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Dynamics forest

John D Reeve
Spatial synchrony and cycles are common features of forest insect pests, but are often studied as separate phenomenon. Using time series of timber damage caused by Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (southern pine beetle) in 10 states within the southern United States, this study examines synchrony in D. frontalis abundance, the synchronizing effects of temperature extremes, and the evidence for shared cycles among state populations. Cross-correlation and cluster analyses are used to quantify synchrony across a range of geographic distances and to identify groups of states with synchronous dynamics...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Irene Garcia-Martí, Raúl Zurita-Milla, Arnold J H van Vliet, Willem Takken
BACKGROUND: Tick populations and tick-borne infections have steadily increased since the mid-1990s posing an ever-increasing risk to public health. Yet, modelling tick dynamics remains challenging because of the lack of data and knowledge on this complex phenomenon. Here we present an approach to model and map tick dynamics using volunteered data. This approach is illustrated with 9 years of data collected by a group of trained volunteers who sampled active questing ticks (AQT) on a monthly basis and for 15 locations in the Netherlands...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
Michael González-Durruthy, Jose M Monserrat, Bakhtiyor Rasulev, Gerardo M Casañola-Martín, José María Barreiro Sorrivas, Sergio Paraíso-Medina, Víctor Maojo, Humberto González-Díaz, Alejandro Pazos, Cristian R Munteanu
This study presents the impact of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on mitochondrial oxygen mass flux (Jm) under three experimental conditions. New experimental results and a new methodology are reported for the first time and they are based on CNT Raman spectra star graph transform (spectral moments) and perturbation theory. The experimental measures of Jm showed that no tested CNT family can inhibit the oxygen consumption profiles of mitochondria. The best model for the prediction of Jm for other CNTs was provided by random forest using eight features, obtaining test R-squared (R²) of 0...
November 11, 2017: Nanomaterials
Hans Pretzsch, Peter Biber, Enno Uhl, Jens Dahlhausen, Gerhard Schütze, Diana Perkins, Thomas Rötzer, Juan Caldentey, Takayoshi Koike, Tran van Con, Aurélia Chavanne, Ben du Toit, Keith Foster, Barry Lefer
Despite the importance of urban trees, their growth reaction to climate change and to the urban heat island effect has not yet been investigated with an international scope. While we are well informed about forest growth under recent conditions, it is unclear if this knowledge can be simply transferred to urban environments. Based on tree ring analyses in ten metropolises worldwide, we show that, in general, urban trees have undergone accelerated growth since the 1960s. In addition, urban trees tend to grow more quickly than their counterparts in the rural surroundings...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
D Richard Cameron, David C Marvin, Jonathan M Remucal, Michelle C Passero
Modeling efforts focused on future greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy and other sectors in California have shown varying capacities to meet the emissions reduction targets established by the state. These efforts have not included potential reductions from changes in ecosystem management, restoration, and conservation. We examine the scale of contributions from selected activities in natural and agricultural lands and assess the degree to which these actions could help the state achieve its 2030 and 2050 climate mitigation goals under alternative implementation scenarios...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Patrick F Sullivan, Robert R Pattison, Annalis H Brownlee, Sean M P Cahoon, Teresa N Hollingsworth
Boreal forests play critical roles in global carbon, water and energy cycles. Recent studies suggest drought is causing a decline in boreal spruce growth, leading to predictions of widespread mortality and a shift in dominant vegetation type in interior Alaska. We took advantage of a large set of tree cores collected from random locations across a vast area of interior Alaska to examine long-term trends in carbon isotope discrimination and growth of black and white spruce. Our results confirm that growth of both species is sensitive to moisture availability, yet show limited evidence of declining growth in recent decades...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Lai Jiang, Di Tian, Suhui Ma, Xuli Zhou, Longchao Xu, Jianxiao Zhu, Xin Jing, Chengyang Zheng, Haihua Shen, Zhang Zhou, Yide Li, Biao Zhu, Jingyun Fang
Rapid increase of global nitrogen (N) deposition has greatly altered carbon cycles and functioning of forest ecosystems. Previous studies have focused on changes in carbon dynamics of temperate and subtropical forests through N enrichment experiments; however, the effects of N deposition on tree growth remain inconsistent, especially in tropical forests. Here, we conducted a five-year N addition experiment (0 and 50kgNha(-1)yr(-1)) in a tropical montane rain forest in Hainan Island, China, to explore the effects of enhanced N deposition on growth of trees...
