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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345603/association-between-household-food-security-and-infant-feeding-practices-in-urban-informal-settlements-in-nairobi-kenya
#1
T N Macharia, S Ochola, M K Mutua, E W Kimani-Murage
Studies in urban informal settlements show widespread inappropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices and high rates of food insecurity. This study assessed the association between household food security and IYCF practices in two urban informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. The study adopted a longitudinal design that involved a census sample of 1110 children less than 12 months of age and their mothers aged between 12 and 49 years. A questionnaire was used to collect information on: IYCF practices and household food security...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342452/estimated-effect-of-temperature-on-years-of-life-lost-a-retrospective-time-series-study-of-low-middle-and-high-income-regions
#2
Maquins Odhiambo Sewe, Aditi Bunker, Vijendra Ingole, Thaddaeus Egondi, Daniel Oudin Åström, David M Hondula, Joacim Rocklöv, Barbara Schumann
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have reported a strong association between temperature and mortality. Additional insights can be gained from investigating the effects of temperature on years of life lost (YLL), considering the life expectancy at the time of death. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this work was to assess the association between temperature and YLL at seven low-, middle-, and high-income sites. METHODS: We obtained meteorological and population data for at least nine years from four Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites in Kenya (western Kenya, Nairobi), Burkina Faso (Nouna), and India (Vadu), as well as data from cities in the United States (Philadelphia, Phoenix) and Sweden (Stockholm)...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284522/dengue-and-yellow-fever-virus-vectors-seasonal-abundance-diversity-and-resting-preferences-in-three-kenyan-cities
#3
Sheila B Agha, David P Tchouassi, Armanda D S Bastos, Rosemary Sang
BACKGROUND: The transmission patterns of dengue (DENV) and yellow fever (YFV) viruses, especially in urban settings, are influenced by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquito abundance and behavior. Despite recurrent dengue outbreaks on the Kenyan coast, these parameters remain poorly defined in this and other areas of contrasting dengue endemicity in Kenya. In assessing the transmission risk of DENV/YFV in three Kenyan cities, we determined adult abundance and resting habits of potential Aedes (Stegomyia) vectors in Kilifi (dengue-outbreak prone), and Nairobi and Kisumu (no dengue outbreaks reported)...
December 29, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284306/coverage-and-consumption-of-micronutrient-powders-fortified-staples-and-iodized-salt-among-children-aged-6-to-23-months-in-selected-neighborhoods-of-nairobi-county-kenya
#4
Magali Leyvraz, Dorcus M David-Kigaru, Catherine Macharia-Mutie, Grant J Aaron, Marlene Roefs, Alison Tumilowicz
BACKGROUND: Intake of micronutrient-rich foods among children aged 6 to 23 months in Nairobi is low. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess existing coverage and utilization of micronutrient powders (MNPs), fortified staples, and iodized salt among children aged 6 to 23 months prior to implementation of an MNP program. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey among caregivers of children aged 6 to 23 months (n = 618) was implemented in 7 neighborhoods within Nairobi County, representing the implementation area of the new MNP program...
January 1, 2017: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281137/gender-and-enterprise-in-fragile-refugee-settings-female-empowerment-amidst-male-emasculation-a-challenge-to-local-integration
#5
Holly A Ritchie
This paper examines gender and enterprise in fragile refugee settings. Building on previous research in Afghanistan, it analyses refugee women's evolving economic lives and enterprise initiatives and related social dynamics in refugee communities. Case studies look specifically at two Islamic refugee contexts: Nairobi, Kenya (Somali refugees), and Irbid and Zarqa, Jordan (Syrian refugees). The discussion spotlights the precarious nature of refugee women's new practices and work norms under forced and strained circumstances, without a process of negotiation with male family members...
