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female athlete triad

Adam S Tenforde, Jennifer L Carlson, Audrey Chang, Kristin L Sainani, Rebecca Shultz, Jae Hyung Kim, Phil Cutti, Neville H Golden, Michael Fredericson
BACKGROUND: The female athlete triad (referred to as the triad) contributes to adverse health outcomes, including bone stress injuries (BSIs), in female athletes. Guidelines were published in 2014 for clinical management of athletes affected by the triad. PURPOSE: This study aimed to (1) classify athletes from a collegiate population of 16 sports into low-, moderate-, and high-risk categories using the Female Athlete Triad Cumulative Risk Assessment score and (2) evaluate the predictive value of the risk categories for subsequent BSIs...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Naomi Omi
Running-exercise is a weight-bearing-exercise. Power of an effect for running-exercise might be different by exercise intensity, running speed, and duration time. In general, running-exercise could be effective on bone. However, in case of Female Athlete Triad, under the condition of low energy availability running-exercise should not be effective positively for bone. Influence of appropriate mechanical stress, stimulate calcium absorption, and so on through running-exercise could be effective positively for bone...
2017: Clinical Calcium
Laura Stefani, Giorgio Galanti, Silvia Lorini, Giada Beni, Metella Dei, Nicola Maffulli
BACKGROUND: There is a greater incidence of menstrual disorders in female athletes than in their sedentary counterparts. The menstrual disorder is reported in female athletes suffering from athletic triad syndrome, while few data in those free of this syndrome are available. The study aims to ascertain the presence of menstrual disorders and the eventual relationship with myocardial performance in female athletes practicing different sports. METHODS: A sample of 64 subjects aged 18...
April 2016: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
Marci A Goolsby, Nicole Boniquit
CONTEXT: The health of the skeletal system is important for athletes young and old. From the early benefits of exercise on bones to the importance of osteoporosis prevention and treatment, bone health affects the ability to be active throughout life. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: PubMed articles dating from 1986 to 2016 were used for the review. Relevant terms such as keywords and section titles of the article were searched and articles identified were reviewed for relevance to this article...
November 7, 2016: Sports Health
Kathleen J Pantano
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge high school coaches have about the female athlete triad and to determine if gender differences in knowledge, attitudes and behaviors exist. DESIGN: Cross-sectional Survey SETTING: Twenty-six high schools in and around the vicinity of Cleveland, Ohio, USA PARTICIPANTS: Two-hundred currently employed high school coaches INTERVENTIONS: Participants completed a 30-question survey that assessed knowledge, attitudes and behaviors coaches had about the female athlete triad...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Lauren K Knoth, R Barry Ruback
A victim's decision to report a crime to the police is typically made after talking with someone else, usually a friend or relative, but sometimes a stranger. The advice this person gives depends primarily on the seriousness of the crime, and to some extent on the gender and age of the victim. The present research, which used experimental vignettes, examined the role of social networks in reporting: How do the relationships among a victim, the advisor, and the offender affect the advice to report or not to report a violent or nonviolent crime? Results from Study 1 indicated that relationships matter: Crimes are least likely to be reported if the offender is part of the same triad as the victim and the advisor, and crimes are most likely to be reported if the victim, the advisor, and the offender are all strangers...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Amanda K Weiss Kelly, Suzanne Hecht
The number of girls participating in sports has increased significantly since the introduction of Title XI in 1972. As a result, more girls have been able to experience the social, educational, and health-related benefits of sports participation. However, there are risks associated with sports participation, including the female athlete triad. The triad was originally recognized as the interrelationship of amenorrhea, osteoporosis, and disordered eating, but our understanding has evolved to recognize that each of the components of the triad exists on a spectrum from optimal health to disease...
August 2016: Pediatrics
Joanne Slater, Rachel Brown, Rebecca McLay-Cooke, Katherine Black
Research on the health of female athletes has developed substantially over the past 50 years. This review aims to provide an overview of this research and identify directions for future work. While early cross-sectional studies focused primarily on menstruation, research has progressed to now encompass hormonal changes, bone health and lipid profiles. The seminal work of Loucks and colleagues distinguished that these health concerns were due to low energy availability (LEA) rather than exercise alone. LEA occurs when the body has insufficient energy available to meet the needs of training and normal physiological functioning...
July 18, 2016: Sports Medicine
Johnny Yi, Sandi Tenfelde, Dina Tell, Cynthia Brincat, Colleen Fitzgerald
OBJECTIVES: Our primary objective was to describe the prevalence of pelvic floor disorders (PFDs), pelvic girdle pain (PGP), and the female athlete triad (disordered eating, menstrual irregularities, and osteoporosis) in a female triathlete population. We also evaluated for an association between these conditions. METHODS: We administered an online survey to women who self-identified as female triathletes. Using validated questionnaires, Epidemiology of Prolapse and Incontinence Questionnaire and Pelvic Girdle Questionnaire, along with the female athlete triad questionnaire, we identified the prevalence of PFDs, PGP, and female athlete triad in this specific population...
