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Masami Ishii
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July 2016: Japan Medical Association Journal: JMAJ
A A Kaikabo, S M AbdulKarim, F Abas
Disease inflicted by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes economic losses and burden to the poultry industry worldwide. In this study, the efficacy of chitosan nanoparticles loaded ΦKAZ14 (C-ΦKAZ14 NPs) as an oral biological therapy for Colibacillosis was evaluated. C-ΦKAZ14 NPs containing 10(7) PFU/ml of ΦKAZ14 (Myoviridae; T4-like coliphage) bacteriophage were used to treat experimentally APEC-infected COBB 500 broiler chicks. C-ΦKAZ14 NPs and ΦKAZ14 bacteriophage were administered orally in a single dose...
October 4, 2016: Poultry Science
Jolanta Zdybel, Jacek Karamon, Mirosław Różycki, Ewa Bilska-Zając, Teresa Kłapeć, Tomasz Cencek
Because traditional methods used for sewage sludge parasitological examinations have low sensitivity, a new, highly effective method (own method - OM) was devised. The principle of this method is to eliminate the flocculent effect on the structure of sewage sludge by mechanically damaging floccules in the presence of surfactants and to increase the effectiveness of egg isolation processes in large volumes of liquids. The objective of this study was to estimate the effectiveness of the OM in detecting nematode eggs in sewage sludge samples containing flocculants...
September 26, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Leon H Oosterik, Huruma N Tuntufye, Jessica Tsonos, Tom Luyten, Sam Noppen, Sandra Liekens, Rob Lavigne, Patrick Butaye, Bruno M Goddeeris
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are responsible for significant economic losses in the poultry industry. In this study, a model for investigating the pathogenesis of APEC infections was established. APEC strain CH2 (O78) was marked with the luciferase operon (luxCDABE) using a Tn7 transposon and tissues of experimentally infected chickens were analysed for a correlation between the bioluminescent signal and the number of bacteria. Transposition of the lux operon into the chromosome of the APEC isolate did not affect sensitivity to lytic bacteriophages and there was no effect on virulence in an intratracheal infection model in 1-day-old chicks, although results with a subcutaneous infection model were inconclusive...
October 2016: Veterinary Journal
Federica Incani, Carla Cossu, Alessandra Meloni, Valeria Faà, Maria Luisa Serra, Federico Dettori, Antonella Meloni, Maria Cristina Rosatelli
OBJECTIVE: he aim of this study was to investigate whether a variation in the genomic copy number (CNV) of the β-defensin cluster could be associated with the predisposition to Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis (CMC) in Sardinian APECED patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The β-defensin copy number variation was determined by MLPA analysis in 18 Sardinian APECED patients with CMC and in 21 Sardinian controls. Statistical analyses were performed with ANOVA-one way test...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
Haoran Liu, Cheng Liu, Zhouqing Xie, Ying Li, Xin Huang, Shanshan Wang, Jin Xu, Pinhua Xie
A series of strict emission control measures were implemented in Beijing and surrounding regions to ensure good air quality during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit and 2015 Grand Military Parade (Parade), which led to blue sky days during these two events commonly referred to as "APEC Blue" and "Parade Blue". Here we calculated Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 and HCHO results based on well known DOAS trace gas fitting algorithm and WRF-Chem model (with measured climatology parameter and newest emission inventor) simulated trace gases profiles...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Hualiang Lin, Tao Liu, Fang Fang, Jianpeng Xiao, Weilin Zeng, Xing Li, Lingchuan Guo, Linwei Tian, Mario Schootman, Katherine A Stamatakis, Zhengmin Qian, Wenjun Ma
Vigorous air pollution control measures were implemented during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and a large-scale military parade (described here as "APEC Blue" and "Parade Blue" periods) in Beijing, China. A natural experiment was conducted in a health impact assessment framework to estimate the number of deaths attributable to PM2.5, using concentration-response functions derived from previous studies conducted in Beijing, combined with the differences in PM2.5 concentrations between intervention and reference periods...
