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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915992/-boys-should-have-the-courage-to-ask-a-girl-out-gender-norms-in-early-adolescent-romantic-relationships
#1
Sara De Meyer, Anna Kågesten, Kristin Mmari, Juliet McEachran, Elisa Chilet-Rosell, Caroline W Kabiru, Beatrice Maina, Elena M Jerves, Candace Currie, Kristien Michielsen
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to explore how gender norms emerge in romantic relationships among early adolescents (EAs) living in five poor urban areas. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the Global Early Adolescent Study. The current research analyzed data from interviews with 30 EAs (aged 11-13 years) living in five poor urban sites: Baltimore, Cuenca, Edinburgh, Ghent, and Nairobi. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed in English using Atlas...
October 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915991/adolescent-and-parental-reactions-to-puberty-in-nigeria-and-kenya-a-cross-cultural-and-intergenerational-comparison
#2
Bamidele M Bello, Adesegun O Fatusi, Oluwatomi E Adepoju, Beatrice W Maina, Caroline W Kabiru, Marni Sommer, Kristin Mmari
PURPOSE: This qualitative study assesses the cross-cultural and intergenerational reactions of young adolescents and parents to puberty in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, and Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: Sixty-six boys and girls (aged 11-13 years) and their parents participated in narrative interviews conducted in English or local languages in two urban poor settings in Ile-Ife and Nairobi. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated, and uploaded into Atlas.ti software for coding and analysis...
October 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915986/exploration-of-gender-norms-and-socialization-among-early-adolescents-the-use-of-qualitative-methods-for-the-global-early-adolescent-study
#3
REVIEW
Kristin Mmari, Robert W Blum, Rebkha Atnafou, Elisa Chilet, Sara de Meyer, Omaima El-Gibaly, Sharmista Basu, Bamidele Bello, Beatrice Maina, Xiayun Zuo
PURPOSE: The Global Early Adolescent Study (GEAS) was launched in 2014 with the primary goal of understanding the factors in early adolescence that predispose young people to subsequent sexual risks, and conversely, those that promote healthy sexuality across different cultural contexts. The present article describes the methodology that was used for the first phase of GEAS, which consisted of conducting qualitative research to understand the gendered transitions into adolescence and the role that gender norms play within the key relationships of adolescents...
October 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915796/correlates-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-failure-in-child-household-contacts-with-infectious-tuberculosis-in-high-burden-settings-in-nairobi-kenya-a-cohort-study
#4
Florence Nafula Okwara, John Paul Oyore, Fred Nabwire Were, Samson Gwer
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa continues to document high pediatric tuberculosis (TB) burden, especially among the urban poor. One recommended preventive strategy involves tracking and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for children under 5 years in close contact with infectious TB. However, sub-optimal effectiveness has been documented in diverse settings. We conducted a study to elucidate correlates to IPT strategy failure in children below 5 years in high burden settings. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal cohort study was done in informal settlings in Nairobi, where children under 5 years in household contact with recently diagnosed smear positive TB adults were enrolled...
September 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904705/a-study-to-determine-the-prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-hypertension-among-employees-working-at-a-call-centre-nairobi-kenya
#5
Mwagi Joseph Onyango, Iyeri Kombe, Daniel Sagwe Nyamongo, Moses Mwangi
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension often referred to as Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs). Causes of hypertension are classified into modifiable and non-modifiable factors. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and other associated factors leading to the onset of hypertension among employees working at the call center. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross sectional study design. Data collection was done in two parts; part one comprised of clinical health assessments; weight and height to aid determine Body Mass Index and blood pressure measurement...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894259/cd161-identifies-polyfunctional-th1-th17-cells-in-the-genital-mucosa-that-are-depleted-in-hiv-infected-female-sex-workers-from-nairobi-kenya
#6
Geneviève Boily-Larouche, Kenneth Omollo, Julianna Cheruiyot, Jane Njoki, Makobu Kimani, Joshua Kimani, Julius Oyugi, Julie Lajoie, Keith R Fowke
CD161 identifies a subset of circulating Th17 cells that are depleted in the blood and gut of HIV-infected individuals. In the female reproductive tract (FRT), the pattern of CD161 expression on CD4(+) cells remains unknown. Here, we characterized CD161 expression in the FRT of Kenyan female sex workers (FSW). Compared to the blood, CD161(+)CD4(+) T cells were enriched in the FRT of uninfected FSWs. These cells were depleted in FRT of HIV-infected FSWs. Cervical CD161(+) cells harboured an activated phenotype (CD69, CD95, HLA-DR) with elevated expression of tissue-homing markers (CCR6, β7 integrin) and HIV co-receptor (CCR5)...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893304/preventing-hiv-infection-without-targeting-the-virus-how-reducing-hiv-target-cells-at-the-genital-tract-is-a-new-approach-to-hiv-prevention
#7
REVIEW
Julie Lajoie, Lucy Mwangi, Keith R Fowke
For over three decades, HIV infection has had a tremendous impact on the lives of individuals and public health. Microbicides and vaccines studies have shown that immune activation at the genital tract is a risk factor for HIV infection. Furthermore, lower level of immune activation, or what we call immune quiescence, has been associated with a lower risk of HIV acquisition. This unique phenotype is observed in highly-exposed seronegative individuals from different populations including female sex workers from the Pumwani cohort in Nairobi, Kenya...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891350/dental-age-estimation-in-a-group-of-kenyan-children-using-willems-method-a-radiographic-study
#8
Eunice Njeri Kihara, Peter Gichangi, Helen M Liversidge, Fawzia Butt, Gichambira Gikenye
BACKGROUND: Radiographic study of developing teeth provides a reliable indication of chronological age. In Kenya, dentists are often required to estimate age. However, there is a paucity of publications on the performance of dental age estimation methods. AIM: To determine the accuracy of Willems' method of dental age estimation. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done at The University of Nairobi Dental Hospital. Panoramic radiographs of children aged 3...
