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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442732/human-bipedal-instability-in-tree-canopy-environments-is-reduced-by-light-touch-fingertip-support
#1
L Johannsen, S R L Coward, G R Martin, A M Wing, A van Casteren, W I Sellers, A R Ennos, R H Crompton, S K S Thorpe
Whether tree canopy habitats played a sustained role in the ecology of ancestral bipedal hominins is unresolved. Some argue that arboreal bipedalism was prohibitively risky for hominins whose increasingly modern anatomy prevented them from gripping branches with their feet. Balancing on two legs is indeed challenging for humans under optimal conditions let alone in forest canopy, which is physically and visually highly dynamic. Here we quantify the impact of forest canopy characteristics on postural stability in humans...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440643/field-calibration-of-xad-based-passive-air-sampler-on-the-tibetan-plateau-wind-influence-and-configuration-improvement
#2
Ping Gong, Xiao-Ping Wang, Xiande Liu, Frank Wania
The passive air sampler based on XAD-2 resin (XAD-PAS) has proven useful for collecting atmospheric persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in remote regions. Whereas laboratory studies have shown that, due to the open bottom of its housing, the passive sampling rate (PSR) of the XAD-PAS is susceptible to wind and other processes causing air turbulence, the sampler has not been calibrated in the field at sites experiencing high winds. In this study, the PSRs of the XAD-PAS were calibrated at three sites on the Tibetan Plateau, covering a wide range in temperature (T), pressure (P) and wind speed (v)...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438914/does-deforestation-promote-or-inhibit-malaria-transmission-in-the-amazon-a-systematic-literature-review-and-critical-appraisal-of-current-evidence
#3
REVIEW
Joanna M Tucker Lima, Amy Vittor, Sami Rifai, Denis Valle
Considerable interest in the relationship between biodiversity and disease has recently captured the attention of the research community, with important public policy implications. In particular, malaria in the Amazon region is often cited as an example of how forest conservation can improve public health outcomes. However, despite a growing body of literature and an increased understanding of the relationship between malaria and land use / land cover change (LULC) in Amazonia, contradictions have emerged. While some studies report that deforestation increases malaria risk, others claim the opposite...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427386/heterogeneous-distributional-responses-to-climate-warming-evidence-from-rodents-along-a-subtropical-elevational-gradient
#4
Zhixin Wen, Yi Wu, Deyan Ge, Jilong Cheng, Yongbin Chang, Zhisong Yang, Lin Xia, Qisen Yang
BACKGROUND: Understanding whether species' elevational range is shifting in response to directional changes in climate and whether there is a predictable pattern in that response is one of the major challenges in ecology. However, so far very little is known about the distributional responses of subtropical species to climate change, especially for small mammals. In this study, we examined the elevational range shifts at three range points (upper and lower range limits and abundance-weighted range centre) of rodents over a 30-year period (1986 to 2014-2015), in a subtropical forest of Southwest China...
April 20, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426780/response-of-spatial-vegetation-distribution-in-china-to-climate-changes-since-the-last-glacial-maximum-lgm
#5
Siyang Wang, Xiaoting Xu, Nawal Shrestha, Niklaus E Zimmermann, Zhiyao Tang, Zhiheng Wang
Analyzing how climate change affects vegetation distribution is one of the central issues of global change ecology as this has important implications for the carbon budget of terrestrial vegetation. Mapping vegetation distribution under historical climate scenarios is essential for understanding the response of vegetation distribution to future climatic changes. The reconstructions of palaeovegetation based on pollen data provide a useful method to understand the relationship between climate and vegetation distribution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421061/comparative-analysis-of-the-gut-microbial-communities-in-forest-and-alpine-musk-deer-using-high-throughput-sequencing
#6
Xiaolong Hu, Gang Liu, Aaron B A Shafer, Yuting Wei, Juntong Zhou, Shaobi Lin, Haibin Wu, Mi Zhou, Defu Hu, Shuqiang Liu
The gut ecosystem is characterized by dynamic and reciprocal interactions between the host and bacteria. Although characterizing microbiota for herbivores has become recognized as important tool for gauging species health, no study to date has investigated the bacterial communities and evaluated the age-related bacterial dynamics of musk deer. Moreover, gastrointestinal diseases have been hypothesized to be a limiting factor of population growth in captive musk deer. Here, high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was used to profile the fecal bacterial communities in juvenile and adult alpine and forest musk deer...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419974/prediction-and-feature-analysis-of-intron-retention-events-in-plant-genome
#7
Ying Cui, Chao Zhang, Meng Cai
Alternative splicing (AS) is a major contributor to increase the potential informational content of eukaryotic genomes by creating multiple mRNA species and proteins from a single gene. In plants, up to 60% genes are alternatively spliced and the most common type of AS is intron retention (IR). Genomic analyses of IR have illuminated its crucial role in shaping the evolution of genomes, in the control of developmental processes, and in the dynamic regulation of the transcriptome to influence phenotype. To explore the relationship between the sequence feature and the formation mechanism of IR, we statistically analyzed the retained introns and proposed an improved random forest-based hybrid method to predict intron retention events in plant genome...