January 2018: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280769/disclosure-consent-opportunity-costs-and-inaccurate-risk-assessment-deter-pediatric-hiv-testing-a-mixed-methods-study
#6
Anjuli D Wagner, Gabrielle O'malley, Olivia Firdawsi, Cyrus Mugo, Irene N Njuguna, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Irene W Inwani, Dalton C Wamalwa, Grace C John-Stewart, Jennifer A Slyker
(250/250 words) BACKGROUND:: Prompt child HIV testing and treatment is critical; however, children are often not diagnosed until symptomatic. Understanding factors that influence pediatric HIV testing can inform strategies to increase testing. METHODS: A mixed-methods study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Three focus group discussions with health care workers (HCW) and 18 in-depth interviews with HIV-infected adults with children of unknown status were analyzed using thematic analysis...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258549/effectiveness-of-home-based-nutritional-counselling-and-support-on-exclusive-breastfeeding-in-urban-poor-settings-in-nairobi-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Elizabeth W Kimani-Murage, Paula L Griffiths, Frederick Murunga Wekesah, Milka Wanjohi, Nelson Muhia, Peter Muriuki, Thaddaeus Egondi, Catherine Kyobutungi, Alex C Ezeh, Stephen T McGarvey, Rachel N Musoke, Shane A Norris, Nyovani J Madise
BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) improves infant health and survival. We tested the effectiveness of a home-based intervention using Community Health Workers (CHWs) on EBF for six months in urban poor settings in Kenya. METHODS: We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Korogocho and Viwandani slums in Nairobi. We recruited pregnant women and followed them until the infant's first birthday. Fourteen community clusters were randomized to intervention or control arm...
December 19, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258342/gender-differences-in-health-related-quality-of-life-at-the-time-of-a-positive-hiv-test-a-cross-sectional-study-in-a-resource-poor-high-prevalence-setting-in%C3%A2-nairobi-kenya
#8
Mia L van der Kop, Samuel Muhula, Anik Patel, Lehana Thabane, Patricia Awiti, Lennie Kyomuhangi, Bonface Abunah, Patrick I Nagide, Kirsten Smillie, David I Ojakaa, Joshua Kimani, Anna Mia Ekström, Richard T Lester
Few studies have examined gender differences in sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV disproportionately affects women. Objectives of this cross-sectional study were to determine gender differences in HRQoL at the time of a positive HIV test, and whether factors associated with HRQoL differed between men and women. Adults testing HIV-positive were recruited from two clinics located in informal settlements. HRQoL was measured with the SF-12. Multiple linear regression was used to test whether there were gender differences in physical (PCS) and mental composite summary (MCS) scores...
December 19, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225937/use-of-standardised-patients-to-assess-quality-of-healthcare-in-nairobi-kenya-a-pilot-cross-sectional-study-with-international-comparisons
#9
Benjamin Daniels, Amy Dolinger, Guadalupe Bedoya, Khama Rogo, Ana Goicoechea, Jorge Coarasa, Francis Wafula, Njeri Mwaura, Redemptar Kimeu, Jishnu Das
Introduction: The quality of clinical care can be reliably measured in multiple settings using standardised patients (SPs), but this methodology has not been extensively used in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study validates the use of SPs for a variety of tracer conditions in Nairobi, Kenya, and provides new results on the quality of care in sampled primary care clinics. Methods: We deployed 14 SPs in private and public clinics presenting either asthma, child diarrhoea, tuberculosis or unstable angina...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224691/musculoskeletal-health-conditions-among-older-populations-in-urban-slums-in-sub-saharan-africa
#10
REVIEW
Isabella Aboderin, Agnes Nanyonjo
BACKGROUND: Debate on the burden of musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions in lower and middle income countries is intensifying; yet, little knowledge so far exists on patterns and impacts of such conditions among general or older adult populations in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The objectives of this study are to examine the prevalence, potential predictors, and sequelae of MSK among older adults residing in two low resource informal urban settlements or "slums" in Nairobi Kenya. METHODS: Data on older adults aged 60 years and over from two unrelated cross-sectional surveys on the older slum populations are used: a 2006/7 survey on the social, health, and overall well-being of older people (sample N = 831), and a 2016 survey on realities and impacts of long-term care and social protection for older adults (sample n = 1026)...