September 11, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883972/molecular-characterization-and-antibiotic-resistance-profiles-of-salmonella-isolated-from-fecal-matter-of-domestic-animals-and-animal-products-in-nairobi
#9
Diana Nyabundi, Nyamongo Onkoba, Rinter Kimathi, Atunga Nyachieo, Gerald Juma, Peter Kinyanjui, Joseph Kamau
BACKGROUND: Salmonella has significant public health implications causing food borne and zoonotic diseases in humans. Treatment of infections due to Salmonella is becoming difficult due to emergence of drug resistant strains. There is therefore need to characterize the circulating non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars in domestic animals and animal products in Kenya as well as determine their antibiotic resistance profiles. METHODS: A total of 740 fecal samples were collected from cows (n = 150), pigs (n = 182), chicken (n = 191) and chicken eggs (n = 217) from various markets and abattoirs in Nairobi...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880880/volunteer-motivators-for-participating-in-hiv-vaccine-clinical-trials-in-nairobi-kenya
#10
Borna A Nyaoke, Gaudensia N Mutua, Rose Sajabi, Delvin Nyasani, Marianne W Mureithi, Omu A Anzala
BACKGROUND: 1.5 million Kenyans are living with HIV/AIDS as per 2015 estimates. Though there is a notable decline in new HIV infections, continued effort is still needed to develop an efficacious, accessible and affordable HIV vaccine. HIV vaccine clinical trials bear risks, hence a need to understand volunteer motivators for enrolment, retention and follow-up. Understanding the factors that motivate volunteers to participate in a clinical trial can help to strategize, refine targeting and thus increase enrolment of volunteers in future HIV vaccine clinical trials...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880813/associations-between-trauma-exposure-religious-coping-and-psychiatric-distress-in-a-community-sample-in-nairobi-kenya
#11
Hana J Shin, Gladys Mwiti, Melinda Tomosada, Cynthia B Eriksson
Adults (N = 703) in Nairobi, Kenya completed a screening survey in the aftermath of the postelection violence (PEV) of 2008. This study examined associations between exposure to PEV, prior trauma exposure, religious coping, and psychiatric distress. Results indicated a dose-response effect of the amount of PEV and prior trauma exposure on the severity of concurrent symptoms of psychiatric distress. Over 90% of the sample reported a religious affiliation, and the majority of participants also reported frequent use of religious coping strategies...
October 2017: Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875308/physical-social-and-political-inequities-constraining-girls-menstrual-management-at-schools-in-informal-settlements-of-nairobi-kenya
#12
Candace Girod, Anna Ellis, Karen L Andes, Matthew C Freeman, Bethany A Caruso
Access to adequate water and sanitation is limited in informal settlements, contributing to girls' challenges managing menstruation at school, especially when they cannot access materials to absorb menstrual blood and appropriate facilities for hygiene. This study documents differences between girls' experience of menstruation at public schools (where the Kenyan government provides menstrual pads) and private schools (where pads are not provided) in two informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya. Results showed that supply chains to public schools were not reliable, and equitable pad provision was not assured...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862073/mental-health-risks-and-stressors-faced-by-urban-refugees-perceived-impacts-of-war-and-community-adversities-among-somali-refugees-in-nairobi
#13
Hyojin Im, Aidan B Ferguson, Abdilkadir H Warsame, Maimuna M Isse
BACKGROUND: There is a gap in understanding of refugee mental health risks unique to urban areas of low-income countries. MATERIAL: A qualitative rapid appraisal using focus group interviews with community stakeholders explored main stressors pervasive by Somali refugees in Nairobi, Kenya. DISCUSSION: This study identified the intersection of war trauma and daily stressors that affect both functional and structural challenges and risk of mental health issues among Somali urban refugees...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820881/vector-competence-of-populations-of-aedes-aegypti-from-three-distinct-cities-in-kenya-for-chikungunya-virus
#14
Sheila B Agha, Edith Chepkorir, Francis Mulwa, Caroline Tigoi, Samwel Arum, Milehna M Guarido, Peris Ambala, Betty Chelangat, Joel Lutomiah, David P Tchouassi, Michael J Turell, Rosemary Sang
BACKGROUND: In April, 2004, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) re-emerged in Kenya and eventually spread to the islands in the Indian Ocean basin, South-East Asia, and the Americas. The virus, which is often associated with high levels of viremia in humans, is mostly transmitted by the urban vector, Aedes aegypti. The expansion of CHIKV presents a public health challenge both locally and internationally. In this study, we investigated the ability of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from three distinct cities in Kenya; Mombasa (outbreak prone), Kisumu, and Nairobi (no documented outbreak) to transmit CHIKV...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818075/perspectives-of-basic-wheelchair-users-on-improving-their-access-to-wheelchair-services-in-kenya-and-philippines-a-qualitative-study
#15
Emma Williams, Elizabeth Hurwitz, Immaculate Obaga, Brenda Onguti, Adovich Rivera, Tyrone Reden L Sy, R Lee Kirby, Jamie Noon, Deepti Tanuku, Anthony Gichangi, Eva Bazant
BACKGROUND: The United Nations has called for countries to improve access to mobility devices when needed. The World Health Organization has published guidelines on the provision of manual wheelchairs in less-resourced settings. Yet little is known about the extent to which appropriate wheelchairs are available and provided according to international guidelines. This study's purpose was to describe wheelchair users' experiences receiving services and acquiring wheelchair skills in urban and peri-urban areas of Kenya and the Philippines...