April 13, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419433/plant-soil-feedbacks-in-declining-forests-implications-for-species-coexistence
#8
Lorena Gómez-Aparicio, Jara Domínguez-Begines, Paul Kardol, José M Ávila, Beatriz Ibáñez, Luis V García
Plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) play a relevant role as drivers of species abundance, coexistence, and succession in plant communities. However, the potential contribution of PSFs to community dynamics in changing forest ecosystems affected by global change drivers is still largely unexplored. We measured the direction, strength and nature (biological vs. chemical) of PSFs experienced by coexisting tree species in two types of declining Quercus suber forests of southwestern Spain (open woodland vs. closed forest) invaded by the exotic soil pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi...
April 18, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418158/the-phenology-of-leaf-quality-and-its-within-canopy-variation-are-essential-for-accurate-modeling-of-photosynthesis-in-tropical-evergreen-forests
#9
Jin Wu, Shawn P Serbin, Xiangtao Xu, Loren P Albert, Min Chen, Ran Meng, Scott R Saleska, Alistair Rogers
Leaf quantity (i.e. canopy leaf area index, LAI), quality (i.e. per-area photosynthetic capacity), and longevity all influence the photosynthetic seasonality of tropical evergreen forests. However, these components of tropical leaf phenology are poorly represented in most terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs). Here, we explored alternative options for the representation of leaf phenology effects in TBMs that employ the Farquahar, von Caemmerer & Berry (FvCB) representation of CO2 assimilation. We developed a two-fraction leaf (sun and shade), two-layer canopy (upper and lower) photosynthesis model to evaluate different modeling approaches and assessed three components of phenological variations (i...
April 18, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417562/climate-variability-drives-recent-tree-mortality-in-europe
#10
Mathias Neumann, Volker Mues, Adam Moreno, Hubert Hasenauer, Rupert Seidl
Tree mortality is an important process in forest ecosystems, frequently hypothesized to be highly climate sensitive. Yet, tree death remains one of the least understood processes of forest dynamics. Recently, changes in tree mortality have been observed in forests around the globe, which could profoundly affect ecosystem functioning and services provisioning to society. We describe continental-scale patterns of recent tree mortality from the only consistent pan-European forest monitoring network, identifying recent mortality hotspots in southern and northern Europe...
April 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414883/temperature-and-rainfall-interact-to-control-carbon-cycling-in-tropical-forests
#11
REVIEW
Philip G Taylor, Cory C Cleveland, William R Wieder, Benjamin W Sullivan, Christopher E Doughty, Solomon Z Dobrowski, Alan R Townsend
Tropical forests dominate global terrestrial carbon (C) exchange, and recent droughts in the Amazon Basin have contributed to short-term declines in terrestrial carbon dioxide uptake and storage. However, the effects of longer-term climate variability on tropical forest carbon dynamics are still not well understood. We synthesised field data from more than 150 tropical forest sites to explore how climate regulates tropical forest aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) and organic matter decomposition, and combined those data with two existing databases to explore climate - C relationships globally...
April 17, 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413850/scenarios-in-tropical-forest-degradation-carbon-stock-trajectories-for-redd
#12
REVIEW
Rafael B de Andrade, Jennifer K Balch, Amoreena L Parsons, Dolors Armenteras, Rosa Maria Roman-Cuesta, Janette Bulkan
BACKGROUND: Human-caused disturbance to tropical rainforests-such as logging and fire-causes substantial losses of carbon stocks. This is a critical issue to be addressed in the context of policy discussions to implement REDD+. This work reviews current scientific knowledge about the temporal dynamics of degradation-induced carbon emissions to describe common patterns of emissions from logging and fire across tropical forest regions. Using best available information, we: (i) develop short-term emissions factors (per area) for logging and fire degradation scenarios in tropical forests; and (ii) describe the temporal pattern of degradation emissions and recovery trajectory post logging and fire disturbance...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413848/impact-of-data-model-and-point-density-on-aboveground-forest-biomass-estimation-from-airborne-lidar
#13
Mariano Garcia, Sassan Saatchi, Antonio Ferraz, Carlos Alberto Silva, Susan Ustin, Alexander Koltunov, Heiko Balzter
BACKGROUND: Accurate estimation of aboveground forest biomass (AGB) and its dynamics is of paramount importance in understanding the role of forest in the carbon cycle and the effective implementation of climate change mitigation policies. LiDAR is currently the most accurate technology for AGB estimation. LiDAR metrics can be derived from the 3D point cloud (echo-based) or from the canopy height model (CHM). Different sensors and survey configurations can affect the metrics derived from the LiDAR data...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411868/high-resolution-stream-water-quality-assessment-in-the-vancouver-british-columbia-region-a-citizen-science-study
#14
Scott M Shupe
Changing land cover and climate regimes modify water quantity and quality in natural stream systems. In regions undergoing rapid change, it is difficult to effectively monitor and quantify these impacts at local to regional scales. In Vancouver, British Columbia, one of the most rapidly urbanizing areas in Canada, 750 measurements were taken from a total of 81 unique sampling sites representing 49 streams located in urban, forest, and agricultural-dominant watersheds at a frequency of up to 12 times per year between 2013 and 2016...