November 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Bappa Das, Rabi N Sahoo, Sourabh Pargal, Gopal Krishna, Rakesh Verma, Viswanathan Chinnusamy, Vinay K Sehgal, Vinod K Gupta, Sushanta K Dash, Padmini Swain
In the present investigation, the changes in sucrose, reducing and total sugar content due to water-deficit stress in rice leaves were modeled using visible, near infrared (VNIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy. The objectives of the study were to identify the best vegetation indices and suitable multivariate technique based on precise analysis of hyperspectral data (350 to 2500nm) and sucrose, reducing sugar and total sugar content measured at different stress levels from 16 different rice genotypes...
October 31, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Nattapol Marasri, Hans J Overgaard, Anchana Sumarnrote, Kanutcharee Thanispong, Vincent Corbel, Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap
Malaria is an important public health problem in Thailand, especially along international borders. In this study, we conducted a longitudinal entomological survey in six villages and rubber plantation sites to address the spatio-temporal abundance and behavior of malaria vectors in Ubon Ratchathani Province along the Thailand-Laos border. Adult female mosquitoes were collected by human landing collections (indoor and outdoor) and by cattle bait collections twice per year, during rainy and dry seasons. Mosquitoes were morphologically identified and sibling species were determined by allele-specific PCR...
December 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
Danica Schaffer-Smith, Jennifer J Swenson, Blake Barbaree, Matthew E Reiter
Satellite measurements of surface water offer promise for understanding wetland habitat availability at broad spatial and temporal scales; reliable habitat is crucial for the persistence of migratory shorebirds that depend on wetland networks. We analyzed water extent dynamics within wetland habitats at a globally important shorebird stopover site for a 1983-2015 Landsat time series, and evaluated the effect of climate on water extent. A range of methods can detect open water from imagery, including supervised classification approaches and thresholds for spectral bands and indices...
May 2017: Remote Sensing of Environment
Haibo Lu, Shirong Liu, Hui Wang, Junwei Luan, Andreas Schindlbacher, Yanchun Liu, Yi Wang
Changing precipitation patterns could affect soil carbon (C) cycling in China's forests. A throughfall reduction (TFR) experiment was conducted in a warm-temperate oak forest in central China to examine effects of reduced precipitation on total soil respiration (SR), heterotrophic soil respiration (HR), autotrophic soil respiration (AR), soil microbial biomass, and fine root biomass from 2013 to 2016. Rain-out shelters, excluding ~50% of throughfall, were applied between May and September, thereby simulating a ~30% reduction in annual precipitation...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Maurizio Rossetto, Emilie J Ens, Thijs Honings, Peter D Wilson, Jia-Yee S Yap, Oliver Costello, Erich R Round, Claire Bowern
BACKGROUND: Prehistoric human activities have contributed to the dispersal of many culturally important plants. The study of these traditional interactions can alter the way we perceive the natural distribution and dynamics of species and communities. Comprehensive research on native crops combining evolutionary and anthropological data is revealing how ancient human populations influenced their distribution. Although traditional diets also included a suite of non-cultivated plants that in some cases necessitated the development of culturally important technical advances such as the treatment of toxic seed, empirical evidence for their deliberate dispersal by prehistoric peoples remains limited...
2017: PloS One
Denise Boehnke, Reiner Gebhardt, Trevor Petney, Stefan Norra
BACKGROUND: Ecological field research on the influence of meteorological parameters on a forest inhabiting species is confronted with the complex relations between measured data and the real conditions the species is exposed to. This study highlights this complexity for the example of Ixodes ricinus. This species lives mainly in forest habitats near the ground, but field research on impacts of meteorological conditions on population dynamics is often based on data from nearby official weather stations or occasional in situ measurements...