April 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197397/the-heat-goes-away-sexual-disorders-of-married-women-with-female-genital-mutilation-cutting-in-kenya
#11
Tammary Esho, Samuel Kimani, Isaac Nyamongo, Violet Kimani, Samuel Muniu, Christine Kigondu, Patrick Ndavi, Jaldesa Guyo
BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) has been implicated in sexual complications among women, although there is paucity of research evidence on sexual experiences among married women who have undergone this cultural practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the sexual experiences among married women in Mauche Ward, Nakuru County. METHODS: Quantitative and qualitative data collection methods were used. Quantitative data were obtained from 318 married women selected through multistage sampling...
December 2, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187954/application-of-psychosocial-models-to-home-based-testing-and-counseling-hbtc-for-increased-uptake-and-household-coverage-in-a-large-informal-urban-settlement-in-kenya
#12
Patricia Oluoch, James Orwa, Fillet Lugalia, David Mutinda, Anthony Gichangi, Joseph Oundo, Mohamed Karama, Zipporah Nganga, Jennifer Galbraith
Introduction: Home Based Testing and Counselling (HBTC) aims at reaching individuals who have low HIV risk perception and experience barriers which prevent them from seeking HIV testing and counseling (HTC) services. Saturating the community with HTC is needed to achieve the ambitious 90-90-90 targets of knowledge of HIV status, ARV treatment and viral suppression. This paper describes the use of health belief model and community participation principles in HBTC to achieve increased household coverage and HTC uptake...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184373/occurrence-treatment-protocols-and-outcomes-of-colic-in-horses-within-nairobi-county-kenya
#13
Anderson Gitari, James Nguhiu, Vijay Varma, Eddy Mogoa
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the treatments and their outcomes in horses with colic in Nairobi County, Kenya. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study to determine the occurrence, treatments, pain management, and outcomes of colic in horses in Nairobi County. Association between pain management protocols and the outcomes of colic with regard to recovery or death was also determined. Data collected from four equine practitioners were organized manually and given numerical codes as appropriate to facilitate entry into the computer...
October 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177099/estimating-the-need-for-inpatient-neonatal-services-an-iterative-approach-employing-evidence-and-expert-consensus-to-guide-local-policy-in-kenya
#14
REVIEW
Georgina A V Murphy, Donald Waters, Paul O Ouma, David Gathara, Sasha Shepperd, Robert W Snow, Mike English
Universal access to quality newborn health services will be essential to meeting specific Sustainable Development Goals to reduce neonatal and overall child mortality. Data for decision making are crucial for planning services and monitoring progress in these endeavours. However, gaps in local population-level and facility-based data hinder estimation of health service requirements for effective planning in many low-income and middle-income settings. We worked with local policy makers and experts in Nairobi City County, an area with a population of four million and the highest neonatal mortality rate amongst counties in Kenya, to address this gap, and developed a systematic approach to use available data to support policy and planning...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164137/urban-livestock-keeping-in-the-city-of-nairobi-diversity-of-production-systems-supply-chains-and-their-disease-management-and-risks
#15
Pablo Alarcon, Eric M Fèvre, Patrick Muinde, Maurice K Murungi, Stella Kiambi, James Akoko, Jonathan Rushton
Urban livestock keeping in developing cities have an important role in food security and livelihoods but can also pose a significant threat to the environment and health of urban dwellers. The aim of this study was to identify the different livestock systems in Nairobi, their supply chains, and their management and food safety risks. Seven focus group discussions with livestock production officers in charge of each major Nairobi sub-county were conducted. Data were collected on the type of systems existing for each livestock species and their supply chains, disease management, food safety risks, and general husbandry and gender factors...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161827/mathematical-analysis-of-a-weather-driven-model-for-the-population-ecology-of-mosquitoes
#16
Kamaldeen Okuneye, Ahmed Abdelrazec, Abba B Gumel
A new deterministic model for the population biology of immature and mature mosquitoes is designed and used to assess the impact of temperature and rainfall on the abundance of mosquitoes in a community. The trivial equilibrium of the model is globally-asymptotically stable when the associated vectorial reproduction number (R0) is less than unity. In the absence of density-dependence mortality in the larval stage, the autonomous version of the model has a unique and globally-asymptotically stable non-trivial equilibrium whenever 1 andlt;R0 andlt;RC0 (this equilibrium bifurcates into a limit cycle, via a Hopf bifurcation at R0=RC0)...
