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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533829/clinical-analysis-of-aqueductal-stenosis-in-patients-with-hydrocephalus-in-a-kenyan-setting
#1
Loyal Poonamjeet Kaur, Nderitu Joseph Munyiri, Wekesa Vincent Dismus
INTRODUCTION: Aqueductal stenosis is the commonest cause of congenital hydrocephalus. The scope of this paper is to highlight the disease burden of hydrocephalus attributed to aqueductal stenosis which still remains unknown in our setting. METHODS: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 258 records of patients diagnosed with hydrocephalus were analyzed after ethical approval from Kenyatta National Hospital- University of Nairobi (KNH-UON) ethics and research committee from January 2010 to May 2016...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527687/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-typhoid-conjugate-vaccines-in-five-endemic-low-and-middle-income-settings
#2
Marina Antillón, Joke Bilcke, A David Paltiel, Virginia E Pitzer
BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever remains endemic in low- and middle-income countries. Programmatic use of existing vaccines is limited, but upcoming typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs) could warrant wider use. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of five TCV delivery strategies in three urban areas (Delhi and Kolkata, India and Nairobi, Kenya) and two rural settings (Lwak, Kenya and Dong Thap, Vietnam) with varying incidence. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated routine infant vaccination with and without catch-up campaigns among older individuals...
May 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521748/contextualizing-willingness-to-participate-recommendations-for-engagement-recruitment-enrolment-of-kenyan-msm-in-future-hiv-prevention-trials
#3
Monika Doshi, Lisa Avery, Ronnie P Kaddu, Mary Gichuhi, Gloria Gakii, Elsabé du Plessis, Sumit Dutta, Shamshad Khan, Joshua Kimani, Robert R Lorway
BACKGROUND: The HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) continues to expand globally. The addition of an efficacious, prophylactic vaccine to combination prevention offers immense hope, particularly in low- and middle- income countries which bear the greatest global impact. However, in these settings, there is a paucity of vaccine preparedness studies that specifically pertain to MSM. Our study is the first vaccine preparedness study among MSM and female sex workers (FSWs) in Kenya...
May 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492085/self-managing-hiv-aids-cultural-competence-and-health-among-women-in-nairobi-kenya
#4
Toni Copeland
Despite recent efforts to supply antiretroviral therapy, many in Africa are not receiving medication, instead relying on self-management in their attempts to remain healthy. In Kenya, the majority of those infected are women who are below the extreme poverty level. Building on research demonstrating a link between knowledge of HIV/AIDS management and the length of time HIV-positive women have lived in Nairobi, this article uses a cognitive anthropological approach that conceives of culture as shared models and explores the relationship between how well women know a cultural model of self-managing HIV/AIDS and health among women who are not receiving biomedical treatment...
May 11, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489657/the-pattern-of-orbital-fractures-managed-at-two-referral-centers-in-nairobi-kenya
#5
Wayne Manana, Walter A Odhiambo, Mark L Chindia, Kennedy Koech
Orbital fractures are one of the commonest injuries in mid-face trauma and can lead to significant functional and cosmetic defects. This study was aimed at analyzing the pattern of orbital fractures at 2 referral centers in Nairobi. It was a descriptive prospective hospital-based study of the demographics, etiology, clinico-radiological features, and management modalities among patients presenting with orbital fractures at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital and Kenyatta National Referral Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451019/prevalence-aetiology-and-antibiotic-sensitivity-profile-of-asymptomatic-bacteriuria-isolates-from-pregnant-women-in-selected-antenatal-clinic-from-nairobi-kenya
#6
Adelaide Ogutu Ayoyi, Gideon Kikuvi, Christine Bii, Samuel Kariuki
INTRODUCTION: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is the presence of bacteria in urine without apparent symptoms of urinary tract infections. The importance of asymptomatic bacteriuria lies in the insight it provides into symptomatic infections. To determine prevalence, bacterial isolates and Antibiotic Sensitivity Profile of asymptomatic bacterial urinary tract infection in pregnant women in selected clinics in Nairobi. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving women attending antenatal clinic at selected clinics of Nairobi County...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451016/prevalence-and-genetic-diversity-of-rotavirus-infection-in-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-a-hospital-setting-nairobi-kenya-in-post-vaccination-era-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Mary-Theresa Agutu, Julliette Ongus, Janeth Kombich, Rose Kamenwa, James Nyangao, John Kagira, Adelaide Ayoyi Ogutu, Austine Bitek
INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhoea among infants and young children. Each year more than 611 000 children die from rotavirus gastroenteritis, and two million are hospitalized, worldwide. In Kenya, the impact of recent rotavirus vaccinations on morbidities has not been estimated. The study aimed at determining the prevalence and identity of rotavirus strains isolated from rotavirus-associated diarrhoea in vaccinated children presenting with acute gastroenteritis...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445444/pharmaceutical-equivalence-of-clarithromycin-oral-dosage-forms-marketed-in-nairobi-county-kenya
#8
Rebecca O Manani, Kennedy O Abuga, Hezekiah K Chepkwony
Clarithromycin is a broad-spectrum semi-synthetic macrolide indicated for treatment of pneumonias, Helicobacter pylori, and chlamydial and skin infections. The object of this study was to evaluate the pharmaceutical equivalence of 14 generic clarithromycin products marketed in Nairobi County, Kenya, to the innovator products, using in vitro dissolution profiles and similarity factors (f₂). Further, dissolution profiles of four innovator formulations manufactured in different sites were compared. Fourteen clarithromycin tablets/capsules and four suspensions were subjected to assay and comparative dissolution runs at pH 1...
