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Kishore P Madhwani, P K Nag
Background: Use of laptops and hand-held devices increase the risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). More time spent on this activity adopting faulty postures, higher the risk of developing such injuries. This study addresses training on office ergonomics with emphasis on sustainable behavior change among employees to work in safe postures, as this is a top priority in the corporate environment, today. Aim: To explore training intervention methods that ensure wider coverage of awareness on office ergonomics, thereby promoting safer working and suggesting sustainable programs for behavior change and job enrichment...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Patrick K Malonza, David M Mulwa, Joash O Nyamache, Georgina Jones
The Shimba Hills ecosystem along the south coast of Kenya is a key East African biodiversity hotspot. Historically, it is biogeographically assignable to the East African coastal biome. We examined the current Shimba Hills herpetofauna and their zoogeographical affinities to the coastal forests and nearby Eastern Arc Mountains biodiversity hotspots. The key studied sites included the Shimba Hills National Reserve, forest reserves, Kaya forests, and adjacent private land. Data on herpetofaunal richness were obtained from recent field surveys, literature, and specimens held at the National Museums of Kenya, Herpetology Section Collection, Nairobi...
March 18, 2018: Zoological Research
Ravi Prakash, Parinita Bhattacharjee, Andrea Blanchard, Helgar Musyoki, John Anthony, Joshua Kimani, Gloria Gakii, Martin Sirengo, Nicholas Muraguri, Elizabeth Mziray, Lombe Kasonde, James Blanchard, Shajy Isac, Stephen Moses
While Kenya has had a long-standing national HIV-prevention programme, evidence on the level of exposure to its interventions and related effects on behavioural changes among female sex workers (FSWs) is limited. Using cross-sectional behavioural data collected in 2013 from 1 357 FSWs aged 18 years and above in Nairobi, Kenya, this study explores the relationship between FSW programme exposure levels and behavioural outcomes including condom use, sexually transmitted infection (STI)-treatment, and empowerment measures like disclosure of self-identity and violence reporting...
March 8, 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Edith Van't Hof, Katie S Dawson, Alison Schafer, Anna Chiumento, Melissa Harper Shehadeh, Marit Sijbrandij, Richard A Bryant, Dorothy Anjuri, Phiona Koyiet, Lincoln Ndogoni, Jeannette Ulate, Mark van Ommeren
Background: Problem Management Plus (PM+) is a brief multicomponent intervention incorporating behavioral strategies delivered by lay health workers. The effectiveness of PM+ has been evaluated in randomized controlled trials in Kenya and Pakistan. When developing interventions for large-scale implementation it is considered essential to evaluate their feasibility and acceptability in addition to their efficacy. This paper discusses a qualitative evaluation of PM+ for women affected by adversity in Kenya...
2018: Global Mental Health
Pauline W Ng'ang'a, Muthoni Mathai, Anne Obondo, Teresia Mutavi, Manasi Kumar
Background: Psychiatric morbidity is commonly associated with HIV disease and may have adverse effects. This aspect may be overlooked at comprehensive HIV care centers in Low and Middle-Income Countries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of undetected psychiatric morbidity among HIV/AIDS adult patients attending Comprehensive Care Centre in a semi-urban clinic, in Nairobi, Kenya. Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study of adult HIV patients not receiving any psychiatric treatment was conducted...
2018: Annals of General Psychiatry
Robert Lorway, Lisa Lazarus, Claudyne Chevrier, Shamshad Khan, Helgar K Musyoki, John Mathenge, Peninah Mwangi, Pascal Macharia, Parinita Bhattacharjee, Shajy Isac, Joshua Kimani, Gloria Gaaki, Marissa Becker, Stephen Moses, James Blanchard
This paper highlights important environmental dimensions of HIV vulnerability by describing how the sex trade operates in Nairobi, Kenya. Although sex workers there encounter various forms of violence and harassment, as do sex workers globally, we highlight how they do not merely fall victim to a set of environmental risks but also act upon their social environment, thereby remaking it, as they strive to protect their health and financial interests. In so doing, we illustrate the mutual constitution of 'agency' and 'structure' in social network formations that take shape in everyday lived spaces...
