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Dynamics forest

Diyuan Zong, Zhen Yang, Yuanyuan Duan
The wetting kinetics of droplets on lyophilic pillar-arrayed substrates is the driving mechanism of several natural phenomena (e.g., insect capturing by Nepenthes) and many industrial technologies (e.g., gas-liquid separation). For a lyophilic pillar-arrayed surface, a fringe film is formed ahead of the contact line, resulting in distinct wetting kinetics, which needs further investigation. In this study, Si(100) substrates with square micropillars were used to investigate the early spreading of droplets on lyophilic pillar-arrayed surfaces through the droplet-spreading method...
March 16, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Maartje J Klapwijk, Jonathan A Walter, Anikó Hirka, György Csóka, Christer Björkman, Andrew M Liebhold
1.Studies of transient population dynamics have largely focused on temporal changes in dynamical behavior, such as the transition between periods of stability and instability. The present study explores a related dynamic pattern, namely transient synchrony during a 49-year period among populations of five sympatric species of forest insects that share host tree resources. The long time-series allows a more comprehensive exploration of transient synchrony patterns than most previous studies. Considerable variation existed in the dynamics of individual species, ranging from periodic to aperiodic...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Qing-Wei Wang, Lin Qi, Wangming Zhou, Cheng-Gang Liu, Dapao Yu, Limin Dai
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The growth limitation hypothesis (GLH) and carbon limitation hypothesis (CLH) are two dominant explanations for treeline formation. The GLH proposes that low temperature drives the treeline through constraining C sinks more than C sources, and it predicts that non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) levels are static or increase with elevation. Although the GLH has received strong support globally for evergreen treelines, there is still no consensus for deciduous treelines, which experience great asynchrony between supply and demand throughout the year...
January 2018: American Journal of Botany
Erika Buscardo, József Geml, Steven K Schmidt, Helena Freitas, Hillândia Brandão da Cunha, Laszlo Nagy
Most tropical evergreen rain forests are characterised by varying degrees of precipitation seasonality that influence plant phenology and litterfall dynamics. Soil microbes are sensitive to soil water:air ratio and to nutrient availability. We studied if within-year seasonality in precipitation and litterfall-derived nutrient input resulted in predictable seasonal variation in soil bacterial diversity/microbial functional groups in an Amazonian forest. We characterised the spatio-temporal dynamics of microbial communities from the plot to the stand scales and related them to precipitation seasonality and spatial variability in soil characteristics...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
David J Páez, Olivier Restif, Peggy Eby, Raina K Plowright
Bats provide important ecosystem services such as pollination of native forests; they are also a source of zoonotic pathogens for humans and domestic animals. Human-induced changes to native habitats may have created more opportunities for bats to reside in urban settings, thus decreasing pollination services to native forests and increasing opportunities for zoonotic transmission. In Australia, fruit bats ( Pteropus spp. flying foxes) are increasingly inhabiting urban areas where they feed on anthropogenic food sources with nutritional characteristics and phenology that differ from native habitats...
May 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Şule Yılmaz, Genet A Shiferaw, Josep Rayo, Anastassios Economou, Lennart Martens, Elien Vandermarliere
Chemical cross-linking analyzed by mass spectrometry (XL-MS) has become an important tool in unravelling protein structure, dynamics, and complex formation. Because the analysis of cross-linked proteins with mass spectrometry results in specific computational challenges, many computational tools have been developed to identify cross-linked peptides from mass spectra and subsequently interpret the identified cross-links within their structural context. In this review, we will provide an overview of the different tools that are currently available to tackle the computational part of an XL-MS experiment...