September 2016: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
Carolyn Cardona, Nanna Meyer, Margaret Harris, Nancy Di'Marco, Anthony Duplanty, Shawn Hueglin, Emilia Ochoa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Lisbeth Wikström-Frisén, Carl J Boraxbekk, Karin Henriksson-Larsén
BACKGROUND: An improved muscle strength are of great importance in many sports, hence an increased understanding on how to generate optimal strength training programs in women without negative side effects that may lead to the female athlete triad are essential. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential negative effects of high frequency periodized menstrual/OC cycle based leg resistance training on components in the female athlete triad. METHODS: Fifty-nine women, with experience of resistance training and with regular menstrual/OC cycles were included in the analyses...
May 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
P Solmaz Hasdemir, O Oral, E Calik, M Ulusoy, R Varol, H Tayfun Ozcakir
PURPOSE: Female athlete triad (FAT) is a serious healthcare concern in the young female population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of FAT and its relationship with gynecologic complaints of young Turkish female athletes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey and included 87 female athletes involved in a variety of sports as a case group and 85 sedentary female university students from Ege and Celal Bayar Universities...
2016: Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology
Kate Berz, Teri McCambridge
Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is a diagnosis of exclusion that is common in female athletes, particularly those participating in aesthetic sports (ballet, other dance genres, figure skating, and gymnastics) and endurance sports (cross-country running). Although common, it should be considered abnormal even in the high-level elite athlete. Amenorrhea in combination with low energy availability and low bone density is labeled "the Female Athlete Triad." Studies have demonstrated numerous long-term consequences of athletes suffering from all or a portion of this triad, including increased rate of musculoskeletal injuries, stress fractures, abnormal lipid profiles, endothelial dysfunction, potential irreversible bone loss, depression, anxiety, low self- esteem, and increased mortality...
March 2016: Pediatric Annals
Wendy Marcason
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Karin VanBaak, David Olson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
M Teresa Muñoz-Calvo, Jesús Argente
Caloric-protein malnutrition can slow growth and cause pubertal delay. This chapter focuses on endocrine abnormalities and pubertal alterations in patients with eating disorders, childhood obesity, the female athlete triad and children cancer survivors. Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) exhibit multiple endocrine abnormalities, including isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The delay in pubertal development and reduction in growth seen in AN patients may be a direct result of malnutrition. Appropriate psychiatric, nutritional and hormonal therapy is necessary...
2016: Endocrine Development
Brian Y Kim, Aurelia Nattiv
Female participation in running is at a historical high. Special consideration should be given to this population, in whom suboptimal nutritional intake, menstrual irregularity, and bone stress injury are common. Immature athletes should garner particular attention. Advances in the understanding of the Triad and Triad-related conditions have largely informed the approach to the health of this population. Clinicians should be well versed in the identification of Triad-related risk factors. A multidisciplinary team may be necessary for the optimal treatment of at-risk runners...
February 2016: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
Adam S Tenforde, Emily Kraus, Michael Fredericson
Bone stress injuries (BSIs) are common running injuries and may occur at a rate of 20% annually. Both biological and biomechanical risk factors contribute to BSI. Evaluation of a runner with suspected BSI includes completing an appropriate history and physical examination. MRI grading classification for BSI has been proposed and may guide return to play. Management includes activity modification, optimizing nutrition, and addressing risk factors, including the female athlete triad. BSI prevention strategies include screening for risk factors during preparticipation evaluations, optimizing nutrition (including adequate caloric intake, calcium, and vitamin D), and promoting ball sports during childhood and adolescence...
February 2016: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
Emily J Curry, Catherine Logan, Kathryn Ackerman, Kelly C McInnis, Elizabeth G Matzkin
BACKGROUND: The female athlete triad (Triad) is a serious condition with lifelong consequences seen in physically active females. Prior studies assessing Triad knowledge among coaches/athletic trainers reported surprisingly low awareness results. Our aims were to (1) determine the percentage of physicians across multiple specialties who had heard of the phrase "female athlete triad" and (2) determine the percentage who can properly diagnose or have a high comfort level appropriately referring these patients...
2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Julie C Wilson, Bridget J Quinn, Corinne W Stratton, Heather Southwick, James P MacDonald
Dance is as much a sport as an art form. Sports medicine clinicians seeing dancers in their practice will need to be familiar with the unique characteristics of dance in order to provide proper care. Dance encompasses different forms, which vary in equipment and terminology. The epidemiology of dance injuries has historically focused on ballet, but there is increasing research on other dance forms. Lower extremity and back injuries predominate. Injury prevention, both primary and secondary, is at the heart of dance medicine...
November 2015: Current Sports Medicine Reports
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