April 26, 2017: Scientia Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427449/urolithiasis-analysis-in-a-multiethnic-population-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-nairobi-kenya
#9
Francis K Wathigo, Alfred Hayombe, Daniel Maina
BACKGROUND: Urolithiasis is a global problem whose incidence is reported to be on the rise across the world. Previously, urolithiasis was reported as being rare among the indigenous African population but recent data suggest otherwise. This study reviewed the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with urolithiasis seen at the Aga Khan University hospital Nairobi (AKUHN) as well as the chemical composition of the stones and the modalities of therapy used. METHODS: This was a retrospective study which utilized patients' clinical and laboratory records from 2013 to 2014...
April 20, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410366/brief-educational-interventions-to-improve-performance-on-novel-quality-metrics-in-ambulatory-settings-in-kenya-a-multi-site-pre-post-effectiveness-trial
#10
Robert Ryan Korom, Stephanie Onguka, Peter Halestrap, Maureen McAlhaney, Mary Adam
BACKGROUND: The quality of primary care delivered in resource-limited settings is low. While some progress has been made using educational interventions, it is not yet clear how to sustainably improve care for common acute illnesses in the outpatient setting. Management of urinary tract infection is particularly important in resource-limited settings, where it is commonly diagnosed and associated with high levels of antimicrobial resistance. We describe an educational programme targeting non-physician health care providers and its effects on various clinical quality metrics for urinary tract infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402150/motivational-and-parental-mediation-factors-related-to-kenyan-adolescents-intake-of-sexual-radio-and-tv-content
#11
Kyalo Wa Ngula, Ann Neville Miller, Hellen K Mberia
Research on the influence of media on youths' sexual behavior in sub-Saharan Africa has focused almost entirely on the effects of multimedia health communication campaigns and edutainment programming. Scholarly literature is nearly silent about the influence of the multiple hours that young people in many sub-Saharan nations spend immersed in increasingly sex-heavy entertainment programming. We surveyed a stratified cluster sample of 437 Nairobi public high school students about motivational and parental mediation factors associated with their exposure to sexual radio and TV content...
April 12, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381468/blood-pressure-and-arterial-stiffness-in-kenyan-adolescents-with-%C3%AE-thalassemia
#12
Anthony O Etyang, Christopher Khayeka-Wandabwa, Sailoki Kapesa, Esther Muthumbi, Emily Odipo, Marylene Wamukoya, Nicholas Ngomi, Tilahun Haregu, Catherine Kyobutungi, Metrine Tendwa, Johnstone Makale, Alex Macharia, J Kennedy Cruickshank, Liam Smeeth, J Anthony G Scott, Thomas N Williams
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have discovered that α-globin is expressed in blood vessel walls where it plays a role in regulating vascular tone. We tested the hypothesis that blood pressure (BP) might differ between normal individuals and those with α(+)thalassemia, in whom the production of α-globin is reduced. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya, among 938 adolescents aged 11 to 17 years. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory BP monitoring and arterial stiffness measurements were performed using an arteriograph device...
April 5, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373971/the-influence-of-an-orthopedic-manual-therapy-residency-program-on-improved-knowledge-psychomotor-skills-and-clinical-reasoning-in-nairobi-kenya
#13
Shala Cunningham, Joni McFelea
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of a post-graduate orthopedic manual therapy residency program in Kenya on the development of physical therapists' (PTs) knowledge and clinical reasoning related to the performance of a musculoskeletal examination and evaluation as compared to an experience-matched control group of PTs waiting to enter the program. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was utilized in which 12 graduating residents and 10 PTs entering the residency program completed a live-patient practical examination to assess the knowledge, clinical reasoning, and psychomotor skills related to the examination and evaluation of musculoskeletal conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364566/identifying-gaps-in-hiv-service-delivery-across-the-diagnosis-to-treatment-cascade-findings-from-health-facility-surveys-in-six-sub-saharan-countries
#14
Kathryn Church, Kazuyo Machiyama, Jim Todd, Brian Njamwea, Mary Mwangome, Vicky Hosegood, Janet Michel, Samuel Oti, Constance Nyamukapa, Amelia Crampin, Nyaguara Amek, Gertrude Nakigozi, Denna Michael, F Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Jessica Nakiyingi-Miiro, Basia Zaba, Alison Wringe
INTRODUCTION: Despite the rollout of antiretroviral therapy (ART), challenges remain in ensuring timely access to care and treatment for people living with HIV. As part of a multi-country study to investigate HIV mortality, we conducted health facility surveys within 10 health and demographic surveillance system sites across six countries in Eastern and Southern Africa to investigate clinic-level factors influencing (i) use of HIV testing services, (ii) use of HIV care and treatment and (iii) patient retention on ART...
