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Feng Zhu, Yinling Hu
A pathogenic connection between autoreactive T cells, fungal infection, and carcinogenesis has been demonstrated in studies of human autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) as well as in a mouse model in which kinase-dead Ikkα knock-in mice develop impaired central tolerance, autoreactive T cell-mediated autoimmunity, chronic fungal infection, and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, which recapitulates APECED. IκB kinase α (IKKα) is one subunit of the IKK complex required for NF-κB activation...
March 9, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Priscila Regina Guerra, Ana Herrero-Fresno, Susanne Elisabeth Pors, Shahana Ahmed, Dan Wang, Ida Thøfner, Fabio Antenucci, John Elmerdahl Olsen
Over the last few years, polyamines have been described as key-signal of virulence in pathogenic bacteria. In the current study, we investigated whether the knockout of genes related to polyamine biosynthesis and putrescine transport affected the virulence of an avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strain. One-week-old White Leghorn chickens were infected intratracheally with mutants in polyamine biosynthesis (ΔspeB/C and ΔspeD/E) and transport genes (ΔpotE) of a well-characterized APEC strain of ST117 (O83: H4)...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Xiangjun Song, Chunxiao Li, Kezong Qi, Jian Tu, Hongmei Liu, Ting Xue
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are important pathogens that cause serious economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. The PhoP/Q system is essential for APEC pathogenicity, and its mutation leads to a decrease in ybjX gene expression; but whether ybjX regulated by PhoP/Q plays a role in pathogenicity remains unclear. The role of ybjX in APEC pathogenicity was investigated using a ybjX mutant strain constructed from APEC strain AE17 by the Red recombination method. The mutant strain displayed significantly reduced adherence to and invasion of chicken embryo fibroblast cell line (DF-1) cells...
March 8, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Nianliang Cheng, Ziyue Chen, Feng Sun, Ruiwen Sun, Xin Dong, Xiaoming Xie, Chunxue Xu
Based on ozone observation data from urban stations and the Dingling (DL) background station, we investigated the trend of ozone concentrations in Beijing during 2004-2015. For urban stations, both O3 _1 h and O3 _8 h increased stably with a clear and significant linear pattern and the increase rate was notably higher during the period of May to Sep. Meanwhile, the variation of O3 _1 h and O3 _8 h for the DL station did not demonstrate a regular pattern. During this period, the differences between the diurnal peak of ozone concentrations at the DL background station and urban stations decreased significantly due to the rapid urbanization of Beijing...
February 26, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Sun-Ting Ma, Guo-Jie Ding, Xue-Wei Huang, Zi-Wei Wang, Li Wang, Mei-Ling Yu, Wen Shi, Yan-Ping Jiang, Li-Jie Tang, Yi-Gang Xu, Yi-Jing Li
PURPOSE: Avian colibacillosis is responsible for economic losses to poultry producers worldwide. To combat this, we aimed to develop an effective oral vaccine for chicken against O78 avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) infection through a Lactobacillus delivery system. METHODOLOGY: Eight Lactobacillus strains isolated from the intestines of broiler chickens were evaluated based on their in vitro adherence ability to assess their potential as a delivery vector...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Erica Sanford, Kelly Watkins, Shareef Nahas, Michael Gottschalk, Nicole Coufal, Lauge Farnaes, David Dimmock, Stephen Kingsmore, Rcigm Investigators
Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1; OMIM #240300), also referred to as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), is a rare monogenic disorder caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. APS1 is classically characterized by a triad of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, autoimmune hypoparathyroidism, and autoimmune adrenocortical insufficiency. We report a five-year-old female who presented with symptoms of tetany due to hypocalcemia and was subsequently found to be secondary to hypoparathyroidism...
February 1, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
Giuseppina Conteduca, Francesco Indiveri, Gilberto Filaci, Simone Negrini
The autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE) is a transcription factor expressed both in the thymus, by medullary thymic epithelial cells, and in secondary lymphoid organs. AIRE controls the local transcription of organ- specific proteins typically expressed in peripheral tissues, thus allowing the negative selection of self- reactive T cells. The crucial role played by AIRE in central immune tolerance emerged in the studies on the pathogenesis of Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis-Ectodermal Dystrophy, a rare inherited polyendocrine/autoimmune disease...
February 8, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Lumin Yu, Wenchang Li, Ming Zhang, Yunmei Cui, Xiaolin Chen, Jingtian Ni, Li Yu, Fei Shang, Ting Xue
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes airsacculitis, polyserositis, septicemia, and other mainly extraintestinal diseases in chickens, ducks, geese, pigeons, and other avian species, and is responsible for great economic losses in the avian industry. The autoinducer 2 (AI-2) quorum sensing system is widely present in many species of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and has been proposed to be involved in interspecies communication. In clinical APEC strains, whether or not AI-2 affects the expression of antibiotic-related genes has not been reported...
February 9, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Biyun Sun, Hannah M Southam, Jonathan A Butler, Robert K Poole, Alexandre Burgun, Andrew Tarzia, F Richard Keene, J Grant Collins
A series of mononuclear ruthenium(ii) complexes containing the tetradentate ligand bis[4(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)]-1,7-heptane have been synthesised and their biological properties examined. In the synthesis of the [Ru(phen')(bb7)]2+ complexes (where phen' = 1,10-phenanthroline and its 5-nitro-, 4,7-dimethyl- and 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl- derivatives), both the symmetric cis-α and non-symmetric cis-β isomers were formed. However, upon standing for a number of days (or more quickly under harsh conditions) the cis-β isomer converted to the more thermodynamically stable cis-α isomer...
