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Dynamics forest

Shen Rong-Feng, Zhang Xiaozhen, Zhou Chengjun
Hybrid tree harvester with a 60 kW diesel engine combined with a battery pile could be a "green" forest harvesting and transportation system. With the new design, the diesel engine maintains a constant engine speed, keeping fuel consumption low while charging the batteries that drive the forwarder. As an additional energy saving method, the electric motors work as generators to charge the battery pile when the vehicle moves downhill. The vehicle is equipped with six large wheels providing high clearance over uneven terrain while reducing ground pressure...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
Javier Pascual, Christian von Hoermann, Ann-Marie Rottler-Hoermann, Omer Nevo, Alicia Geppert, Johannes Sikorski, Katharina J Huber, Sandra Steiger, Manfred Ayasse, Jörg Overmann
The decomposition of dead mammalian tissue involves a complex temporal succession of epinecrotic bacteria. Microbial activity may release different cadaveric volatile organic compounds which in turn attract other key players of carcass decomposition such as scavenger insects. To elucidate the dynamics and potential functions of epinecrotic bacteria on carcasses, we monitored bacterial communities developing on still-born piglets incubated in different forest ecosystems by combining high-throughput Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of volatiles...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Jiang-Lin Qin, Xiu-Hao Yang, Zhong-Wu Yang, Ji-Tong Luo, Xiu-Feng Lei
BACKGROUND: Near surface air temperature and rainfall are major weather factors affecting forest insect dynamics. The recent development in remote sensing retrieval and GIS spatial analysis techniques enable the utilization of weather factors to significantly enhance forest pest forecasting and warning systems. The current study focused on building forest pest digital data structures as a platform of correlation analysis between weather conditions and forest pest dynamics for better pest forecasting and warning systems using the new technologies...
June 19, 2017: Pest Management Science
Jana Milenković, Mehmet Ufuk Dalmış, Janez Žgajnar, Bram Platel
PURPOSE: New ultrafast view-sharing sequences have enabled breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) to be performed at high spatial and temporal resolution. The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic potential of textural features that quantify the spatiotemporal changes of the contrast-agent uptake in computer-aided diagnosis of malignant and benign breast lesions imaged with high spatial and temporal resolution DCE-MRI. METHOD: The proposed approach is based on the textural analysis quantifying the spatial variation of six dynamic features of the early-phase contrast-agent uptake of a lesion's largest cross-sectional area...
June 16, 2017: Medical Physics
Shyam Pariyar, Shih-Chieh Chang, Daniel Zinsmeister, Haiyang Zhou, David A Grantz, Mauricio Hunsche, Juergen Burkhardt
Previous flux measurements in the perhumid cloud forest of northeastern Taiwan have shown efficient photosynthesis of the endemic tree species Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana even under foggy conditions in which leaf surface moisture would be expected. We hypothesized this to be the result of 'xeromorphic' traits of the Chamaecyparis leaves (hydrophobicity, stomatal crypts, stomatal clustering), which could prevent coverage of stomata by precipitation, fog, and condensation, thereby maintaining CO2 uptake...
June 14, 2017: Oecologia
Angelo Finco, Riccardo Marzuoli, Maria Chiesa, Giacomo Gerosa
The upper vegetation belts like larch forests are supposed to be under great pressure because of climate change in the next decades. For this reason, the evaluation of the risks due to abiotic stressors like ozone is a key step. Two different approaches were used here: mapping AOT40 index by means of passive samplers and direct measurements of ozone deposition.Measurements of ozone fluxes using the eddy-correlation technique were carried out for the first time over a larch forest in Paspardo (I) at 1750 m a...
June 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
L Pisano, V Zumpano, Ž Malek, C M Rosskopf, M Parise
Land cover is one of the most important conditioning factors in landslide susceptibility analysis. Usually it is considered as a static factor, but it has proven to be dynamic, with changes occurring even in few decades. In this work the influence of land cover changes on landslide susceptibility are analyzed for the past and for future scenarios. For the application, an area representative of the hilly-low mountain sectors of the Italian Southern Apennines was chosen (Rivo basin, in Molise Region). With this purpose landslide inventories and land cover maps were produced for the years 1954, 1981 and 2007...
