acid sequence showed that the duCIITA has the highest identity with the Anas platyrhynchos (94...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871661/update-on-aire-and-thymic-negative-selection
#10
REVIEW
Geraldo Aleixo Passos, Cesar A Speck-Hernandez, Amanda Freire Assis, Daniella A Mendes-da-Cruz
Twenty years ago, the autoimmune regulator (Aire) gene was associated with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), cloned and sequenced. Its importance goes beyond its link with human autoimmune disease. Aire identification opened new perspectives to better understand the molecular basis of central tolerance and self-non-self-distinction, the main properties of the immune system. During these two last decades, a growing number of immunologists and molecular geneticists have made important discoveries about the function of Aire, which is essentially a pleiotropic gene...
September 4, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865220/frequency-of-iss-and-irp2-genes-by-pcr-method-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-poultry-with-colibacillosis-in-comparison-with-healthy-chicken-in-poultry-farms-of-zabol-south-east-of-iran
#11
M S Sadeghi Bonjar, S Salari, M Jahantigh, A Rashki
There is no special trait for differentiation of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli from Avian Fecal Escherichia coli. This investigation is aimed, as a case control study, to evaluate and compare the frequency of iss and irp2 in 43 AFEC strains and also 40 and 56 E. coli strains isolated from the liver and kidney of chickens with colibacillosis, respectively, farmed in Zabol, as a border region of Iran, by PCR. 86.9% and 37.2% of isolates collected from chickens with colibacillosis and feces samples obtained from healthy chickens were positive for iss gene, respectively (P<0...
March 1, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862690/variations-in-the-rate-of-infestations-of-dogs-with-zoonotic-nematodes-and-the-contamination-of-soil-in-different-environments
#12
Maria Bernadeta Studzińska, Marta Demkowska-Kutrzepa, Anna Borecka, Michał Meisner, Krzysztof Tomczuk, Monika Roczeń-Karczmarz, Teresa Kłapeć, Zahrai Abbass, Alicja Cholewa
Companion animals are an important aspect in human life. However, they may also be considered a source of pathogens. An example of zoonotic parasitoses is toxocarosis or cutaneous larva migrans (CLM). The aim of the study was to detect zoonotic nematodes of dogs living in different areas and the intensity of contamination in parasite polluted environments that are hazardous to human health. The fecal samples were examined using standard flotation and decantation methods as well as McMaster's quantitative technique...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861084/autoantibody-repertoire-in-apeced-patients-targets-two-distinct-subgroups-of-proteins
#13
Dmytro Fishman, Kai Kisand, Christina Hertel, Mike Rothe, Anu Remm, Maire Pihlap, Priit Adler, Jaak Vilo, Aleksandr Peet, Antonella Meloni, Katarina Trebusak Podkrajsek, Tadej Battelino, Øyvind Bruserud, Anette S B Wolff, Eystein S Husebye, Nicolas Kluger, Kai Krohn, Annamari Ranki, Hedi Peterson, Adrian Hayday, Pärt Peterson
High titer autoantibodies produced by B lymphocytes are clinically important features of many common autoimmune diseases. APECED patients with deficient autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene collectively display a broad repertoire of high titer autoantibodies, including some which are pathognomonic for major autoimmune diseases. AIRE deficiency severely reduces thymic expression of gene-products ordinarily restricted to discrete peripheral tissues, and developing T cells reactive to those gene-products are not inactivated during their development...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837660/a-recombinant-multi-antigen-vaccine-with-broad-protection-potential-against-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#14
Angelica Van Goor, Zachary R Stromberg, Melha Mellata
Chickens are a major source of protein worldwide, yet infectious diseases continue to threaten the poultry industry. Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), a subgroup of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), causes colibacillosis in chickens resulting in economic loss because of treatment, condemnation of products, and death. In this study, we evaluated a recombinant antigens (rAg) vaccine combining common ExPEC surface proteins EtsC, OmpA, OmpT, and TraT for broad protective potential against APEC infections in chickens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833960/apec-news-june-2017
#15
Sanjay Miglani, Hyeon-Cheol Henry Kim, James Brichko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Australian Endodontic Journal: the Journal of the Australian Society of Endodontology Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815025/oesophageal-candidiasis-and-squamous-cell-cancer-in-patients-with-gain-of-function-stat1-gene-mutation
#16
Sara Koo, Deepak Kejariwal, Tariq Al-Shehri, Anjan Dhar, Desa Lilic
BACKGROUND: Oesophageal candidiasis is a common, usually self-limiting opportunistic infection, but long-term infection with Candida is known to predispose to oral and oesophageal squamous cell cancer (SCC). Permissive factors that lead to immune deficiencies can underlie persistent or recurring candidiasis, called chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). Secondary immune deficiencies are most often due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, antibiotic use and immunosuppressive treatment (steroids, chemotherapy)...
August 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810202/seasonal-variation-and-potential-source-regions-of-pm2-5-bound-pahs-in-the-megacity-beijing-china-impact-of-regional-transport
#17
Yuepeng Zhang, Jing Chen, Hainan Yang, Rongjia Li, Qing Yu
Based on the 12-hour PM2.5 samples collected in an urban site of Beijing, sixteen PM2.5-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured to investigate the characteristics and potential source regions of particulate PAHs in Beijing. The study period included the summer period in July-August 2014, the APEC source control period during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting in the first half of November 2014, and the heating period in the second half of November 2014. Compared to PM2...
December 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803013/short-communication-detection-of-stx2-and-elt-genes-in-bovine-milk-by-using-a-multiplex-pcr-system
#18
R D S Nandi, A C Campos, J J Puño-Sarmiento, R P Maluta, S P D Rocha, R K T Kobayashi, G Nakazato
The aim of this study was to detect 2 important toxin genes from diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in bovine milk using a new multiplex PCR. To standardize the multiplex PCR, the stx2 and elt genes were investigated for the detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), respectively. The DNA template was prepared with a thermal procedure (boiling) and a commercial kit. Samples consisted of UHT and pasteurized milk, both skimmed, and STEC and ETEC were tested in concentrations between 10(1) and 10(9) cfu/mL...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769929/autoimmune-regulator-deficiency-results-in-a-decrease-in-stat1-levels-in-human-monocytes
#19
Ofer Zimmerman, Lindsey B Rosen, Muthulekha Swamydas, Elise M N Ferre, Mukil Natarajan, Frank van de Veerdonk, Steven M Holland, Michail S Lionakis
Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder typically caused by biallelic autoimmune regulator (AIRE) mutations that manifests with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) and autoimmunity. Patients with STAT1 gain-of-function (GOF) mutations also develop CMC and autoimmunity; they exhibit increased STAT1 protein levels at baseline and STAT1 phosphorylation (pSTAT1) upon interferon (IFN)-γ stimulation relative to healthy controls. AIRE interacts functionally with a protein that directly regulates STAT1, namely protein inhibitor of activated STAT1, which inhibits STAT1 activation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729610/mean-bias-in-seasonal-forecast-model-and-enso-prediction-error
#20
Seon Tae Kim, Hye-In Jeong, Fei-Fei Jin
This study uses retrospective forecasts made using an APEC Climate Center seasonal forecast model to investigate the cause of errors in predicting the amplitude of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-driven sea surface temperature variability. When utilizing Bjerknes coupled stability (BJ) index analysis, enhanced errors in ENSO amplitude with forecast lead times are found to be well represented by those in the growth rate estimated by the BJ index. ENSO amplitude forecast errors are most strongly associated with the errors in both the thermocline slope response and surface wind response to forcing over the tropical Pacific, leading to errors in thermocline feedback...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
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