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Dynamics forest

Sylvia L R Wood, Jeanine M Rhemtulla, Oliver T Coomes
In the study of shifting cultivation systems, fallow duration is seen as the key determinant of vegetation and soil dynamics: long fallows renew soil fertility, biomass and biodiversity. However, long fallow systems are increasingly replaced around the world with short-medium fallow systems, and awareness is growing of the need to look across multiple (not just single) crop-fallow cycles to accurately understand observed soil and vegetation patterns. In a study from Peru that builds on field-level land-use histories (50+ years), we found that over multiple crop-fallow cycles, farmer's cropping practices mattered more than fallow duration for biodiversity and soil fertility...
October 22, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Marta R Pereira, Cristian S Dambros, Charles E Zartman
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Resource allocation is difficult to characterize in plants because of the challenges of quantifying gametes and propagules. We surveyed six sympatric, unisexual species in the family Calymperaceae (Bryophyta) to test for trade-offs in prezygotic sexual and asexual expression and density-dependent survivorship of female gametangia. METHODS: We tallied gametangial and asexual propagule output for 1820 shoots from 17 populations of six species at monthly intervals during one year (2010-2011) in a central Amazonian forest...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Botany
Andrew N Gherlenda, Ben D Moore, Anthony M Haigh, Scott N Johnson, Markus Riegler
BACKGROUND: Climate change factors such as elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations (e[CO2]) and altered rainfall patterns can alter leaf composition and phenology. This may subsequently impact insect herbivory. In sclerophyllous forests insects have developed strategies, such as preferentially feeding on new leaf growth, to overcome physical or foliar nitrogen constraints, and this may shift under climate change. Few studies of insect herbivory at elevated [CO2] have occurred under field conditions and none on mature evergreen trees in a naturally established forest, yet estimates for leaf area loss due to herbivory are required in order to allow accurate predictions of plant productivity in future climates...
October 19, 2016: BMC Ecology
Maxime Cailleret, Steven Jansen, Elisabeth M R Robert, Lucía Desoto, Tuomas Aakala, Joseph A Antos, Barbara Beikircher, Christof Bigler, Harald Bugmann, Marco Caccianiga, Vojtěch Čada, J Julio Camarero, Paolo Cherubini, Hervé Cochard, Marie R Coyea, Katarina Čufar, Adrian J Das, Hendrik Davi, Sylvain Delzon, Michael Dorman, Guillermo Gea-Izquierdo, Sten Gillner, Laurel J Haavik, Henrik Hartmann, Ana-Maria Hereş, Kevin R Hultine, Pavel Janda, Jeffrey M Kane, Vyacheslav I Kharuk, Thomas Kitzberger, Tamir Klein, Koen Kramer, Frederic Lens, Tom Levanic, Juan Carlos Linares Calderon, Francisco Lloret, Raquel Lobo-Do-Vale, Fabio Lombardi, Rosana López Rodríguez, Harri Mäkinen, Stefan Mayr, Ilona Mészáros, Juha M Metsaranta, Francesco Minunno, Walter Oberhuber, Andreas Papadopoulos, Mikko Peltoniemi, Any Mary Petritan, Brigitte Rohner, Gabriel Sangüesa-Barreda, Dimitrios Sarris, Jeremy M Smith, Amanda B Stan, Frank Sterck, Dejan B Stojanović, Maria Laura Suarez, Miroslav Svoboda, Roberto Tognetti, José M Torres-Ruiz, Volodymyr Trotsiuk, Ricardo Villalba, Floor Vodde, Alana R Westwood, Peter H Wyckoff, Nikolay Zafirov, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta
Tree mortality is a key factor influencing forest functions and dynamics, but our understanding of the mechanisms leading to mortality and the associated changes in tree growth rates are still limited. We compiled a new pan-continental tree-ring width database from sites where both dead and living trees were sampled (2,970 dead and 4,224 living trees from 190 sites, including 36 species), and compared early and recent growth rates between trees that died and those that survived a given mortality event. We observed a decrease in radial growth before death in ca...
October 19, 2016: Global Change Biology
André P Antunes, Rachel M Fewster, Eduardo M Venticinque, Carlos A Peres, Taal Levi, Fabio Rohe, Glenn H Shepard
The Amazon basin is the largest and most species-rich tropical forest and river system in the world, playing a pivotal role in global climate regulation and harboring hundreds of traditional and indigenous cultures. It is a matter of intense debate whether the ecosystem is threatened by hunting practices, whereby an "empty forest" loses critical ecological functions. Strikingly, no previous study has examined Amazonian ecosystem resilience through the perspective of the massive 20th century international trade in furs and skins...