June 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Thomas Beltrame, Robert Amelard, Alexander Wong, Richard L Hughson
Physical activity levels are related through algorithms to the energetic demand with no information regarding the integrity of the multiple physiological systems involved in the energetic supply. Longitudinal analysis of the oxygen uptake (VO2) by wearable sensors in realistic settings might permit development of a practical tool for the study of the longitudinal aerobic system dynamics (i.e., VO2 kinetics). This study evaluated aerobic system dynamics based on predicted VO2 data obtained from wearable sensors during unsupervised activities of daily living (uADL)...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
William Andrew Stoy, Ilya Kolb, Gregory Holst, Yi J Liew, Aurelie Pala, Bo Yang, Edward S Boyden, Garrett B Stanley, Craig R Forest
In vivo studies of neurophysiology using the whole-cell patch clamp technique enable exquisite access to both intracellular dynamics and cytosol of cells in the living brain but are underrepresented in deep subcortical nuclei due to fouling of the sensitive electrode tip. We have developed an autonomous method to navigate electrodes around obstacles such as blood vessels, after identifying them as a source of contamination during regional pipette localization (RPL) in vivo. In mice, robotic navigation prevented fouling of the electrode tip, increasing RPL success probability 3 mm below the pial surface to 82% (n=72/88) over traditional, linear localization (25%, n=24/95) and resulted in high quality thalamic whole-cell recordings with average access resistance (32...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Jonas Nüchel, Jens-Christian Svenning
Globally, the extent of forest continues to decline, however, some countries have increased their forest extent in recent years. China is one of these countries and has managed to increase their tree cover through huge reforestation and afforestation programs during recent decades as well as land abandonment dynamics. This study investigates tree cover change in the eastern half of China between 2000 and 2010 on three different scales, using random forest modeling of remote sensing data for tree cover in relation to environmental and anthropogenic predictor variables...
2017: PloS One
Vivianne J Goosens, Andreas Busch, Michaella Georgiadou, Marta Castagnini, Katrina T Forest, Gabriel Waksman, Vladimir Pelicic
Type IV pili (Tfp), which are key virulence factors in many bacterial pathogens, define a large group of multipurpose filamentous nanomachines widespread in Bacteria and Archaea. Tfp biogenesis is a complex multistep process, which relies on macromolecular assemblies composed of 15 conserved proteins in model gram-negative species. To improve our limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms of filament assembly, we have used a synthetic biology approach to reconstitute, in a nonnative heterologous host, a minimal machinery capable of building Tfp...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Shunsuke Tei, Atsuko Sugimoto, Hitoshi Yonenobu, Yojiro Matsuura, Akira Osawa, Hisashi Sato, Junichi Fujinuma, Trofim Maximov
Circumboreal forest ecosystems are exposed to a larger magnitude of warming in comparison with the global average, as a result of warming-induced environmental changes. However, it is not clear how tree growth in these ecosystems responds to these changes. In the present study, we investigated the sensitivity of forest productivity to climate change using ring width indices (RWI) from a tree-ring width dataset accessed from the International Tree-Ring Data Bank and gridded climate datasets from the Climate Research Unit...
June 6, 2017: Global Change Biology
Victoria Meakem, Alan J Tepley, Erika B Gonzalez-Akre, Valentine Herrmann, Helene C Muller-Landau, S Joseph Wright, Stephen P Hubbell, Richard Condit, Kristina J Anderson-Teixeira
Drought disproportionately affects larger trees in tropical forests, but implications for forest composition and carbon (C) cycling in relation to dry season intensity remain poorly understood. In order to characterize how C cycling is shaped by tree size and drought adaptations and how these patterns relate to spatial and temporal variation in water deficit, we analyze data from three forest dynamics plots spanning a moisture gradient in Panama that have experienced El Niño droughts. At all sites, aboveground C cycle contributions peaked below 50-cm stem diameter, with stems ≥ 50 cm accounting for on average 59% of live aboveground biomass, 45% of woody productivity and 49% of woody mortality...
June 6, 2017: New Phytologist
Melissa Leach, Bernard Bett, M Said, Salome Bukachi, Rosemary Sang, Neil Anderson, Noreen Machila, Joanna Kuleszo, Kathryn Schaten, Vupenyu Dzingirai, Lindiwe Mangwanya, Yaa Ntiamoa-Baidu, Elaine Lawson, Kofi Amponsah-Mensah, Lina M Moses, Annie Wilkinson, Donald S Grant, James Koninga
This article explores the implications for human health of local interactions between disease, ecosystems and livelihoods. Five interdisciplinary case studies addressed zoonotic diseases in African settings: Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Kenya, human African trypanosomiasis in Zambia and Zimbabwe, Lassa fever in Sierra Leone and henipaviruses in Ghana. Each explored how ecological changes and human-ecosystem interactions affect pathogen dynamics and hence the likelihood of zoonotic spillover and transmission, and how socially differentiated peoples' interactions with ecosystems and animals affect their exposure to disease...