March 12, 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Britta U Westner, Sarang S Dalal, Simon Hanslmayr, Tobias Staudigl
Single-trial analyses have the potential to uncover meaningful brain dynamics that are obscured when averaging across trials. However, low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can impede the use of single-trial analyses and decoding methods. In this study, we investigate the applicability of a single-trial approach to decode stimulus modality from magnetoencephalographic (MEG) high frequency activity. In order to classify the auditory versus visual presentation of words, we combine beamformer source reconstruction with the random forest classification method...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Vincent Boulanger, Jean-Luc Dupouey, Frédéric Archaux, Vincent Badeau, Christophe Baltzinger, Richard Chevalier, Emmanuel Corcket, Yann Dumas, Françoise Forgeard, Anders Mårell, Pierre Montpied, Yoan Paillet, Sonia Saïd, Erwin Ulrich
In Boulanger et al. (2018), we assessed the role of ungulates' presence on short-term understory plant dynamics, using a nationwide network composed of paired exclosure-control plots. We demonstrated that ungulates are key drivers of understory vegetation in managed forests since they alter the richness and abundance of the shrub layer, increase the richness of the herb layer and favour open habitat plant species. Our results show that local scale mechanisms, here involving indirect facilitation, lead to global dynamics in forest-ungulate systems...
March 11, 2018: Global Change Biology
Angela M Cadavid Restrepo, Yu Rong Yang, Donald P McManus, Darren J Gray, Tamsin S Barnes, Gail M Williams, Ricardo J Soares Magalhães, Archie C A Clements
BACKGROUND: Human echinococcoses are parasitic helminth infections that constitute a serious public health concern in several regions across the world. Cystic (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) in China represent a high proportion of the total global burden of these infections. This study was conducted to predict the spatial distribution of human seropositivity for Echinococcus species in Xiji County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), with the aim of identifying communities where targeted prevention and control efforts are required...
March 9, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Mariana Batista Campos, Antonio Maria Garcia Tommaselli, Eija Honkavaara, Fabricio Dos Santos Prol, Harri Kaartinen, Aimad El Issaoui, Teemu Hakala
The use of Personal Mobile Terrestrial System (PMTS) has increased considerably for mobile mapping applications because these systems offer dynamic data acquisition with ground perspective in places where the use of wheeled platforms is unfeasible, such as forests and indoor buildings. PMTS has become more popular with emerging technologies, such as miniaturized navigation sensors and off-the-shelf omnidirectional cameras, which enable low-cost mobile mapping approaches. However, most of these sensors have not been developed for high-accuracy metric purposes and therefore require rigorous methods of data acquisition and data processing to obtain satisfactory results for some mapping applications...
March 9, 2018: Sensors
Aaron Teets, Shawn Fraver, Aaron R Weiskittel, David Y Hollinger
A range of environmental factors regulate tree growth; however, climate is generally thought to most strongly influence year-to-year variability in growth. Numerous dendrochronological (tree-ring) studies have identified climate factors that influence year-to-year variability in growth for given tree species and location. However, traditional dendrochronology methods have limitations that prevent them from adequately assessing stand-level (as opposed to species-level) growth. We argue that stand-level growth analyses provide a more meaningful assessment of forest response to climate fluctuations, as well as the management options that may be employed to sustain forest productivity...
March 9, 2018: Global Change Biology
Irene Pulido-Valdeolivas, David Gómez-Andrés, Juan Andrés Martín-Gonzalo, Irene Rodríguez-Andonaegui, Javier López-López, Samuel Ignacio Pascual-Pascual, Estrella Rausell
The Hereditary Spastic Paraplegias (HSP) are a group of heterogeneous disorders with a wide spectrum of underlying neural pathology, and hence HSP patients express a variety of gait abnormalities. Classification of these phenotypes may help in monitoring disease progression and personalizing therapies. This is currently managed by measuring values of some kinematic and spatio-temporal parameters at certain moments during the gait cycle, either in the doctor´s surgery room or after very precise measurements produced by instrumental gait analysis (IGA)...
2018: PloS One
Wenfang Dai, Weina Yu, Lixia Xuan, Zhen Tao, Jinbo Xiong
It is now recognized that some gut diseases attribute to polymicrobial pathogens infections. Thus, traditional isolation of single pathogen from disease subjects could bias the identification of causal agents. To fill this gap, using Illumina sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, we explored the dynamics of gut bacterial communities over a shrimp disease progression. The results showed significant differences in the gut bacterial communities between healthy and diseased shrimp. Potential pathogens were inferred by a local pathogens database, of which two OTUs (affiliated with Vibrio tubiashii and Vibrio harveyi) exhibited significantly higher abundances in diseased shrimp as compared to healthy subjects...
