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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531966/how-do-disturbances-and-climate-effects-on-carbon-and-water-fluxes-differ-between-multi-aged-and-even-aged-coniferous-forests
#1
Xuguang Tang, Hengpeng Li, Mingguo Ma, Li Yao, Matthias Peichl, Altaf Arain, Xibao Xu, Michael Goulden
Disturbances and climatic changes significantly affect forest ecosystem productivity, water use efficiency (WUE) and carbon (C) flux dynamics. A deep understanding of terrestrial feedbacks to such effects and recovery mechanisms in forests across contrasting climatic regimes is essential to predict future regional/global C and water budgets, which are also closely related to the potential forest management decisions. However, the resilience of multi-aged and even-aged forests to disturbances has been debated for >60years because of technical measurement constraints...
May 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528295/a-machine-learning-graph-based-approach-for-3d-segmentation-of-bruch-s-membrane-opening-from-glaucomatous-sd-oct-volumes
#2
Mohammad Saleh Miri, Michael D Abràmoff, Young H Kwon, Milan Sonka, Mona K Garvin
Bruch's membrane opening-minimum rim width (BMO-MRW) is a recently proposed structural parameter which estimates the remaining nerve fiber bundles in the retina and is superior to other conventional structural parameters for diagnosing glaucoma. Measuring this structural parameter requires identification of BMO locations within spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volumes. While most automated approaches for segmentation of the BMO either segment the 2D projection of BMO points or identify BMO points in individual B-scans, in this work, we propose a machine-learning graph-based approach for true 3D segmentation of BMO from glaucomatous SD-OCT volumes...
May 6, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526841/organic-carbon-prediction-in-soil-cores-using-vnir-and-mir-techniques-in-an-alpine-landscape
#3
Xiaolin Jia, Songchao Chen, Yuanyuan Yang, Lianqing Zhou, Wu Yu, Zhou Shi
Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), including visible and near-infrared (VNIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) radiation, is a rapid, accurate and cost-effective technique for estimating soil organic carbon (SOC). We examined 24 soil cores (0-100 cm) from the Sygera Mountains on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, considering field-moist intact VNIR, air-dried ground VNIR and air-dried ground MIR spectra at 5-cm intervals. Preprocessed spectra were used to predict the SOC in the soil cores using partial least squares regression (PLSR) and a support vector machine (SVM)...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521387/structural-and-functional-recovery-of-macroinvertebrate-communities-and-leaf-litter-decomposition-after-a-marked-drought-does-vegetation-type-matter
#4
Silvia Monroy, Aingeru Martínez, Naiara López-Rojo, Ana Victoria Pérez-Calpe, Ana Basaguren, Jesús Pozo
Climate change and anthropogenic disturbances are expected to lead to more intense and frequent droughts, with potentially severe effects on structure and function of perennial temperate streams. However, more information is required on whether streams flowing through basins already affected by exotic plantations will respond to droughts in the same way as streams under native forests. The recolonisation dynamics of benthic macroinvertebrate communities and leaf litter decomposition rates were examined in nine streams of oceanic-temperate climate that differed in catchment vegetation (three streams draining native deciduous forest, three in pine plantations and three in eucalypt plantations) after a marked drought...
May 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518217/impacts-of-an-invasive-plant-are-fundamentally-altered-by-a-co-occurring-forest-disturbance
#5
Noah W Sokol, Sara E Kuebbing, Mark A Bradford
Invasive species frequently co-occur with other human disturbances, which can impact the same ecosystem functions as the invader. Yet invasion studies rarely control for the presence of these other disturbances, although their overlapping effects may influence the direction and magnitude of impacts attributed to the invader alone. Here, we ask whether controlling for the presence of a co-occurring disturbance, as well as the time since disturbance, yields different values of an invader's ecosystem effects than when these factors remain unaddressed...
May 18, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515661/improving-large-area-population-mapping-using-geotweet-densities
#6
Nirav N Patel, Forrest R Stevens, Zhuojie Huang, Andrea E Gaughan, Iqbal Elyazar, Andrew J Tatem
Many different methods are used to disaggregate census data and predict population densities to construct finer scale, gridded population data sets. These methods often involve a range of high resolution geospatial covariate datasets on aspects such as urban areas, infrastructure, land cover and topography; such covariates, however, are not directly indicative of the presence of people. Here we tested the potential of geo-located tweets from the social media application, Twitter, as a covariate in the production of population maps...
April 2017: Transactions in GIS: TG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514636/eco-evolutionary-theory-and-insect-outbreaks
#7
David J Páez, Vanja Dukic, Jonathan Dushoff, Arietta Fleming-Davies, Greg Dwyer
Eco-evolutionary theory argues that population cycles in consumer-resource interactions are partly driven by natural selection, such that changes in densities and changes in trait values are mutually reinforcing. Evidence that the theory explains cycles in nature, however, is almost nonexistent. Experimental tests of model assumptions are logistically impractical for most organisms, while for others, evidence that population cycles occur in nature is lacking. For insect baculoviruses in contrast, tests of model assumptions are straightforward, and there is strong evidence that baculoviruses help drive population cycles in many insects, including the gypsy moth that we study here...