September 17, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Shaohui Wang, Xin Liu, Xuan Xu, Denghui Yang, Dong Wang, Xiangan Han, Yonghong Shi, Mingxing Tian, Chan Ding, Daxin Peng, Shengqing Yu
Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are crucial for bacterial infections because they deliver effector proteins into host cells. The Escherichia coli type III secretion system 2 (ETT2) is present in the majority of E. coli strains, and although it is degenerate, ETT2 regulates bacterial virulence. An ATPase is essential for T3SS secretion, but the function of the ETT2 ATPase has not been demonstrated. Here, we show that EivC is homologous to the β subunit of F0F1 ATPases and it possesses ATPase activity. To investigate the effects of ETT2 ATPase EivC on the phenotype and virulence of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), eivC mutant and complemented strains were constructed and characterized...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Valentina Perri, Elena Gianchecchi, Riccardo Scarpa, Mariella Valenzise, Maria Manuela Rosado, Ezio Giorda, Antonino Crinò, Marco Cappa, Susi Barollo, Silvia Garelli, Corrado Betterle, Alessandra Fierabracci
APECED is a T-cell mediated disease with increased frequencies of CD8+ effector and reduction of FoxP3+ T regulatory cells. Antibodies against affected organs and neutralizing to cytokines are found in the peripheral blood. The contribution of B cells to multiorgan autoimmunity in Aire-/- mice was reported opening perspectives on the utility of anti-B cell therapy. We aimed to analyse the B cell phenotype of APECED patients compared to age-matched controls. FACS analysis was conducted on PBMC in basal conditions and following CpG stimulation...
September 9, 2016: Immunobiology
Yaxin Li, Haojin Wang, Jianluan Ren, Ling Chen, Xiangkai Zhuge, Lin Hu, Dezhi Li, Fang Tang, Jianjun Dai
Chaperone-usher (CU) fimbriae, which are adhesive surface organelles found in many Gram-negative bacteria, mediate tissue tropism through the interaction of fimbrial adhesins with specific receptors expressed on the host cell surface. A CU fimbrial gene yfcO, was identified in avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strain DE205B via gene functional analysis. In this study, yfcO was found in 13.41% (11/82) of E. coli strains, including phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2 and D, with the highest percentage in group B2. The expression of yfcO in biofilm forming bacteria was significantly higher (P < 0...
September 9, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Lucia De Martino, Donatella Capalbo, Nicola Improda, Paola Lorello, Carla Ungaro, Raffaella Di Mase, Emilia Cirillo, Claudio Pignata, Mariacarolina Salerno
Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), formerly known as autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1, is a paradigm of a monogenic autoimmune disease caused by mutations of a gene, named autoimmune regulator (AIRE). AIRE acts as a transcription regulator that promotes immunological central tolerance by inducing the ectopic thymic expression of many tissue-specific antigens. Although the syndrome is a monogenic disease, it is characterized by a wide variability of the clinical expression with no significant correlation between genotype and phenotype...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Elise M N Ferre, Stacey R Rose, Sergio D Rosenzweig, Peter D Burbelo, Kimberly R Romito, Julie E Niemela, Lindsey B Rosen, Timothy J Break, Wenjuan Gu, Sally Hunsberger, Sarah K Browne, Amy P Hsu, Shakuntala Rampertaap, Muthulekha Swamydas, Amanda L Collar, Heidi H Kong, Chyi-Chia Richard Lee, David Chascsa, Thomas Simcox, Angela Pham, Anamaria Bondici, Mukil Natarajan, Joseph Monsale, David E Kleiner, Martha Quezado, Ilias Alevizos, Niki M Moutsopoulos, Lynne Yockey, Cathleen Frein, Ariane Soldatos, Katherine R Calvo, Jennifer Adjemian, Morgan N Similuk, David M Lang, Kelly D Stone, Gulbu Uzel, Jeffrey B Kopp, Rachel J Bishop, Steven M Holland, Kenneth N Olivier, Thomas A Fleisher, Theo Heller, Karen K Winer, Michail S Lionakis
Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder typically caused by homozygous AIRE mutations. It classically presents with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and autoimmunity that primarily targets endocrine tissues; hypoparathyroidism and adrenal insufficiency are most common. Developing any two of these classic triad manifestations establishes the diagnosis. Although widely recognized in Europe, where nonendocrine autoimmune manifestations are uncommon, APECED is less defined in patients from the Western Hemisphere...
August 18, 2016: JCI Insight
Patrick M McNeely, Andrea N Naranjo, Kimberly Forsten-Williams, Anne Skaja Robinson
Ligand binding plays a fundamental role in stimulating the downstream signaling of membrane receptors. Here, ligand-binding kinetics of the full-length human adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) reconstituted in detergent micelles were measured using a fluorescently labeled ligand via fluorescence anisotropy. Importantly, to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio, these experiments were conducted in the ligand depletion regime. In the ligand depletion regime, the assumptions used to determine analytical solutions for one-site binding models for either one or two ligands in competition are no longer valid...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Screening
Qinglan Guo, Baixing Ding, Thomas Jové, Nicole Stoesser, Vaughn S Cooper, Minggui Wang, Yohei Doi
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase gene blaCTX-M-2 is mainly associated with ISCR1 embedded in complex sul1-type integrons, but information on the genetic context of plasmids harboring the ISCR1-blaCTX-M-2module remains limited. In this study, a blaCTX-M-2-harboring plasmid pYD786-1 belonging to novel ST2-IncHI2 was sequenced and analyzed from an Escherichia coli ST410 clinical strain. pYD786-1 belonged to APEC-O1-R type IncHI2 plasmids which are widely distributed in human, poultry and livestock strains. It contained a multidrug resistance mosaic region (MRR) consisting of Tn21::In2 transposon backbone augmented by acquisition of duplicated ISCR1-blaCTX-M-2 Tn2411, a Tn21::In2 precursor, likely played a role in the generation of the MRR in pN13-01290_23, the putative progenitor plasmid of pYD786-1 found in a foodborne Salmonella strain...
