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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141612/individual-level-and-community-level-determinants-of-cervical-cancer-screening-among-kenyan-women-a-multilevel-analysis-of-a-nationwide-survey
#1
Fentanesh Nibret Tiruneh, Kun-Yang Chuang, Peter Austin Morton Ntenda, Ying-Chih Chuang
BACKGROUND: Studies on the determinants of cervical cancer screening in sub-Saharan Africa have focused mostly on individual-level characteristics of cervical cancer screening. Therefore, in this study, we included both individual- and community-level indicators to examine the determinants of cervical cancer screening among Kenyan women. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys. Our analysis focused on 9016 married women of reproductive age (15-49 years)...
November 15, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138653/the-incidence-of-first-line-antiretroviral-treatment-changes-and-related-factors-among-hiv-infected-sex-workers-in-nairobi-kenya
#2
Frank Ndaks Ndakala, Julius Otieno Oyugi, Margaret Ng'wono Oluka, Joshua Kimani, Georg Martin Norbert Behrens
Introduction: In many settings, several factors including adverse drug reactions and clinical failure can limit treatment choices for combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). The aim of the study was to describe the incidence of first-line cART changes and associated factors in a cohort of Kenyan sex workers. Methods: This was a retrospective review of medical records collected from 2009 to 2013. The review included records of HIV-infected patients aged ≥ 18 years, who received either stavudine or zidovudine or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-based regimens...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137506/measuring-the-impact-of-cash-transfers-and-behavioral-nudges-on-maternity-care-in-nairobi-kenya
#3
Jessica Cohen, Claire Rothschild, Ginger Golub, George N Omondi, Margaret E Kruk, Margaret McConnell
Many patients in low-income countries express preferences for high-quality health care but often end up with low-quality providers. We conducted a randomized controlled trial with pregnant women in Nairobi, Kenya, to analyze whether cash transfers, enhanced with behavioral "nudges," can help women deliver in facilities that are consistent with their preferences and are of higher quality. We tested two interventions. The first was a labeled cash transfer (LCT), which explained that the cash was to help women deliver where they wanted...
November 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136150/using-value-stream-mapping-to-improve-quality-of-care-in-low-resource-facility-settings
#4
Rohit Ramaswamy, Claire Rothschild, Funmi Alabi, Eric Wachira, Faith Muigai, Nick Pearson
Quality problem or issue: Jacaranda Health (JH) is a Kenya-based organization that attempts to provide affordable, high-quality maternal and newborn healthcare through a chain of private health facilities in Nairobi. Initial assessment: JH needed to adopted quality improvement as an organization-wide strategy to optimize effectiveness and efficiency. Choice of solution: Value Stream Mapping, a Lean Management tool, was used to engage staff in prioritizing opportunities to improve clinical outcomes and patient-centered quality of care...
November 9, 2017: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118939/escherichia-coli-pathotypes-and-shigella-sero-groups-in-diarrheic-children-in-nairobi-city-kenya
#5
Peter Lokamar Nyanga, Jackson Onyuka, Mark Kilongosi Webale, Tom Were, Valentine Budambula
Aim: In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of E. coli pathotypes and Shigella sero-groups and their antimicrobial profiles among diarrheic children in Nairobi city, Kenya. Background: Although diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes and Shigella sero-groups are leading causes of diarrhea in children under five years in developing countries, their distribution and antimicrobial resistance vary from place to place and over time in a given region. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we enrolled diarrheic children (n=354) under five years seeking treatment at Mbagathi Hospital, Nairobi city, Kenya,...
2017: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107977/temperature-and-heat-in-informal-settlements-in-nairobi
#6
Anna A Scott, Herbert Misiani, Jerrim Okoth, Asha Jordan, Julia Gohlke, Gilbert Ouma, Julie Arrighi, Ben F Zaitchik, Eddie Jjemba, Safia Verjee, Darryn W Waugh
Nairobi, Kenya exhibits a wide variety of micro-climates and heterogeneous surfaces. Paved roads and high-rise buildings interspersed with low vegetation typify the central business district, while large neighborhoods of informal settlements or "slums" are characterized by dense, tin housing, little vegetation, and limited access to public utilities and services. To investigate how heat varies within Nairobi, we deployed a high density observation network in 2015/2016 to examine summertime temperature and humidity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107565/rubber-stamp-templates-for-improving-clinical-documentation-a-paper-based-m-health-approach-for-quality-improvement-in-low-resource-settings
#7
Bernadette Kleczka, Anita Musiega, Grace Rabut, Phoebe Wekesa, Paul Mwaniki, Michael Marx, Pratap Kumar
BACKGROUND: The United Nations' Sustainable Development Goal #3.8 targets 'access to quality essential healthcare services'. Clinical practice guidelines are an important tool for ensuring quality of clinical care, but many challenges prevent their use in low-resource settings. Monitoring the use of guidelines relies on cumbersome clinical audits of paper records, and electronic systems face financial and other limitations. Here we describe a unique approach to generating digital data from paper using guideline-based templates, rubber stamps and mobile phones...