November 6, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Manoj Kumar, Joseph S Francisco
Although the role of methanesulfonic acid (HMSA) in particle formation in the gas phase has been extensively studied, the details of the HMSA-induced ion pair particle formation at the air-water interface are yet to be examined. In this work, we have performed Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations and density functional theory calculations to investigate the ion pair particle formation from HMSA and (R1)(R2)NH (for NH3, R1 = R2 = H; for CH3NH2, R1 = H and R2 = CH3; and for CH3NH2, R1 = R2 = CH3) at the air-water interface...
November 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
M Kautz, P Anthoni, A J H Meddens, T A M Pugh, A Arneth
Biotic disturbances (BDs, e.g., insects, pathogens and wildlife herbivory) substantially affect boreal and temperate forest ecosystems globally. However, accurate impact assessments comprising larger spatial scales are lacking to date, although these are critically needed given the expected disturbance intensification under a warming climate. Hence, our quantitative knowledge on current and future BD impacts, e.g., on forest carbon (C) cycling, is strongly limited. We extended a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model to simulate ecosystem response to prescribed tree mortality and defoliation due to multiple biotic agents across United States forests during the period 1997-2015, and quantified the BD-induced vegetation C loss, i...
November 3, 2017: Global Change Biology
D G Zamolodchikov, V I Grabovskii, P P Shulyak, O V Chestnykh
Regional Evaluation of Carbon Budget of Forests (RECBF), was used to study the dynamics of carbon balance in Russian forests in 1988-2015. The carbon sink (excess of absorption over losses) to forests was minimal in 1988. Since the first half of the 1990s, its increase has started. This increase was associated with the reduction of logging volume in connection with socioeconomic reforms. Since 2008, the carbon sink was gradually reduced due to increasing losses in logging operations, forest fires, and decreased carbon absorption...
September 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
Fabienne Reynard, Philippe Terrier
Dynamic balance in human locomotion can be assessed through the local dynamic stability (LDS) method. Whereas gait LDS has been used successfully in many settings and applications, little is known about its sensitivity to individual characteristics of healthy adults. Therefore, we reanalyzed a large dataset of accelerometric data measured for 100 healthy adults from 20 to 70 years of age performing 10 min treadmill walking. We sought to assess the extent to which the variations of age, body mass and height, sex, and preferred walking speed (PWS) could influence gait LDS...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Meskerem Zewdie, Hailu Worku, Amare Bantider
Mapping and quantifying urban landscape dynamics and the underlying driving factors are crucial for devising appropriate policies, especially in cities of developing countries where the change is rapid. This study analyzed three decades (1984-2014) of land use land cover change of Addis Ababa using Landsat imagery and examined the underlying factors and their temporal dynamics through expert interview using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Classification results revealed that urban area increased by 50%, while agricultural land and forest decreased by 34 and 16%, respectively...
November 2, 2017: Environmental Management
Roberta Fusco, Mario Sansone, Vincenza Granata, Sergio Venanzio Setola, Antonella Petrillo
Background: Literature data suggest that multi-parametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), including morphologic T2-weigthed images (T2-MRI) and functional approaches such as Dynamic Contrast Enhanced-MRI (DCE-MRI), Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI), give an added value in the prostate cancer localization and local staging. Methods: We performed a systematic review of literature about the role and the potentiality of morphological and functional MRI in prostate cancer, also in a multimodal / multiparametric approach, and we reported the diagnostic accuracy results for different imaging modalities and for different MR coil settings: endorectal coil (ERC) and phased array coil (PAC)...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Milan Lstibůrek, Yousry A El-Kassaby, Tore Skrøppa, Gary R Hodge, Jørn H Sønstebø, Arne Steffenrem
Traditional gene-resource management programs for forest trees are long-term endeavors requiring sustained organizational commitment covering extensive landscapes. While successful in maintaining adaptation, genetic diversity and capturing traditional growth attributes gains, these programs are dependent on rigid methods requiring elaborate mating schemes, thus making them slow in coping with climate change challenges. Here, we review the significance of Norway spruce in the boreal region and its current management practices...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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