June 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509911/a-dataset-of-forest-biomass-structure-for-eurasia
#8
Dmitry Schepaschenko, Anatoly Shvidenko, Vladimir Usoltsev, Petro Lakyda, Yunjian Luo, Roman Vasylyshyn, Ivan Lakyda, Yuriy Myklush, Linda See, Ian McCallum, Steffen Fritz, Florian Kraxner, Michael Obersteiner
The most comprehensive dataset of in situ destructive sampling measurements of forest biomass in Eurasia have been compiled from a combination of experiments undertaken by the authors and from scientific publications. Biomass is reported as four components: live trees (stem, bark, branches, foliage, roots); understory (above- and below ground); green forest floor (above- and below ground); and coarse woody debris (snags, logs, dead branches of living trees and dead roots), consisting of 10,351 unique records of sample plots and 9,613 sample trees from ca 1,200 experiments for the period 1930-2014 where there is overlap between these two datasets...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505889/vegetation-dynamics-and-responses-to-climate-change-and-human-activities-in-central-asia
#9
Liangliang Jiang, Guli Jiapaer, Anming Bao, Hao Guo, Felix Ndayisaba
Knowledge of the current changes and dynamics of different types of vegetation in relation to climatic changes and anthropogenic activities is critical for developing adaptation strategies to address the challenges posed by climate change and human activities for ecosystems. Based on a regression analysis and the Hurst exponent index method, this research investigated the spatial and temporal characteristics and relationships between vegetation greenness and climatic factors in Central Asia using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and gridded high-resolution station (land) data for the period 1984-2013...
May 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505173/continental-divide-predicting-climate-mediated-fragmentation-and-biodiversity-loss-in-the-boreal-forest
#10
Dennis L Murray, Michael J L Peers, Yasmine N Majchrzak, Morgan Wehtje, Catarina Ferreira, Rob S A Pickles, Jeffrey R Row, Daniel H Thornton
Climate change threatens natural landscapes through shifting distribution and abundance of species and attendant change in the structure and function of ecosystems. However, it remains unclear how climate-mediated variation in species' environmental niche space may lead to large-scale fragmentation of species distributions, altered meta-population dynamics and gene flow, and disrupted ecosystem integrity. Such change may be especially relevant when species distributions are restricted either spatially or to a narrow environmental niche, or when environments are rapidly changing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503829/unravelling-seed-dispersal-through-fragmented-landscapes-frugivore-species-operate-unevenly-as-mobile-links
#11
Juan P González-Varo, Carolina S Carvalho, Juan M Arroyo, Pedro Jordano
Seed dispersal constitutes a pivotal process in an increasingly fragmented world, promoting population connectivity, colonization and range shifts in plants. Unveiling how multiple frugivore species disperse seeds through fragmented landscapes, operating as mobile links, has remained elusive owing to methodological constraints for monitoring seed dispersal events. We combine for the first time DNA barcoding and DNA microsatellites to identify, respectively, the frugivore species and the source trees of animal-dispersed seeds in forest and matrix of a fragmented landscape...
May 14, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500791/fire-catalyzed-rapid-ecological-change-in-lowland-coniferous-forests-of-the-pacific-northwest-over-the-past-14-000-years
#12
Shelley D Crausbay, Philip E Higuera, Douglas G Sprugel, Linda B Brubaker
Disturbance can catalyze rapid ecological change by causing widespread mortality and initiating successional pathways, and during times of climate change, disturbance may contribute to ecosystem state changes by initiating a new successional pathway. In the Pacific Northwest of North America (PNW), disturbance by wildfires strongly shapes the composition and structure of lowland forests, but understanding the role of fire over periods of climate change is challenging, because fire-return intervals are long (e...
May 13, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500789/atlantic-small-mammal-a-dataset-of-communities-of-rodents-and-marsupials-of-the-atlantic-forests-of-south-america
#13
Ricardo S Bovendorp, Nacho Villar, Edson F de Abreu-Junior, Carolina Bello, André L Regolin, Alexandre R Percequillo, Mauro Galetti
The contribution of small mammal ecology to the understanding of macroecological patterns of biodiversity, population dynamics and community assembly has been hindered by the absence of large datasets of small mammal communities from tropical regions. Here we compile the largest dataset of inventories of small mammal communities for the Neotropical region. The dataset reviews small mammal communities from the Atlantic forest of South America, one of the regions with the highest diversity of small mammals and a global biodiversity hotspot, though currently covering less than 12% of its original area due to anthropogenic pressures...