March 5, 2018: Global Public Health
Njoroge Kamau, Haron Njiru
Kenya has undergone rapid urbanization as people migrate to the cities in search of economic opportunities. This has given rise to informal settlements characterized by overcrowding, poor infrastructure, and inadequate social amenities. A cross-sectional study on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) status was carried out in Mathare, an informal settlement in Nairobi. A random sample of 380 households was used. The average household size was five people, and 26% of the household heads had completed secondary or higher level of education...
2018: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Shelley Clark, Sangeetha Madhavan, Cassandra Cotton, Donatien Beguy, Caroline Kabiru
Single mothers often turn to their extended kin for financial assistance and to help with child care. Such support may be especially important in areas of high poverty and poor environmental conditions. Using novel kinship data, this paper assesses the extent of support given by over 3,000 relatives to 462 single mothers living in a slum area of Nairobi, Kenya. Contrary to stereotypes about families in sub-Saharan Africa, the active kin network of single mothers is relatively small and nearly a fifth of mothers do not receive any financial or child care assistance...
August 2017: Journal of Marriage and the Family
Alexandre Lockhart, Matt Psioda, Jie Ting, Sara Campbell, Nelly Mugo, Jessie Kwatampora, Michael Chitwa, Joshua Kimani, Anne Gakure, Jennifer S Smith
BACKGROUND: To examine the agreement between sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening using self-collected specimens and physician-collected specimens, and to investigate the acceptability of self-collection for screening in an 18-month study of female sex-workers (FSW) in a high-risk, low-resource setting. METHODS: A total of 350 FSW in Nairobi, Kenya participated in a prospective study from 2009-2011. Women self-collected a cervico-vaginal specimen. Next, a physician conducted a pelvic examination to obtain a cervical specimen...
January 2, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Tim Rhodes
This analysis treats the recent introduction of methadone treatment in Kenya as a case of 'evidence-making intervention'. Using 30 qualitative interviews with people in receipt of methadone treatment in Nairobi, Kenya, methadone's becoming is treated as an effect of its narrative and material implementations. The interviews are shown to enact a narrative of methadone recovery potential towards normalcy beyond addiction. Such recovery potential is materialised in practice through social interactions wherein methadone's embodied effects are seen to be believed...
February 10, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Innocent Ouko, James Kigera, Kevin Ongeti, Anne Pulei
PURPOSE: Meniscal tears are common in Kenya, with prevalence rates ranging from 45 to 78% of intracapsular knee pathology. Diagnosis of these injuries relies on the use of both clinical signs and symptoms as well as radiological investigations. In a few instances, radiological detection could be difficult, partly because of variant attachment patterns of the medial meniscal anterior horn. Some of these unusual attachments of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus could even be mistaken for meniscal tears...
February 16, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Joseph Kabogo, Erastus Muniu, Fred Wamunyokoli, Rachel Musoke, Elijah Songok
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the efficacy of the World Health Organization (WHO) "Universal Test and Treat" (UTT) policy, initiated in Kenya in September 2016. Under this policy, every human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected person should be initiated on antiretroviral therapy (ART). We compared intra- and inter-group viral suppression and ART adherence rates for pre-UTT (initiated on ART in March-August 2016) and UTT groups (initiated in September 2016)...
February 17, 2018: BMC Research Notes
George Ongete, Francis John Raymond Duffy
BACKGROUND: Infection as a consequence of splash sharps and needlestick injuries (SSNIs) is a hazard faced by healthcare workers. Little is known about the impact this has on quality of life particularly in countries where the risk of infection is high. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the impact SSNIs have on the quality of life of healthcare workers in Kenya, where blood borne illness prevalence is high. METHODS: A hospital-wide survey of a facility in Nairobi was conducted...