January 30, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Fabrice Touzain, Laetitia Le Devendec, Claire de Boisséson, Sandrine Baron, Eric Jouy, Agnès Perrin-Guyomard, Yannick Blanchard, Isabelle Kempf
Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) is a global health issue. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare plasmids coding for resistance to ESC isolated from 16 avian commensal and 17 avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains obtained respectively at slaughterhouse or from diseased broilers in 2010-2012. Plasmid DNA was used to transform E. coli DH5alpha, and the resistances of the transformants were determined. The sequences of the ESC-resistance plasmids prepared from transformants were obtained by Illumina (33 plasmids) or PacBio (1 plasmid)...
2018: PloS One
Yue Han, Qing Liu, Stephan Willias, Kang Liang, Pei Li, Anchun Cheng, Qingke Kong
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), a leading cause of avian airsacculitis and colibacillosis, is responsible for significant economic loss in the poultry industry. APEC serogroups O1, O2, and O78 are predominantly associated with disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen has been shown to be a potent antigen for inducing specific protective immune responses. Therefore, we sought to develop a multivalent polysaccharide vaccine to prevent most APEC infections. We previously reported the stable expression of plasmid pSS27 encoding the APEC O1 O-antigen gene cluster (10...
January 18, 2018: Vaccine
Jayne Mullally, Stephen R Stockdale, Muireann K Smith, Lorraine A Draper, Paul R Ross, Colin Hill
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) bacteria are a significant challenge to the poultry industry. Bacteriophages (phages) have the potential to control APEC strains, increasing animal welfare and economic productivity. Here, we report the isolation of an E. coli-infecting phage, APC_JM3.2, isolated from the cecum of a broiler chicken in Ireland.
January 4, 2018: Genome Announcements
Sanjay Miglani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Australian Endodontic Journal: the Journal of the Australian Society of Endodontology Inc
Gamal Younis, Amal Awad, Nada Mohamed
Aim: Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is pathogenic strains of E. coli that are responsible for one of the most common bacterial diseases affecting poultry worldwide. This study was designed to determine the occurrence, antibiotic resistance profile, and antibiotic resistance genes of E. coli isolated from diseased and freshly dead broilers. Materials and Methods: In that context, a total of 200 broilers samples were examined by standard microbiological techniques for isolation of E...
October 2017: Veterinary World
Lounis Mohamed, Zhao Ge, Li Yuehua, Gao Yubin, Kaidi Rachid, Oumouna Mustapha, Wang Junwei, Oumouna Karine
Avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) is the etiologic agent of avian colibacillosis, the most common disease responsible for chicken morbidity in the world. Although multiple virulence-associated factors were identified, their prevalence in Algeria is still poorly known. In the present research, 92 avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) isolates were recovered from broilers with clinical signs and lesions of colibacillosis. In addition, 32 E. coli isolates collected from feces of healthy birds (AFEC) were included for comparison...
November 21, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Rudolf Bichele, Jaanika Kärner, Kai Truusalu, Imbi Smidt, Reet Mändar, Heather R Conti, Sarah L Gaffen, Pärt Peterson, Martti Laan, Kai Kisand
Protection against mucocutaneous candidiasis depends on the T helper (Th)17 pathway, as gene defects affecting its integrity result in inability to clear Candida albicans infection on body surfaces. Moreover, autoantibodies neutralizing Th17 cytokines have been related to chronic candidiasis in a rare inherited disorder called autoimmune polyendocriopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) caused by mutations in autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. However, the direct pathogenicity of these autoantibodies has not yet been addressed...
March 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Jordan K Abbott, Yu-San Huoh, Paul R Reynolds, Liping Yu, Marian Rewers, Monica Reddy, Mark S Anderson, Sun Hur, Erwin W Gelfand
A genetic variant in the SAND domain of autoimmune regulator (AIRE), R247C, was identified in a patient with type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and his mother with rheumatoid arthritis. In vitro, the variant dominantly inhibited AIRE; however, typical features of Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy Candidiasis and Ectodermal Dysplasia (APECED) were not seen in the subjects. Rather, early manifestation of autoimmunity appeared to be dependent on additional genetic factors. On a population level, diverse variants were identified in this region...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
Xiaoka Wu, Xiaolong Lv, Jinye Lu, Shengqing Yu, Yawei Jin, Jiangang Hu, Jiakun Zuo, Rongsheng Mi, Yan Huang, Kezong Qi, Zhaoguo Chen, Xiangan Han
The LuxS/AI-2 quorum sensing mechanism can regulate the physiological functions of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) through internalization of the small molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2). The ptsI gene encodes enzyme I, which participates in the phosphotransferase system (PTS) that regulates the virulence and AI-2 internalization of bacteria. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of ptsI on AI-2 internalization and other pathogenesis process in APEC using a ptsI mutant of the APEC strain DE17 (serotype O2), namely DE17ΔptsI...
December 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Da Xu, Jiakun Zuo, Zhaoguo Chen, Xiaolong Lv, Jiangang Hu, Xiaoka Wu, Kezong Qi, Rongsheng Mi, Yan Huang, Jingfeng Miao, Wei Jiang, Shaohui Wang, Chengming Wang, Xiangan Han
The activated methyl cycle (AMC) regulates the cellular levels of S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH) in bacteria, which plays a crucial role in bacterial pathogenicity. There are two AMC pathways in bacteria: one is a two-step reaction pathway (named the LuxS/Pfs pathway) in which LuxS and Pfs catalyze the conversion of SAH to l-homocysteine and autoinducer-2 (AI-2), and the other is a one-step reaction (named the SahH pathway) mediated by S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (SahH), which completes this cycle without producing AI-2...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
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