August 29, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Qingqing Gao, Le Xia, Juanhua Liu, Xiaobo Wang, Song Gao, Xiufan Liu
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) cause typical extraintestinal infections in poultry, including acute fatal septicemia, subacute pericarditis, and airsacculitis. These bacteria most often infect chickens, turkeys, ducks, and other avian species, and therefore pose a significant economic burden on the poultry industry worldwide. Few studies have analyzed the genome-wide transcriptional profile of APEC during infection in vivo. In this study, we examined the genome-wide transcriptional response of APEC O2 strain E058 in an in vivo chicken infection model to better understand the factors necessary for APEC colonization, growth, and survival in vivo...
August 26, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Zhen-Qiang Cui, Zong-Mei Wu, Yun-Xing Fu, Dao-Xiu Xu, Xun Guo, Hai-Qing Shen, Xu-Bin Wei, Peng-Fei Yi, Ben-Dong Fu
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) infections are responsible for great losses in the poultry industry. Quorum sensing (QS) acts as a global regulatory system that controls genes involved in bacterial pathogenesis, metabolism and protein biosynthesis. However, whether QS of APEC is related to cell damage has not been elucidated. In the present study, we explored the correlation between the damage of chicken type II pneumocytes induced by APEC and the autoinducer-2 (AI-2) activity of APEC. The results showed that when chicken type II pneumocytes were co-cultured with 10(8) CFU/ml of APEC-O78 for 6 h, the release of LDH reached the highest level (192...
October 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Yaxin Li, Jianjun Dai, Xiangkai Zhuge, Haojin Wang, Lin Hu, Jianluan Ren, Ling Chen, Dezhi Li, Fang Tang
BACKGROUND: Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes avian colibacillosis, which results in economic and welfare costs in the poultry industry worldwide. The pathogenesis of avian pathogenic E. coli strains is not well defined. Here, the function of an outer membrane protein encoded by the ireA gene of avian pathogenic E. coli strain DE205B was investigated. RESULTS: The ireA gene was distributed in 32.9 % (46/140) of tested E. coli strains, with high percentages in the phylogenetic ECOR groups B2 (58...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Xue-ming Zhou, Xue-jiao Qi, Ping Xiang, Ji-hua Tan, Jing-chun Duan, Xiao-lang He, Ke- bin He, Yong-liang Ma
In order to investigate the influence of the emission reduction measure during the Beijing APEC on the concentrations and pollution characteristics of humic-like substances (HULIS) in atmospheric fine particles, PM₂.₅ samples were collected and analyzed for OCEC, WSOC, HULIS and water-soluble ions. The concentration of HULIS in PM₂.₅ ranged 1 µg · m⁻³-15 µg · m⁻³. HULIS concentrations were 7.99 µg · m⁻³, 5.83 µg · m⁻³ and 7.06 µg · m⁻³ before, during and after APEC, which indicated emission reduction measure had important effect on the reduction of HULlS...
May 15, 2016: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
H Sun, P Liu, L K Nolan, S J Lamont
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) can cause significant morbidity in chickens. The thymus provides the essential environment for T cell development; however, the thymus transcriptome has not been examined for gene expression in response to APEC infection. An improved understanding of the host genomic response to APEC infection could inform future breeding programs for disease resistance and APEC control. We therefore analyzed the transcriptome of the thymus of birds challenged with APEC, contrasting susceptible and resistant phenotypes...
July 27, 2016: Poultry Science
Yuqin Wang, Yang Zhang, James Jay Schauer, Benjamin de Foy, Bo Guo, Yuanxun Zhang
The Beijing government and its surrounding provinces implemented a series of measures to ensure haze-free skies during the 22(nd) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference (November 10(th)-11(th), 2014). These measures included restrictions on traffic, construction, and industrial activity. Twelve hour measurements of the concentration and composition of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were performed for 5 consecutive months near the APEC conference site before (September 11(th)-November 2(nd), 2014), during (November 3(rd)-12(th), 2014) and after (November 13(th), 2014-January 31(st), 2015)...
November 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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