October 2016: Science Advances
Alejandro Ruete, Tord Snäll, Mari Jönsson
Diversity patterns and dynamics at forest edges are not well understood. We disentangle the relative importance of edge-effect variables on spatio-temporal patterns in species richness and occupancy of deadwood-dwelling fungi in fragmented old-growth forests. We related richness and log occupancy by 10 old-growth forest indicator fungi and by two common fungi to log conditions in natural and anthropogenic edge habitats of 31 old-growth Picea abies forest stands in central Sweden. We compared edge-to-interior gradients (100 m) to the forest interior (beyond 100 m), and we analyzed stand-level changes after 10 yr...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Benoit Gendreau-Berthiaume, S Ellen Macdonald, J John Stadt
Understanding processes driving mortality in forests is important for comprehension of natural stand dynamics and for informing natural disturbance-based ecosystem management. There has been considerable study of mortality in forests during the self-thinning phase but we know much less about processes driving mortality in stands at later successional stages. We addressed this through study of five 1-ha spatially explicit permanent plots in mature (111-186 yr old in 2012) Pinus contorta stands in the Canadian Rocky Mountains using data from repeated measurements over a 45-yr period, dendrochronological information, and point pattern analysis...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Isabel Rodríguez-Quilón, Luis Santos-Del-Blanco, María Jesús Serra-Varela, Jarkko Koskela, Santiago C González-Martínez, Ricardo Alía
Preserving intraspecific genetic diversity is essential for long-term forest sustainability in a climate change scenario. Despite that, genetic information is largely neglected in conservation planning, and how conservation units should be defined is still heatedly debated. Here, we use maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), an outcrossing long-lived tree with a highly fragmented distribution in the Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot, to prove the importance of accounting for genetic variation, of both neutral molecular markers and quantitative traits, to define useful conservation units...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Maxime Cailleret, Christof Bigler, Harald Bugmann, Jesús Julio Camarero, Katarina Cˇufar, Hendrik Davi, Ilona Mészáros, Francesco Minunno, Mikko Peltoniemi, Elisabeth M R Robert, María Laura Suarez, Roberto Tognetti, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta
Tree mortality is a key process shaping forest dynamics. Thus, there is a growing need for indicators of the likelihood of tree death. During the last decades, an increasing number of tree-ring based studies have aimed to derive growth-mortality functions, mostly using logistic models. The results of these studies, however, are difficult to compare and synthesize due to the diversity of approaches used for the sampling strategy (number and characteristics of alive and death observations), the type of explanatory growth variables included (level, trend, etc...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Antoine Adde, Emmanuel Roux, Morgan Mangeas, Nadine Dessay, Mathieu Nacher, Isabelle Dusfour, Romain Girod, Sébastien Briolant
Local variation in the density of Anopheles mosquitoes and the risk of exposure to bites are essential to explain the spatial and temporal heterogeneities in the transmission of malaria. Vector distribution is driven by environmental factors. Based on variables derived from satellite imagery and meteorological observations, this study aimed to dynamically model and map the densities of Anopheles darlingi in the municipality of Saint-Georges de l'Oyapock (French Guiana). Longitudinal sampling sessions of An...
2016: PloS One
Yelong Shen, NhatHai Phan, Xiao Xiao, Ruoming Jin, Junfeng Sun, Brigitte Piniewski, David Kil, Dejing Dou
Modeling and predicting human behaviors, such as the level and intensity of physical activity, is a key to preventing the cascade of obesity and helping spread healthy behaviors in a social network. In our conference paper, we have developed a social influence model, named Socialized Gaussian Process (SGP), for socialized human behavior modeling. Instead of explicitly modeling social influence as individuals' behaviors influenced by their friends' previous behaviors, SGP models the dynamic social correlation as the result of social influence...
November 2016: Knowledge and Information Systems
Velimir Gayevskiy, Soon Lee, Matthew R Goddard
Humans have acted as vectors for species and expanded their ranges since at least the dawn of agriculture. While relatively well characterized for macrofauna and macroflora, the extent and dynamics of human-aided microbial dispersal is poorly described. We studied the role which humans have played in manipulating the distribution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the world's most important microbes, using whole genome sequencing. We include 52 strains representative of the diversity in New Zealand to the global set of genomes for this species...
October 15, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Dominik Florian Stangler, Andreas Hamann, Hans-Peter Kahle, Heinrich Spiecker
A useful approach to monitor tree response to climate change and environmental extremes is the recording of long-term time series of stem radial variations obtained with precision dendrometers. Here, we study the impact of environmental stress on seasonal growth dynamics and productivity of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in the Great Lakes, St Lawrence forest region of Ontario. Specifically, we research the effects of a spring heat wave in 2010, and a summer drought in 2012 that occurred during the 2005-14 study period...
October 13, 2016: Tree Physiology
Aquila Flower
Insect outbreaks often occur synchronously across large spatial scales, but the long-term temporal stability of the phenomenon and the mechanisms behind it are not well understood. In this study, I use a widespread lepidopteran defoliator native to western North America-the western spruce budworm-as a case study to explore patterns of and potential causes for synchronous population fluctuations. Analyses of synchrony are typically severely limited by the short historical records available for many species. To overcome this limitation, I compiled multi-century dendrochronological reconstructions of western spruce budworm outbreaks from across much of the species' range...