February 1, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150377/urgent-versus-post-stabilisation-antiretroviral-treatment-in-hospitalised-hiv-infected-children-in-kenya-push-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Irene N Njuguna, Lisa M Cranmer, Vincent O Otieno, Cyrus Mugo, Hellen M Okinyi, Sarah Benki-Nugent, Barbra Richardson, Joshua Stern, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Dalton C Wamalwa, Grace C John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Urgent antiretroviral therapy (ART) among hospitalised HIV-infected children might accelerate recovery or worsen outcomes associated with immune reconstitution. We aimed to compare urgent versus post-stabilisation ART among hospitalised HIV-infected children in Kenya. METHODS: In this unmasked randomised controlled trial, we randomly assigned (1:1) HIV-infected, ART-naive children aged 0-12 years who were eligible for treatment to receive ART within 48 h (urgent group) or in 7-14 days (post-stabilisation group) at four hospitals in Kenya (two in Nairobi and two in western Kenya)...
January 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141612/individual-level-and-community-level-determinants-of-cervical-cancer-screening-among-kenyan-women-a-multilevel-analysis-of-a-nationwide-survey
#18
Fentanesh Nibret Tiruneh, Kun-Yang Chuang, Peter Austin Morton Ntenda, Ying-Chih Chuang
BACKGROUND: Studies on the determinants of cervical cancer screening in sub-Saharan Africa have focused mostly on individual-level characteristics of cervical cancer screening. Therefore, in this study, we included both individual- and community-level indicators to examine the determinants of cervical cancer screening among Kenyan women. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys. Our analysis focused on 9016 married women of reproductive age (15-49 years)...
November 15, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138653/the-incidence-of-first-line-antiretroviral-treatment-changes-and-related-factors-among-hiv-infected-sex-workers-in-nairobi-kenya
#19
Frank Ndaks Ndakala, Julius Otieno Oyugi, Margaret Ng'wono Oluka, Joshua Kimani, Georg Martin Norbert Behrens
Introduction: In many settings, several factors including adverse drug reactions and clinical failure can limit treatment choices for combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). The aim of the study was to describe the incidence of first-line cART changes and associated factors in a cohort of Kenyan sex workers. Methods: This was a retrospective review of medical records collected from 2009 to 2013. The review included records of HIV-infected patients aged ≥ 18 years, who received either stavudine or zidovudine or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-based regimens...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137506/measuring-the-impact-of-cash-transfers-and-behavioral-nudges-on-maternity-care-in-nairobi-kenya
#20
Jessica Cohen, Claire Rothschild, Ginger Golub, George N Omondi, Margaret E Kruk, Margaret McConnell
Many patients in low-income countries express preferences for high-quality health care but often end up with low-quality providers. We conducted a randomized controlled trial with pregnant women in Nairobi, Kenya, to analyze whether cash transfers, enhanced with behavioral "nudges," can help women deliver in facilities that are consistent with their preferences and are of higher quality. We tested two interventions. The first was a labeled cash transfer (LCT), which explained that the cash was to help women deliver where they wanted...
November 2017: Health Affairs
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