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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089133/-you-have-a-swelling-the-language-of-cancer-diagnosis-and-implications-for-cancer-management-in-kenya
#1
Jennifer Nyawira Githaiga, Leslie Swartz
OBJECTIVE: To examine the ramifications of language as a vehicle of communication in the Kenyan healthcare system. METHODS: (1) A review of literature search on language access and health care in Kenya, using Scopus, Web of Science, Ebscohost, ProQuest and Google Scholar electronic databases. (2) Two illustrative case studies from a Nairobi based qualitative research project on family cancer caregivers' experiences. RESULTS: Evidence from the case studies shows that language barriers may hinder understanding of cancer diagnoses and consequently, the nature of interventions sought by family members as informal caregivers of cancer patients...
January 10, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068781/complex-subtype-diversity-of-hiv-1-among-drug-users-in-major-kenyan-cities
#2
Kamini Gounder, Micah Oyaro, Nagavelli Padayachi, Thando Mbali Zulu, Tulio de Oliveira, John Wylie, Thumbi Ndung'u
Drug users are increasingly recognized as a key population driving HIV spread in sub-Saharan Africa. To determine HIV-1 subtypes circulating in this population group and explore possible geographic differences, we analyzed HIV-1 sequences among drug users from Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu in Kenya. We sequenced gag and env from 55 drug users. Subtype analysis from 220 gag clonal sequences from 54/55 participants (median=4/participant) showed that 44.4% were A, 16.7% were C, 3.7% were D and 35.2% were intersubtype recombinants...
January 9, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056893/demographic-profile-and-pattern-of-fatal-injuries-in-nairobi-kenya-january-june-2014
#3
Gladwell Koku Gathecha, Wilfred Mwai Githinji, Alfred Karagu Maina
BACKGROUND: Violence and Injuries are a significant global public health concern characterized by marked regional variation in incidence. Approximately five million people die from injuries each year, accounting 9% of all deaths worldwide. In Kenya, injuries are increasingly becoming a cause of hospital admissions and mortality where they account for 10% of all the deaths. The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude, demographic profile and pattern of fatal injuries in Nairobi...
January 6, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003285/nairobi-newborn-study-a-protocol-for-an-observational-study-to-estimate-the-gaps-in-provision-and-quality-of-inpatient-newborn-care-in-nairobi-city-county-kenya
#4
Georgina A V Murphy, David Gathara, Jalemba Aluvaala, Jacintah Mwachiro, Nancy Abuya, Paul Ouma, Robert W Snow, Mike English
INTRODUCTION: Progress has been made in Kenya towards reducing child mortality as part of efforts aligned with the fourth Millennium Development Goal. However, little advancement has been made in reducing mortality among newborns, which now accounts for 45% of all child deaths. The frequently unanticipated nature of neonatal illness, its severity and the high dependency of sick newborns on skilled care make the provision of inpatient hospital services one key component of strategies to improve newborn survival...
December 21, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977561/risk-factors-for-hypoxia-and-tachypnea-among-adolescents-with-vertically-acquired-hiv-in-nairobi
#5
Engi F Attia, Noel S Weiss, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Christine J McGrath, Anthony Cagle, T Eoin West, Neveen G El Antouny, Fr Mena Attwa, Kristina Crothers, Michael H Chung
BACKGROUND: Chronic lung diseases are increasingly recognized complications of vertically-acquired HIV among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa and may manifest with hypoxia or tachypnea. We sought to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for hypoxia and tachypnea among adolescents with vertically-acquired HIV in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 258 adolescents with vertically-acquired HIV who were initiating care at the Coptic Hope Center for Infectious Diseases...
December 12, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974542/evaluation-of-the-parasight-platform-for-malaria-diagnosis
#6
Yochay Eshel, Arnon Houri-Yafin, Hagai Benkuzari, Natalie Lezmy, Mamta Soni, Malini Charles, Jayanthi Swaminathan, Hilda Solomon, Pavithra Sampathkumar, Zul Premji, Caroline Mbithi, Zaitun Nneka, Simon Onsongo, Daniel Maina, Sarah Levy-Schreier, Caitlin Lee Cohen, Dan Gluck, Joseph Joel Pollak, Seth J Salpeter
The WHO estimates that nearly 500 million malaria tests are performed annually. While microscopy and RDTs are the main diagnostic approaches, no single solution is inexpensive, rapid and highly accurate. Two recent studies from our group have demonstrated a prototype computer vision platform that meets these needs. Here we present the results from two clinical studies on the commercially available version of this technology, the SightDx Parasight platform which provides malaria diagnosis, species identification and parasite quantification...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931248/postpartum-depression-and-infant-feeding-practices-in-a-low-income-urban-settlement-in-nairobi-kenya
#7
Beatrice A Madeghe, Violet N Kimani, Ann Vander Stoep, Semret Nicodimos, Manasi Kumar
BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression can compromise caregiving activities, including infant feeding practices, resulting in child malnutrition. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of postpartum depression on infant feeding practices and malnutrition among women in an urban low income settlement in Nairobi-Kenya. We conducted a cross-sectional study based in Kariobangi North Health Centre in Nairobi County. The study sample included 200 mother-infant pairs visiting the Maternal and Child Health clinics for infant immunization at 6-14 weeks postpartum...