July 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Katalin Csilléry, Georges Kunstler, Benoît Courbaud, Denis Allard, Pierre Lassegues, Klaus Haslinger, Barry Gardiner
Damage due to wind storms and droughts are increasing in many temperate forest, yet little is known about the long-term roles of these key climatic factors in forest dynamics and in the carbon budget. The objective of this study was to estimate individual and coupled effects of droughts and wind-storms on adult tree mortality across a 31-year period in 115 managed, mixed-coniferous forest stands from the Western Alps and the Jura mountains. For each stand, yearly mortality was inferred from management records, yearly drought from interpolated fields of monthly temperature, precipitation and soil water holding capacity, and wind-storms from interpolated fields of daily maximum wind-speed...
June 5, 2017: Global Change Biology
Bogdan Mihai, Ionuț Săvulescu, Marina Rujoiu-Mare, Constantin Nistor
The paper explores the dynamics of the forest cover change in the Iezer Mountains, part of Southern Carpathians, in the context of the forest ownership recovery and deforestation processes, combined with the effects of biotic and abiotic disturbances. The aim of the study is to map and evaluate the typology and the spatial extension of changes in the montane forest cover between 700 and 2462m a.s.l., sampling all the representative Carpathian ecosystems, from the European beech zone up to the spruce-fir zone and the subalpine-alpine pastures...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Caroline L Poli, Autumn-Lynn Harrison, Adriana Vallarino, Patrick D Gerard, Patrick G R Jodice
During breeding, foraging marine birds are under biological, geographic, and temporal constraints. These contraints require foraging birds to efficiently process environmental cues derived from physical habitat features that occur at nested spatial scales. Mesoscale oceanography in particular may change rapidly within and between breeding seasons, and findings from well-studied systems that relate oceanography to seabird foraging may transfer poorly to regions with substantially different oceanographic conditions...
2017: PloS One
Cathy Whitlock, Daniele Colombaroli, Marco Conedera, Willy Tinner
Conservation efforts to protect forested landscapes are challenged by climate projections that suggest significant restructuring of vegetation and disturbance regimes in the future. In this regard, paleoecological records that describe ecosystem responses to past variations in climate, fire and human activity offer critical information for assessing present landscape conditions and future landscape vulnerability. We illustrate this point drawing on eight sites in the northwest U.S., New Zealand, Patagonia, and central and southern Europe that have experienced different levels of climate and land-use change...
June 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Jagmohan Sharma, Sujata Upgupta, Mathangi Jayaraman, Rajiv Kumar Chaturvedi, Govindswamy Bala, N H Ravindranath
Forests are subjected to stress from climatic and non-climatic sources. In this study, we have reported the results of inherent, as well as climate change driven vulnerability assessments for Indian forests. To assess inherent vulnerability of forests under current climate, we have used four indicators, namely biological richness, disturbance index, canopy cover, and slope. The assessment is presented as spatial profile of inherent vulnerability in low, medium, high and very high vulnerability classes. Fourty percent forest grid points in India show high or very high inherent vulnerability...
June 1, 2017: Environmental Management
Moshe Giladi, Liat van Dijk, Bosmat Refaeli, Lior Almagor, Reuben Hiller, Petr Man, Eric Forest, Daniel Khananshvili
Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) proteins operate through the alternating access mechanism, where the ion-binding pocket is exposed in succession either to the extracellular or the intracellular face of the membrane. The archaeal NCX_Mj (Methanococcus jannaschii NCX) system was used to resolve the backbone dynamics in the inward facing (IF) and outward-facing (OF) states by analyzing purified preparations of apo and ion-bound forms of NCX_Mj-WT and its mutant, NCX_Mj-5L6-8. First, the exposure of extracellular and cytosolic vestibules to the bulk phase was evaluated as the reactivity of single cysteine-mutants to a fluorescent probe, verifying that NCX_Mj-WT and NCX_Mj-5L6-8 preferentially adopt the OF and IF states, respectively...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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