May 13, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500334/using-change-trajectories-to-study-the-impacts-of-multi-annual-habitat-loss-on-fledgling-production-in-an-old-forest-specialist-bird
#14
Eric Le Tortorec, Niina Käyhkö, Harri Hakkarainen, Petri Suorsa, Esa Huhta, Samuli Helle
The loss and subdivision of habitat into smaller and more spatially isolated units due to human actions has been shown to adversely affect species worldwide. We examined how changes in old forest cover during eight years were associated with the cumulative number of fledged offspring at the end of study period in Eurasian treecreepers (Certhia familiaris) in Central Finland. We were specifically interested in whether the initial level of old forest cover moderated this relation. We applied a flexible and powerful approach, latent growth curve modelling in a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework, to create trajectories describing changes in old forest cover through time, and studied how this change at both the territory core and landscape scales impacted fledging numbers...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494004/increasing-land-use-intensity-reverses-the-relative-occupancy-of-two-quadrupedal-scavengers
#15
Joshua P Twining, Henry Bernard, Robert M Ewers
Human land use is continuously altering the natural environment, yet the greater ecological implications of this change for many groups that are key to healthy ecosystem functioning remains uncharacterised in the tropics. Terrestrial scavenging vertebrates are one such group, providing integral ecosystem services through the removal of carrion which is a crucial component of both nutrient cycling and disease dynamics. To explore how anthropogenic processes may affect forest scavengers, we investigated the changes in the relative occupancy of two important terrestrial scavengers along a gradient of land use intensity, ranging from protected forest to oil palm plantation in Borneo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493790/endometrial-carcinoma-mr-imaging-based-texture-model-for-preoperative-risk-stratification-a-preliminary-analysis
#16
Yoshiko Ueno, Behzad Forghani, Reza Forghani, Anthony Dohan, Xing Ziggy Zeng, Foucauld Chamming's, Jocelyne Arseneau, Lili Fu, Lucy Gilbert, Benoit Gallix, Caroline Reinhold
Purpose To evaluate the associations among mathematical modeling with the use of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-based texture features and deep myometrial invasion (DMI), lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI), and histologic high-grade endometrial carcinoma. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective study. This study included 137 women with endometrial carcinomas measuring greater than 1 cm in maximal diameter who underwent 1.5-T MR imaging before hysterectomy between January 2011 and December 2015...
May 10, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489875/functional-data-analysis-of-sleeping-energy-expenditure
#17
Jong Soo Lee, Issa F Zakeri, Nancy F Butte
Adequate sleep is crucial during childhood for metabolic health, and physical and cognitive development. Inadequate sleep can disrupt metabolic homeostasis and alter sleeping energy expenditure (SEE). Functional data analysis methods were applied to SEE data to elucidate the population structure of SEE and to discriminate SEE between obese and non-obese children. Minute-by-minute SEE in 109 children, ages 5-18, was measured in room respiration calorimeters. A smoothing spline method was applied to the calorimetric data to extract the true smoothing function for each subject...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481414/time-since-disturbance-affects-colonization-dynamics-in-a-metapopulation
#18
Jessie Mutz, Nora Underwood, Brian D Inouye
1.Disturbances are widespread in nature and can have substantial population-level consequences. Most empirical studies on the effects of disturbance track population recovery within habitat patches, but have an incomplete representation of the recolonization process. Additionally, recent metapopulation models represent post-disturbance colonization with a recovery state or time-lag for disturbed ("focal") patches, thus assuming that recolonization rates are uniform. 2.However, the availability of colonists in neighboring "source" patches can vary, especially in frequently-disturbed landscapes such as fire-managed forests that have a mosaic of patches that differ in successional state and undergo frequent local extinctions...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477048/growth-and-reproduction-respond-differently-to-climate-in-three-neotropical-tree-species
#19
Raquel Alfaro-Sánchez, Helene C Muller-Landau, S Joseph Wright, J Julio Camarero
The response of tropical forests to anthropogenic climate change is critically important to future global carbon budgets, yet remains highly uncertain. Here, we investigate how precipitation, temperature, solar radiation and dry- and wet-season lengths are related to annual tree growth, flower production, and fruit production in three moist tropical forest tree species using long-term datasets from tree rings and litter traps in central Panama. We also evaluated how growth, flower, and fruit production were interrelated...
May 5, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476769/soil-bacterial-and-fungal-communities-show-distinct-recovery-patterns-during-forest-ecosystem-restoration
#20
Shan Sun, Song Li, Bethany N Avera, Brian D Strahm, Brian D Badgley
Bacteria and fungi are important mediators of biogeochemical processes and play essential roles in the establishment of plant communities, which makes knowledge about their recovery after extreme disturbances valuable for understanding ecosystem development. However, broad ecological differences between bacterial and fungal organisms, such as growth rates, stress tolerance, and substrate utilization, suggest they could follow distinct trajectories and show contrasting dynamics during recovery. In this study, we analyzed both the intra-annual variability and decadal scale recovery of bacterial and fungal communities in a chronosequence of reclaimed mined soils using next-generation sequencing to quantify their abundance, richness, β-diversity, taxonomic composition and co-occurrence network properties...
May 5, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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