October 23, 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093948/improving-the-effectiveness-of-psychotherapy-in-two-public-hospitals-in-nairobi
#8
Fredrik Falkenström, Matthew David Gee, Mary Wangari Kuria, Caleb Joseph Othieno, Manasi Kumar
This paper is the first in a planned series of papers studying the effectiveness of psychotherapy and counselling in Nairobi. It describes a method for checking the effectiveness of psychotherapy and improving service quality in a Kenyan context. Rather than prematurely imposing psychotherapy protocols developed in Western countries in another cultural context, we believe that first studying psychological interventions as they are practised may generate understanding of which psychological problems are common, what interventions therapists use, and what seems to be effective in reducing psychiatric problems...
August 2017: BJPsych Int
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080284/pulse-oximetry-values-of-neonates-admitted-for-care-and-receiving-routine-oxygen-therapy-at-a-resource-limited-hospital-in-kenya
#9
Melissa C Morgan, Beth Maina, Mary Waiyego, Catherine Mutinda, Jalemba Aluvaala, Michuki Maina, Mike English
AIM: There are 2.7 million neonatal deaths annually, 75% of which occur in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Effective treatment of hypoxaemia through tailored oxygen therapy could reduce neonatal mortality and prevent oxygen toxicity. METHODS: We undertook a two-part prospective study of neonates admitted to a neonatal unit in Nairobi, Kenya, between January and December 2015. We determined the prevalence of hypoxaemia and explored associations of clinical risk factors and signs of respiratory distress with hypoxaemia and mortality...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079186/investigating-the-association-between-african-spontaneously-fermented-dairy-products-faecal-carriage-of-streptococcus-infantarius-subsp-infantarius-and-colorectal-adenocarcinoma-in-kenya
#10
Dasel W M Kaindi, Wambui Kogi-Makau, Godfrey N Lule, Bernd Kreikemeyer, Pierre Renault, Bassirou Bonfoh, Esther Schelling, Jakob Zinsstag, Christophe Lacroix, Leo Meile, Christoph Jans, Jan Hattendorf
Consumption of traditional fermented dairy products (tFDP) in Africa leads to the ingestion of up to 10(8)Streptococcus infantarius subspecies infantarius (Sii) per millilitre of spontaneously fermented milk. Sii is a member of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) for which some members are associated particularly with colorectal cancer or endocarditis. The extent of health risks to tFDP consumers is largely unknown. A hospital-based unmatched case-control study was conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi (Kenya) on 80 cases and 193 controls that were selected exhaustively from patients attending colonoscopy at the hospital...
October 25, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062911/using-data-from-a-multi-hospital-clinical-network-to-explore-prevalence-of-pediatric-rickets-in-kenya
#11
Stella W Karuri, Maureen K Murithi, Grace Irimu, Mike English
Background: Nutritional rickets is a public health concern in developing countries despite tropical climates and a re-emerging issue in developed countries. In this study, we reviewed pediatric admission data from the Clinical Information Network (CIN) to help determine hospital and region based prevalence of rickets in three regions of Kenya (Central Kenya, Western Kenya and Nairobi County). We also examine the association of rickets with other diagnosis, such as malnutrition and pneumonia, and study the effect of rickets on regional hospital stays...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053576/toward-age-friendly-slums-health-challenges-of-older-slum-dwellers-in-nairobi-and-the-applicability-of-the-age-friendly-city-approach
#12
Isabella Aboderin, Megumi Kano, Hilda Akinyi Owii
A majority of urban residents in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and other developing regions live in informal settlements, or slums. Much of the discourse on slum health centres on younger generations, while an intensifying agenda on healthy ageing as yet lacks a systematic focus on slums. Similarly, the global age-friendly cities (AFC) movement does not, thus far, extend to slums. This paper examines the particular challenges that a slum-focused age-friendly initiative in SSA may need to address, and the relevance of present AFC indicators and domains for initiatives to advance the health and well-being of older slum dwellers...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043890/-yeah-i-ve-grown-i-can-t-go-out-anymore-differences-in-perceived-risks-between-girls-and-boys-entering-adolescence
#13
Kristin Mmari, Caroline Moreau, Susannah Emily Gibbs, Sara De Meyer, Kristien Michielsen, Caroline W Kabiru, Bamidele Bello, Adesegun Fatusi, Chaohua Lou, Xiayun Zuo, Chunyan Yu, Ghada S T Al-Attar, Omaima El-Gibaly
This analysis is based on data from the Global Early Adolescent Study, which aims to understand the factors that predispose young people aged 10-14 years to positive or negative health trajectories. Specifically, interview transcripts from 202 adolescents and 191 parents across six diverse urban sites (Baltimore, Ghent, Nairobi, Ile Ife, Assuit and Shanghai) were analysed to compare the perceived risks associated with entering adolescence and how these risks differed by gender. Findings reveal that in all sites except Ghent, both young people and their parents perceived that girls face greater risks related to their sexual and reproductive health, and because of their sexual development, were perceived to require more protection...