January 12, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360249/understanding-the-acceptability-and-adherence-to-paediatric-antiretroviral-treatment-in-the-new-formulation-of-pellets-lpv-r-the-protocol-of-a-realist-evaluation
#15
Ariadna Nebot Giralt, Christiana Nöstlinger, Janice Lee, Olawale Salami, Marc Lallemant, Onyango Ouma, Isaac Nyamongo, Bruno Marchal
BACKGROUND: Improving access to paediatric HIV treatment requires both large-scale treatment programmes and medication that is adapted to infants and children's needs. The WHO recommends lopinavir/ritonavir as first-line antiretroviral therapy for all HIV-infected children younger than 3 years. There is currently little evidence on the acceptability of, and adherence to, a formulation of this combination treatment if given in the form of pellets. This protocol presents how we will carry a realist evaluation to assess the factors that contribute to the acceptability and adherence to the new pellets formulation in 3 hospitals in Kenya...
March 29, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356101/erratum-to-reference-intervals-for-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-and-free-thyroxine-derived-from-neonates-undergoing-routine-screening-for-congenital-hypothyroidism-at-a-university-teaching-hospital-in-nairobi-kenya-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Geoffrey Omuse, Ali Kassim, Francis Kiigu, Syeda Ra'ana Hussain, Mary Limbe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 29, 2017: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334856/evaluating-the-effects-of-organizational-and-educational-interventions-on-adherence-to-clinical-practice-guidelines-in-a-low-resource-primary-care-setting-in-kenya
#17
Joseph R Egger, Kayla Stankevitz, Robert Korom, Philip Angwenyi, Brittney Sullivan, Jun Wang, Sonia Hatfield, Emma Smith, Karishma Popli, Jessica Gross
Background: Mid-level care providers serve as the backbone of primary care in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Despite this, research suggests that the quality and consistency of this care is uneven. This study assessed the degree to which a set of four simple, low-cost interventions could improve adherence to a set of clinical quality measures (CQMs) associated with four common health conditions seen in a resource-constrained primary care setting. Methods: A quasi-experimental, longitudinal study was carried out in three primary care clinics in Nairobi, Kenya from August 2014 to January, 2015...
March 15, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316253/predominance-of-hepatitis-b-virus-genotype-a-among-treated-hiv-infected-patients-experiencing-high-hepatitis-b-virus-drug-resistance-in-nairobi-kenya
#18
Sepha Nyatichi Mabeya, Caroline Ngugi, Raphael Wekesa Lihana, Samoel Ashimosi Khamadi, Anthony Kebira Nyamache
Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-HIV coinfections are becoming common with information on HBV genetic diversity and drug resistance still remaining elusive. To evaluate the HBV genetic diversity and drug resistance-associated mutations among drug-experienced HIV patients, the genetic analysis of the partial HBV-pol-reverse trancriptase gene was successfully sequenced from 13 samples. Analysis of the sequences showed that all (11) the sequences belonged to genotype A. Nucleos(t)ide drug resistance mutations were found in 6 patients...
April 18, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302553/stark-regional-and-sex-differences-in-the-prevalence-and-awareness-of-hypertension-an-h3africa-awi-gen-study-across-6-sites-in-sub-saharan-africa
#19
F Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Stuart A Ali, Felix Made, Catherine Kyobutungi, Engelbert Nonterah, Lisa Micklesfield, Marianne Alberts, Romuald Boua, Scott Hazelhurst, Cornelius Debpuur, Felistas Mashinya, Sekgothe Dikotope, Hermann Sorgho, Ian Cook, Stella Muthuri, Cassandra Soo, Freedom Mukomana, Godfred Agongo, Christopher Wandabwa, Sulaimon Afolabi, Abraham Oduro, Halidou Tinto, Ryan G Wagner, Tilahun Haregu, Alisha Wade, Kathleen Kahn, Shane A Norris, Nigel J Crowther, Stephen Tollman, Osman Sankoh, Michèle Ramsay
BACKGROUND: There is a high prevalence of hypertension and related cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa, yet few large studies exploring hypertension in Africa are available. The actual burden of disease is poorly understood and awareness and treatment to control it is often suboptimal. OBJECTIVES: The study sought to report the prevalence of measured hypertension and to assess awareness and control of blood pressure among older adults in rural and urban settings in 6 sites located in West, East, and Southern Africa...
March 13, 2017: Global Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293286/who-seeks-child-and-adolescent-mental-health-care-in-kenya-a-descriptive-clinic-profile-at-a-tertiary-referral-facility
#20
Judy Wanjiru Kamau, Olayinka O Omigbodun, Tolulope Bella-Awusah, Babatunde Adedokun
BACKGROUND: The presence of psychiatric morbidity in the child and adolescent age group is demonstrable in various studies conducted in various settings in Kenya. This study set out to determine the psychiatric morbidity and socio-demographic profile of patients who eventually present for care at a tertiary specialist child and adolescent mental health clinic in Kenya. Knowledge of the patterns of presentation of disorders is crucial for planning of service scale up as well as serving as a useful training guide...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
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