August 17, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817563/assessment-of-risk-of-dengue-and-yellow-fever-virus-transmission-in-three-major-kenyan-cities-based-on-stegomyia-indices
#16
Sheila B Agha, David P Tchouassi, Armanda D S Bastos, Rosemary Sang
Dengue (DEN) and yellow fever (YF) are re-emerging in East Africa, with contributing drivers to this trend being unplanned urbanization and increasingly adaptable anthropophilic Aedes (Stegomyia) vectors. Entomological risk assessment of these diseases remains scarce for much of East Africa and Kenya even in the dengue fever-prone urban coastal areas. Focusing on major cities of Kenya, we compared DEN and YF risk in Kilifi County (DEN-outbreak-prone), and Kisumu and Nairobi Counties (no documented DEN outbreaks)...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815343/assessment-of-macrophyte-heavy-metal-and-nutrient-concentrations-in-the-water-of-the-nairobi-river-kenya
#17
Samwel Maina Njuguna, Xue Yan, Robert Wahiti Gituru, Qingfeng Wang, Jun Wang
Nairobi River tributaries are the main source of the Athi River. The Athi River basin is the fourth largest and important drainage system in Kenya covering 650 km and with a drainage area of 70,000 km(2). Its water is used downstream by about four million people not only for irrigation but also for domestic purposes. However, its industrial, raw sewer, and agricultural pollution is alarming. In order to understand distribution and concentration of heavy metals and nutrients in the water of Nairobi River, 28 water samples were collected in the rainy season (October) of 2015 and dry season (June) of 2016...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809935/effectiveness-of-a-brief-behavioural-intervention-on-psychological-distress-among-women-with-a-history-of-gender-based-violence-in-urban-kenya-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Richard A Bryant, Alison Schafer, Katie S Dawson, Dorothy Anjuri, Caroline Mulili, Lincoln Ndogoni, Phiona Koyiet, Marit Sijbrandij, Jeannette Ulate, Melissa Harper Shehadeh, Dusan Hadzi-Pavlovic, Mark van Ommeren
BACKGROUND: Gender-based violence (GBV) represents a major cause of psychological morbidity worldwide, and particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although there are effective treatments for common mental disorders associated with GBV, they typically require lengthy treatment programs that may limit scaling up in LMICs. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a new 5-session behavioural treatment called Problem Management Plus (PM+) that lay community workers can be taught to deliver...
August 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806952/socio-cultural-contexts-of-end-of-life-conversations-and-decisions-bereaved-family-cancer-caregivers-retrospective-co-constructions
#19
Jennifer Nyawira Githaiga, Leslie Swartz
BACKGROUND: End-of-life communication becomes increasingly difficult in terminal cancer, which inevitably entails conversations around dying and death. In resource-limited areas, the context of end-of-life communication is usually home-based palliative care comprising mostly women in the family who play critical roles as informal caregivers. This article examined the content and contexts of family end-of-life conversations and decisions based on the retrospective accounts of a sample of bereaved women family cancer caregivers in Nairobi, Kenya...
August 14, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798272/perspectives-of-screening-eligible-women-and-male-partners-on-benefits-of-and-barriers-to-treatment-for-precancerous-lesions-and-cervical-cancer-in-kenya
#20
Kathleen R Ragan, Natasha Buchanan Lunsford, Judith Lee Smith, Mona Saraiya, Millicent Aketch
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the leading cause of female cancer mortality in Kenya. Kenya's National Cervical Cancer Prevention Program Strategic Plan outlines efforts to reduce the burden; however, treatment services remain limited. This study identified male and female perspectives regarding benefits, facilitators, and barriers to treatment for precancerous lesions and cervical cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten focus groups were conducted in Nairobi and Nyanza in 2014 with females aged 25-49 years (n = 60) and male partners (n = 40)...
August 10, 2017: Oncologist
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