October 18, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039800/high-ethanol-contents-of-spirit-drinks-in-kibera-slums-kenya-implications-for-public-health
#14
Alex O Okaru, Kennedy O Abuga, Isaac O Kibwage, Dirk W Lachenmeier
Cheap licit and artisanal illicit spirit drinks have been associated with numerous outbreaks of alcohol poisoning especially with methanol. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of cheap spirit drinks in Kibera slums in Nairobi County, Kenya. The samples consisted of cheap licit spirits (n = 11) and the artisanal spirit drink, 'chang'aa', (n = 28). The parameters of alcoholic strength and volatile composition were used as indicators of quality and were determined using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively...
October 17, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025826/patient-characteristics-of-the-accident-and-emergency-department-of-kenyatta-national-hospital-nairobi-kenya-a-cross-sectional-prospective-analysis
#15
Justin Guy Myers, Katherine M Hunold, Karen Ekernas, Ali Wangara, Alice Maingi, Vincent Mutiso, Stephen Dunlop, Ian B K Martin
BACKGROUND: Resource-limited settings are increasingly experiencing a 'triple burden' of disease, composed of trauma, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and known communicable disease patterns. However, the epidemiology of acute and emergency care is not well characterised and this limits efforts to further develop emergency care capacity. OBJECTIVE: To define the burden of disease by describing the patient population presenting to the Accident and Emergency Department (A&E) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) in Kenya...
October 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992220/blood-pressure-and-arterial-stiffness-in-kenyan-adolescents-with-the-sickle-cell-trait
#16
Anthony O Etyang, Christopher K Wandabwa, Sailoki Kapesa, Esther Muthumbi, Emily Odipo, Marylene Wamukoya, Nicholas Ngomi, Tilahun Haregu, Catherine Kyobutungi, Thomas N Williams, Johnstone Makale, Alex Macharia, J Kennedy Cruickshank, Liam Smeeth, J Anthony G Scott
The potential association between sickle cell trait (SCT) and increased arterial stiffness/blood pressure (BP) has not been evaluated in detail despite its association with stroke, sudden death and renal disease. We performed 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring and arterial stiffness measurements in adolescents raised in a malaria free environment in Kenya.Between December 2015 and June 2016, 938 randomly selected adolescents that had been continuous residents of Nairobi from birth were invited to participate in the study...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983133/public-drinking-venues-as-risk-environments-commercial-sex-alcohol-and-violence-in-a-large-informal-settlement-in-nairobi-kenya
#17
Eric Abella Roth, Cecilia Benoit, Mikael Jansson, Helga Hallsgrimdottir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Human Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981667/identifying-gaps-in-hiv-policy-and-practice-along-the-hiv-care-continuum-evidence-from-a-national-policy-review-and-health-facility-surveys-in-urban-and-rural-kenya
#18
Caoimhe Cawley, Ellen McRobie, Samuel Oti, Brian Njamwea, Amek Nyaguara, Frank Odhiambo, Fredrick Otieno, Muthoni Njage, Tara Shoham, Kathryn Church, Paul Mee, Jim Todd, Basia Zaba, Georges Reniers, Alison Wringe
The last decade has seen rapid evolution in guidance from the WHO concerning the provision of HIV services along the diagnosis-to-treatment continuum, but the extent to which these recommendations are adopted as national policies in Kenya, and subsequently implemented in health facilities, is not well understood. Identifying gaps in policy coverage and implementation is important for highlighting areas for improving service delivery, leading to better health outcomes. We compared WHO guidance with national policies for HIV testing and counselling, prevention of mother-to-child transmission, HIV treatment and retention in care...
November 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965304/piloting-a-livestock-identification-and-traceability-system-in-the-northern-tanzania-narok-nairobi-trade-route
#19
Florence Mutua, Absolomon Kihara, Jason Rogena, Nicholas Ngwili, Gabriel Aboge, James Wabacha, Bernard Bett
We designed and piloted a livestock identification and traceability system (LITS) along the Northern Tanzania-Narok-Nairobi beef value chain. Animals were randomly selected and identified at the primary markets using uniquely coded ear tags. Data on identification, ownership, source (village), and the site of recruitment (primary market) were collected and posted to an online database. Similar data were collected in all the markets where tagged animals passed through until they got to defined slaughterhouses...
September 30, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948950/a-mini-review-of-bunyaviruses-recorded-in-india
#20
REVIEW
Pragya D Yadav, Gouri Y Chaubal, Anita M Shete, Devendra T Mourya
Newly emerging and re-emerging viral infections are of major public health concern. Bunyaviridae family of viruses comprises a large group of animal viruses. Clinical symptoms exhibited by persons infected by viruses belonging to this family vary from mild-to-severe diseases i.e., febrile illness, encephalitis, haemorrhagic fever and acute respiratory illness. Several arthropods-borne viruses have been discovered and classified at serological level in India in the past. Some of these are highly pathogenic as the recent emergence and spread of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus and presence of antibodies against Hantavirus in humans in India have provided evidences that it may become one of the emerging diseases in this country...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
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