2016: PloS One
Ruth Dolado, Catherine Cooke, Francesc S Beltran
For group-living primates, social organization hinges upon multiple factors, including group size, group cohesion, and the group's age and sex composition. Fission-fusion dynamics reduce the risks of living in a large group, which can include feeding competition related to the seasonality of resources. Here we report on the group dynamics (i.e. formation of parties) of a population of red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) located in Sentier Nature forest, South Loango National Park, Gabon, and examine the role of fruit availability in episodes of fission-fusion and shifting range use during the peak fruiting season of 2014...
October 12, 2016: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
Eleanor U Hobley, Adrian J Le Gay Brereton, Brian Wilson
Fire alters ecosystem carbon cycling and generates pyrogenic matter such as charcoal, which can be incorporated into soils. The incorporation and cycling of charcoal in soils is a potential carbon sink, but studies investigating charcoal and carbon dynamics in soils are still lacking. We investigated soil carbon, charcoal and nitrogen dynamics in the top 20cm of a sandy soil within a eucalypt forest in eastern Australia at three sites representing a chronosequence from 3months to 14years post-fire. In the short-term, fire removed litter, but resulted in an increase in both the charcoal and non-charcoal SOC content of the soils, which we attribute to above-ground charcoal generation and its incorporation into the soil profile, as well as below-ground root mortality...
October 8, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Jordi Serra-Cobo, Marc López-Roig
More than 200 viruses have been detected in bats. Some unique bat characteristics can explain the roles played in the maintenance and transmission of viruses: long phylogenetic history can have originated coevolution processes, great number of species are adapted to live in different environments, big mobility, long lifespan and gregarious behaviour of many species.To analyse zoonoses long longitudinal studies are needed with a multidisciplinary approximation to obtain the following eco-epidemiological data: colony size, number of bats per species, population structure, behaviour of each species, degree of contact between bats, social structure, remaining time of bats in the colony, colony type, foraging area, turnover rate of individuals, shelter temperature, relationship with other colonies and co-infection processes...
October 9, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yann Clough, Vijesh V Krishna, Marife D Corre, Kevin Darras, Lisa H Denmead, Ana Meijide, Stefan Moser, Oliver Musshoff, Stefanie Steinebach, Edzo Veldkamp, Kara Allen, Andrew D Barnes, Natalie Breidenbach, Ulrich Brose, Damayanti Buchori, Rolf Daniel, Reiner Finkeldey, Idham Harahap, Dietrich Hertel, A Mareike Holtkamp, Elvira Hörandl, Bambang Irawan, I Nengah Surati Jaya, Malte Jochum, Bernhard Klarner, Alexander Knohl, Martyna M Kotowska, Valentyna Krashevska, Holger Kreft, Syahrul Kurniawan, Christoph Leuschner, Mark Maraun, Dian Nuraini Melati, Nicole Opfermann, César Pérez-Cruzado, Walesa Edho Prabowo, Katja Rembold, Akhmad Rizali, Ratna Rubiana, Dominik Schneider, Sri Sudarmiyati Tjitrosoedirdjo, Aiyen Tjoa, Teja Tscharntke, Stefan Scheu
Smallholder-dominated agricultural mosaic landscapes are highlighted as model production systems that deliver both economic and ecological goods in tropical agricultural landscapes, but trade-offs underlying current land-use dynamics are poorly known. Here, using the most comprehensive quantification of land-use change and associated bundles of ecosystem functions, services and economic benefits to date, we show that Indonesian smallholders predominantly choose farm portfolios with high economic productivity but low ecological value...
October 11, 2016: Nature Communications
Hongliang Bu, Fang Wang, William J McShea, Zhi Lu, Dajun Wang, Sheng Li
Understanding the interactions between species and their coexistence mechanisms will help explain biodiversity maintenance and enable managers to make sound conservation decisions. Mesocarnivores are abundant and diverse mid-sized carnivores and can have profound impacts on the function, structure and dynamics of ecosystem after the extirpation of apex predators in many ecosystems. The moist temperate forests of Southwest China harbor a diverse community of mesocarnivores in the absence of apex predators. Sympatric species tend to partition limited resources along time, diet and space to facilitate coexistence...
2016: PloS One
Freya E Rowland, Madelyn B Rawlings, Raymond D Semlitsch
Primary production can be controlled through bottom-up (e.g., resources) or top-down (e.g., predators) constraints. Two key bottom-up resources in small aquatic systems are light and nutrients, and forest canopy cover heavily influences these factors, whereas amphibian and invertebrate colonizers exert top-down pressure as grazers and predators. We designed our experiment to specifically manipulate two different top-down and bottom-up factors. We manipulated resources by altering light (low/high) and nutrient (low/high) availability; omnivores with the presence/absence of southern leopard frog tadpoles (Lithobates sphenocephalus); and predators with the presence/absence of spotted salamander larvae (Ambystoma maculatum) in a full-factorial experiment conducted over 14 weeks...
October 7, 2016: Oecologia
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