April 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411568/projecting-biodiversity-and-wood-production-in-future-forest-landscapes-15-key-modeling-considerations
#15
Adam Felton, Thomas Ranius, Jean-Michel Roberge, Karin Öhman, Tomas Lämås, Jari Hynynen, Artti Juutinen, Mikko Mönkkönen, Urban Nilsson, Tomas Lundmark, Annika Nordin
A variety of modeling approaches can be used to project the future development of forest systems, and help to assess the implications of different management alternatives for biodiversity and ecosystem services. This diversity of approaches does however present both an opportunity and an obstacle for those trying to decide which modeling technique to apply, and interpreting the management implications of model output. Furthermore, the breadth of issues relevant to addressing key questions related to forest ecology, conservation biology, silviculture, economics, requires insights stemming from a number of distinct scientific disciplines...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410408/pleistocene-climate-changes-shaped-the-population-structure-of-partamona-seridoensis-apidae-meliponini-an-endemic-stingless-bee-from-the-neotropical-dry-forest
#16
Elder Assis Miranda, Kátia Maria Ferreira, Airton Torres Carvalho, Celso Feitosa Martins, Carlo Rivero Fernandes, Marco Antonio Del Lama
Partamona seridoensis is an endemic stingless bee from the Caatinga, a Neotropical dry forest in northeastern Brazil. Like other stingless bees, this species plays an important ecological role as a pollinator. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic structure and evolutionary history of P. seridoensis across its current geographic range. Workers from 84 nests from 17 localities were analyzed for COI and Cytb genic regions. The population structure tests (Bayesian phylogenetic inference, AMOVA and haplotype network) consistently characterized two haplogroups (northwestern and eastern), with little gene flow between them, generating a high differentiation between them as well as among the populations within each haplogroup...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406998/structure-and-dynamics-of-the-gut-bacterial-microbiota-of-the-bark-beetle-dendroctonus-rhizophagus-curculionidae-scolytinae-across-their-life-stages
#17
Carlos Iván Briones-Roblero, Juan Alfredo Hernández-García, Roman Gonzalez-Escobedo, L Viridiana Soto-Robles, Flor N Rivera-Orduña, Gerardo Zúñiga
Bark beetles play an important role as agents of natural renovation and regeneration in coniferous forests. Several studies have documented the metabolic capacity of bacteria associated with the gut, body surface, and oral secretions of these insects; however, little is known about how the bacterial community structure changes during the life cycle of the beetles. This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of the bacterial community of the gut of the bark beetle D. rhizophagus during the insect's life cycle using 454 pyrosequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406924/quantifying-dispersal-of-a-non-aggressive-saprophytic-bark-beetle
#18
Nicolas Meurisse, Stephen Pawson
Long distance dispersal to locate suitable breeding sites is recognized as a key trait influencing the population dynamics and distribution of bark beetles and other saprophytic insects. While dispersal behavior has been studied for a range of aggressive 'tree killing' bark beetles, few have considered the dispersal behaviour of non-aggressive saprophytic bark beetles that utilize kairomones (host volatiles). We present the results of a mark-recapture experiment that examined adult dispersal patterns of the saprophytic bark beetle Hylurgus ligniperda...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404508/model-based-analyses-reveal-insular-population-diversification-and-cryptic-frog-species-in-the-ischnocnema-parva-complex-in-the-atlantic-forest-of-brazil
#19
Marcelo Gehara, Adriane Barth, Eliana Faria de Oliveira, Marco Antonio Costa, Célio Fernando Baptista Haddad, Miguel Vences
The Atlantic Forest (AF) of Brazil has long been recognized as a biodiversity conservation hotspot. Despite decades of studies the species inventory of this biome continues to increase with the discovery of cryptic diversity and the description of new species. Different diversification mechanisms have been proposed to explain the diversity in the region, including models of forest dynamics, barriers to gene flow and dispersal. Also, sea level change is thought to have influenced coastal diversification and isolated populations on continental islands...
April 9, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401636/contribution-of-different-bacterial-dispersal-sources-to-lakes-population-and-community-effects-in-different-seasons
#20
Jérôme Comte, Mercè Berga, Ina Severin, Jürg Brendan Logue, Eva S Lindström
The diversity and composition of lake bacterial communities are driven by the interplay between local contemporary environmental conditions and dispersal of cells from the surroundings, i.e. the metacommunity. Still, a conceptual understanding of the relative importance of the two types of factors is lacking. For instance, it is unknown which sources of dispersal are most important and under which circumstances. Here, we investigated the seasonal variation in the importance of dispersal from different sources (mixing, precipitation, surface runoff, and sediment resuspension) for lake bacterioplankton community and population dynamics...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
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