March 7, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Yi Lin, Miao Jiang, Petri Pellikka, Janne Heiskanen
Mensuration of tree growth habits is of considerable importance for understanding forest ecosystem processes and forest biophysical responses to climate changes. However, the complexity of tree crown morphology that is typically formed after many years of growth tends to render it a non-trivial task, even for the state-of-the-art 3D forest mapping technology-light detection and ranging (LiDAR). Fortunately, botanists have deduced the large structural diversity of tree forms into only a limited number of tree architecture models, which can present a-priori knowledge about tree structure, growth, and other attributes for different species...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Encarni Montoya, Hayley F Keen, Carmen X Luzuriaga, William D Gosling
Tropical ecosystems play a key role in many aspects of Earth system dynamics currently of global concern, including carbon sequestration and biodiversity. To accurately understand complex tropical systems it is necessary to parameterise key ecological aspects, such as rates of change (RoC), species turnover, dynamism, resilience, or stability. To obtain a long-term (>50 years) perspective on these ecological aspects we must turn to the fossil record. However, compared to temperate zones, collecting continuous sedimentary archives in the lowland tropics is often difficult due to the active landscape processes, with potentially frequent volcanic, tectonic, and/or fluvial events confounding sediment deposition, preservation, and recovery...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jessica Needham, Cory Merow, Chia-Hao Chang-Yang, Hal Caswell, Sean M McMahon
As population-level patterns of interest in forests emerge from individual vital rates, modelling forest dynamics requires making the link between the scales at which data are collected (individual stems) and the scales at which questions are asked (e.g. populations and communities). Structured population models (e.g. integral projection models (IPMs)) are useful tools for linking vital rates to population dynamics. However, the application of such models to forest trees remains challenging owing to features of tree life cycles, such as slow growth, long lifespan and lack of data on crucial ontogenic stages...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Hernando Rodríguez-Correa, Ken Oyama, Mauricio Quesada, Eric J Fuchs, Antonio González-Rodríguez
Lower Central America is an important area to study recent population history and diversification of Neotropical species due to its complex and dynamic geology and climate. Phylogeographic studies in this region are few in comparison with other regions and even less for tree species. The aim of the present study was to characterize the phylogeographic structure in two partially co-distributed endemic oak species (Quercus costaricensis and Q. bumelioides) of the Costa Rican mountains using chloroplast short sequence repeats (cpSSRs), and to test for the effect of geological and palaeoclimatic processes on their population history...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Y Wang, J H Kim, Z Mao, M Ramel, F Pailler, J Perez, H Rey, S Tron, C Jourdan, A Stokes
Background and Aims: The structure of heterogeneous forests has consequences for their biophysical environment. Variations in the local climate significantly affect tree physiological processes. We hypothesize that forest structure also alters tree root elongation and longevity through temporal and spatial variations in soil temperature and water potential. Methods: We installed rhizotrons in paired vegetation communities of closed forest (tree islands) and open patches (canopy gaps), along a soil temperature gradient (elevations of 1400, 1700 and 2000 m) in a heterogeneous mixed forest...
February 28, 2018: Annals of Botany
D A Orwig, P Boucher, I Paynter, E Saenz, Z Li, C Schaaf
Contemporary terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is being used widely in forest ecology applications to examine ecosystem properties at increasing spatial and temporal scales. Harvard Forest (HF) in Petersham, MA, USA, is a long-term ecological research (LTER) site, a National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) location and contains a 35 ha plot which is part of Smithsonian Institution's Forest Global Earth Observatory (ForestGEO). The combination of long-term field plots, eddy flux towers and the detailed past historical records has made HF very appealing for a variety of remote sensing studies...
April 6, 2018: Interface Focus
Subhasis Giri, Zeyuan Qiu, Zhen Zhang
Understanding the relationship between land use and water quality is essential to improve water quality through carefully managing landscape change. This study applies a linear mixed model at both watershed and hydrologically sensitive areas (HSAs) scales to assess such a relationship in 28 northcentral New Jersey watersheds located in a rapidly urbanizing region in the United States. Two models differ in terms of the geographic scope used to derive land use matrices that quantify land use conditions. The land use matrices at the watershed and HSAs scales represent the land use conditions in these watersheds and their HSAs, respectively...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
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