2018: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
H R Otsyina, J Nguhiu-Mwangi, E G M Mogoa, P G Mbuthia, W O Ogara
The objective of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices of people in the Nairobi and Kajiado Counties, Kenya, on the usage, disposal, and effect of plastic waste on sheep and goats (shoats). A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 384 respondents in four communities in the two counties. Most of the people irrespective of their age, occupation, and educational status used plastic bags of some type on a daily basis. A high proportion of the respondents (37.0%, 142) used plastic bags because of the low cost...
February 8, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Steve Kyende Mutiso, Alfred Murage, Abraham Mwaniki Mukaindo
BACKGROUND: Miscarriages are a common pregnancy complication affecting about 10-15% of pregnancies. Miscarriages may be associated with a myriad of psychiatric morbidity at various timelines after the event. Depression has been shown to affect about 10-20% of all women following a miscarriage. However, no data exists in the local setting informing on the prevalence of post-miscarriage depression. We set out to determine the prevalence of positive depression screen among women who have experienced a miscarriage at the Aga Khan University hospital, Nairobi...
February 5, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Diana Marangu, Hannah Mwaniki, Salome Nduku, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Walter Jaoko, Joseph Babigumira, Grace John-Stewart, Deepa Rao
Objective: To adapt a validated instrument that quantitatively measures stigma among English/Swahili speaking TB (tuberculosis) patients in Kenya, a high burden TB country. Methods: Following ethical approval, we elicited feedback on the English and Swahili translated Stigma Scale for Chronic Illness (SSCI) tools through cognitive interviews. We assessed difficulties in translation, differences in meaning, TB contextual relevance, patients' acceptability to the questions, and issues in tool structure...
November 2017: Stigma and Health
Joseph K Wanjeri, Mary Kinoti, Tom H A M Olewe
INTRODUCTION: Burn injuries are some of the most physically and psychologically devastating forms of trauma and most common injuries affecting children, especially in the home environment. They are more prevalent and are a public health problem in developing countries mainly because of poor socio-economic conditions. Effective prevention programs should be guided by the results of well-designed studies aimed at investigating risk factors for burns. STUDY OBJECTIVE: To establish the risk factors for burn injuries among patients hospitalized at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH)...
January 29, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Moritz U G Kraemer, Oliver J Brady, Alexander Watts, Matthew German, Simon I Hay, Kamran Khan, Isaac I Bogoch
Background: Cases of Zika virus were recently detected in Luanda, Angola, a major travel hub in Africa. The risk of Zika virus transmission throughout the continent from Angola is evaluated. Methods: Travel volumes were assessed using monthly passenger-level flight data from Luanda to all locations throughout Africa. Travel data was superimposed onto seasonal environmental suitability maps that predict the potential for subsequent Zika virus transmission. Results and Conclusions: Windhoek, Maputo, Durban and Kinshasa have the greatest potential for Zika virus introduction and transmission during the southern hemisphere summer months, and Nairobi during the northern hemisphere summer months...
January 31, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Francis Lesilau, Myrthe Fonck, Maria Gatta, Charles Musyoki, Maarten van 't Zelfde, Gerard A Persoon, Kees C J M Musters, Geert R de Snoo, Hans H de Iongh
The global lion (Panthera leo) population decline is partly a result of retaliatory killing in response to livestock depredation. Nairobi National Park (NNP) is a small protected area in Kenya surrounded by a human-dominated landscape. Communities around the park use flashlights to deter lions from their livestock bomas. We investigated the response by lions to the installation of a LED flashlight technique during 2007-2016.We interviewed 80 owners of livestock bomas with flashlights (n = 43) and without (n = 37) flashlights in the surroundings of NNP and verified reported attacks on bomas against predation data over10 years...
2018: PloS One
Ruvani T Jayaweera, Felistah Mbithe Ngui, Kelli Stidham Hall, Caitlin Gerdts
BACKGROUND: Safe and legal abortions are rarely practiced in the public health sector in Kenya, and rates of maternal mortality and morbidity from unsafe abortion is high. Little is known about women's experiences seeking and accessing abortion in informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: Seven focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 71 women and girls recruited from an informal settlement in Nairobi. The interview guide explored participants' perceptions of unplanned pregnancy, abortion, and access to sexual and reproductive health information in their community...
2018: PloS One
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