December 8, 2016: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916914/comparing-sanitation-delivery-modalities-in-urban-informal-settlement-schools-a-randomized-trial-in-nairobi-kenya
#8
Kate Bohnert, Anna N Chard, Alex Mwaki, Amy E Kirby, Richard Muga, Corey L Nagel, Evan A Thomas, Matthew C Freeman
The provision of safely managed sanitation in informal settlements is a challenge, especially in schools that require durable, clean, sex-segregated facilities for a large number of children. In informal settlements in Nairobi, school sanitation facilities demand considerable capital costs, yet are prone to breakage and often unhygienic. The private sector may be able to provide quality facilities and services to schools at lower costs as an alternative to the sanitation that is traditionally provided by the government...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915004/economic-analysis-of-the-nairobi-cancer-registry-implications-for-expanding-and-enhancing-cancer-registration-in-kenya
#9
Anne Korir, Robai Gakunga, Sujha Subramanian, Nathan Okerosi, Gladys Chesumbai, Patrick Edwards, Florence Tangka, Rachael Joseph, Nathan Buziba, Victor Rono, Donald Maxwell Parkin, Mona Saraiya
INTRODUCTION: Cancer registration is an important activity for informing cancer control activities. Cancer registries in Sub-Saharan Africa have limited resources to effectively operate because of competing priorities. To date, there has not been an assessment of the resources and funding needed to perform all the activities essential for cancer registration in Kenya. Evidence will help registries to quantify and advocate for the funds needed to sustain, enhance, and expand high quality cancer registration in Kenya...
December 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906029/trends-in-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-pre-art-care-at-a-large-hiv-clinic-in-nairobi-kenya-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#10
Jared O Mecha, Elizabeth N Kubo, Lucy W Nganga, Peter N Muiruri, Lilian N Njagi, Immaculate N Mutisya, Justine J Odionyi, Syokau C Ilovi, Mary Wambui, Christopher Githu, Richard Ngethe, Elizabeth M Obimbo, Zipporah W Ngumi
BACKGROUND: The success of antiretroviral therapy in resource-scarce settings is an illustration that complex healthcare interventions can be successfully delivered even in fragile health systems. Documenting the success factors in the scale-up of HIV care and treatment in resource constrained settings will enable health systems to prepare for changing population health needs. This study describes changing demographic and clinical characteristics of adult pre-ART cohorts, and identifies predictors of pre-ART attrition at a large urban HIV clinic in Nairobi, Kenya...
November 14, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895697/trends-in-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-pre-art-care-at-a-large-hiv-clinic-in-nairobi-kenya-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#11
Jared O Mecha, Elizabeth N Kubo, Lucy W Nganga, Peter N Muiruri, Lilian N Njagi, Immaculate N Mutisya, Justine J Odionyi, Syokau C Ilovi, Mary Wambui, Christopher Githu, Richard Ngethe, Elizabeth M Obimbo, Zipporah W Ngumi
BACKGROUND: The success of antiretroviral therapy in resource-scarce settings is an illustration that complex healthcare interventions can be successfully delivered even in fragile health systems. Documenting the success factors in the scale-up of HIV care and treatment in resource constrained settings will enable health systems to prepare for changing population health needs. This study describes changing demographic and clinical characteristics of adult pre-ART cohorts, and identifies predictors of pre-ART attrition at a large urban HIV clinic in Nairobi, Kenya...
2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888478/examining-the-quality-of-medicines-at-kenyan-healthcare-facilities-a-validation-of-an-alternative-post-market-surveillance-model-that-uses-standardized-patients
#12
Francis Wafula, Amy Dolinger, Benjamin Daniels, Njeri Mwaura, Guadalupe Bedoya, Khama Rogo, Ana Goicoechea, Jishnu Das, Bernard Olayo
BACKGROUND: Promoting access to medicines requires concurrent efforts to strengthen quality assurance for sustained impact. Although problems of substandard and falsified medicines have been documented in low- and middle-income countries, reliable information on quality is rarely available. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to validate an alternative post-market surveillance model to complement existing models. METHODS: The study used standardized patients or mystery clients (people recruited from the local community and trained to pose as real patients) to collect medicine samples after presenting a pre-specified condition...
November 25, 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886033/efficacy-of-lytic-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteriophage-against-multidrug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-mice
#13
Joseph Michael Ochieng' Oduor, Nyamongo Onkoba, Fredrick Maloba, Washingtone Ouma Arodi, Atunga Nyachieo
INTRODUCTION: The use of bacteriophages as an alternative treatment method against multidrug-resistant bacteria has not been explored in Kenya. This study sought to determine the efficacy of environmentally obtained lytic bacteriophage against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MDRSA) bacterium in mice. METHODOLOGY: Staphylococcus aureus bacterium and S. aureus-specific lytic phage were isolated from sewage and wastewater collected within Nairobi County, Kenya...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880008/head-and-neck-surgical-subspecialty-training-in-africa-sustainable-models-to-improve-cancer-care-in-developing-countries
#14
Johannes J Fagan, Mark Zafereo, Joyce Aswani, James L Netterville, Wayne Koch
BACKGROUND: Cancer poses a health crisis in the developing world where surgery is the mainstay of treatment for head and neck cancers. However, a shortage of surgeons with appropriate skills exists. How do we train head and neck surgeons in developing countries and avoid a brain drain? The ideal model provides appropriate affordable training leading to establishment of head and neck cancer centers that teach and train others. METHODS: Different head and neck surgery training models are presented based on the personal experiences of the authors...
November 23, 2016: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863515/feasibility-trial-of-a-scalable-psychological-intervention-for-women-affected-by-urban-adversity-and-gender-based-violence-in-nairobi
#15
Katie S Dawson, Alison Schafer, Dorothy Anjuri, Lincoln Ndogoni, Caroline Musyoki, Marit Sijbrandij, Mark van Ommeren, Richard A Bryant
BACKGROUND: Living in conditions of chronic adversity renders many women more vulnerable to experiencing gender-based violence (GBV). In addition to GBV's physical and social consequences, the psychological effects can be pervasive. Access to evidence-based psychological interventions that seek to support the mental health of women affected by such adversity is rare in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: The current study evaluates a brief evidence-informed psychological intervention developed by the World Health Organization for adults impacted by adversity (Problem Management Plus; PM+)...
November 18, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847185/urban-consumption-of-meat-and-milk-and-its-green-and-blue-water-footprints-patterns-in-the-1980s-and-2000s-for-nairobi-kenya
#16
Caroline K Bosire, Mats Lannerstad, Jan de Leeuw, Maarten S Krol, Joseph O Ogutu, Pamela A Ochungo, Arjen Y Hoekstra
THE PROBLEM: Various studies show that the developing world experiences and will continue to experience a rise in consumption of animal proteins, particularly in cities, as a result of continued urbanization and income growth. Given the relatively large water footprint (WF) of animal products, this trend is likely to increase the pressure on already scarce water resources. AIM: We estimate, analyse and interpret the changes in consumption of meat and milk between the 1980s and 2000s for three income classes in Nairobi, the ratio of domestic production to imports, and the WF (the volume of freshwater consumed) to produce these commodities in Kenya and abroad...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846074/implementation-and-operational-research-active-referral-of-children-of-hiv-positive-adults-reveals-high-prevalence-of-undiagnosed-hiv
#17
Anjuli D Wagner, Cyrus Mugo, Irene N Njuguna, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Kenneth Sherr, Irene W Inwani, James P Hughes, Dalton C Wamalwa, Grace C John-Stewart, Jennifer A Slyker
OBJECTIVES: Few routine systems exist to test older, asymptomatic children for HIV. Testing all children in the population has high uptake but is inefficient, whereas testing only symptomatic children increases efficiency but misses opportunities to optimize outcomes. Testing children of HIV-infected adults in care may efficiently identify previously undiagnosed HIV-infected children before symptomatic disease. METHODS: HIV-infected parents in HIV care in Nairobi, Kenya were systematically asked about their children's HIV status and testing history...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833755/measurement-of-overweight-and-obesity-an-urban-slum-setting-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-comparison-of-four-anthropometric-indices
#18
Tilahun Nigatu Haregu, Samuel Oti, Thaddaeus Egondi, Catherine Kyobutungi
BACKGROUND: As a result of both genetic and environmental factors, the body composition and topography of African populations are presumed to be different from western populations. Accordingly, globally accepted anthropometric markers may perform differently in African populations. In the era of rapid emergence of cardio-vascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa, evidence about the performance of these markers in African settings is essential. The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-relationships among the four main anthropometric indices in measuring overweight and obesity in an urban poor African setting...
2016: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833706/variant-anatomy-of-the-nasal-and-labial-branches-of-the-infraorbital-nerve
#19
Joseph Munyiri Nderitu, Fawzia Butt, Hassan Saidi
Comprehensive understanding of the variations in the branches of the infraorbital nerve (ION) is vital to the prevention of iatrogenic nerve injury and successful ION blockade during orbitozygomatic facial procedures. Only a few studies exist on the variant anatomy of the branching patterns of this nerve. This article provides a detailed description of the variations of the nasal and superior labial branches of the ION. This study was performed on 84 IONs by dissecting 42 formalin-fixed cadavers from the Laboratory of Topographic Anatomy, Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi...
November 2016: Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833259/care-after-cataract-surgery-in-nairobi-kenya
#20
George S Odhiambo Ohito
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Community Eye Health
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