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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793079/shifts-in-wind-energy-potential-following-land-use-driven-vegetation-dynamics-in-complex-terrain
#1
Jiannong Fang, Alexander Peringer, Mihai-Sorin Stupariu, Ileana Pǎtru-Stupariu, Alexandre Buttler, Francois Golay, Fernando Porté-Agel
Many mountainous regions with high wind energy potential are characterized by multi-scale variabilities of vegetation in both spatial and time dimensions, which strongly affect the spatial distribution of wind resource and its time evolution. To this end, we developed a coupled interdisciplinary modeling framework capable of assessing the shifts in wind energy potential following land-use driven vegetation dynamics in complex mountain terrain. It was applied to a case study area in the Romanian Carpathians...
May 21, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793070/intradialytic-blood-pressure-pattern-recognition-based-on-density-peak-clustering
#2
Feng Wang, Jing-Yi Zhou, Yu Tian, Yu Wang, Ping Zhang, Jiang-Hua Chen, Jing-Song Li
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is the final stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and requires hemodialysis (HD) for survival. Intradialytic blood pressure (IBP) measurements are necessary to ensure patient safety during HD treatments and have critical clinical and prognostic significance. Studies on IBP measurements, especially IBP patterns, are limited. All related studies have been based on a priori knowledge and artificially classified IBP patterns. Therefore, the results were influenced by subjective concepts...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792570/a-model-for-predicting-the-risk-of-musculoskeletal-disorders-among-computer-professionals
#3
Vishnu Sasikumar, Second Champakkadayil Abdul Basheer Binoosh
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop a model for predicting the risk of musculoskeletal disorders among computer professionals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A preliminary study with a modified Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire was conducted to identify the risk in different body parts of the professionals during their work. A discrete postural evaluation of the dynamic postures involved in the work was assessed using rapid upper limb assessment. The postural, physiological and work-related factors were considered as the attributes of the model...
May 24, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791493/agricultural-matrices-affect-ground-ant-assemblage-composition-inside-forest-fragments
#4
Diego Santana Assis, Iracenir Andrade Dos Santos, Flavio Nunes Ramos, Katty Elena Barrios-Rojas, Jonathan David Majer, Evaldo Ferreira Vilela
The establishment of agricultural matrices generally involves deforestation, which leads to fragmentation of the remaining forest. This fragmentation can affect forest dynamics both positively and negatively. Since most animal species are affected, certain groups can be used to measure the impact of such fragmentation. This study aimed to measure the impacts of agricultural crops (matrices) on ant communities of adjacent lower montane Atlantic rainforest fragments. We sampled nine forest fragments at locations surrounded by different agricultural matrices, namely: coffee (3 replicates); sugarcane (3); and pasture (3)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788468/caviar-an-r-package-for-checking-displaying-and-processing-wood-formation-monitoring-data
#5
Cyrille B K Rathgeber, Philippe Santenoise, Henri E Cuny
In the last decade, the pervasive question of climate change impacts on forests has revived investigations on intra-annual dynamics of wood formation, involving disciplines such as plant ecology, tree physiology and dendrochronology. This resulted in the creation of many research groups working on this topic worldwide and a rapid increase in the number of studies and publications. Wood-formation-monitoring studies are generally based on a common conceptual model describing xylem cell formation as the succession of four differentiation phases (cell division, cell enlargement, cell wall thickening and mature cells)...
May 19, 2018: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785698/specific-parasites-indirectly-influence-niche-occupation-of-non-hosts-community-members
#6
João Custódio Fernandes Cardoso, Radek Michalko, Marcelo Oliveira Gonzaga
The coexistence of phylogenetically related species is an attractive topic because of the potentially intense interspecific competition. The most often investigated mechanisms mediating coexistence of these species are environmental filtering and niche partitioning. However, the role of other factors, such as species-specific parasites, is still poorly understood. Along the riparian understory of a tropical forest, we explored niche occupation and coexistence between Chrysso intervales and Helvibis longicauda, two related syntopic web-building spiders...
May 22, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785342/occurrence-of-termites-isoptera-on-living-and-standing-dead-trees-in-a-tropical-dry-forest-in-mexico
#7
Nancy Calderón-Cortés, Luis H Escalera-Vázquez, Ken Oyama
Termites play a key role as ecosystem engineers in numerous ecological processes though their role in the dynamics of wood degradation in tropical dry forests, particularly at the level of the crown canopy, has been little studied. In this study, we analysed the occurrence of termites in the forest canopy by evaluating the density and proportion of living and standing dead trees associated with termites in deciduous and riparian habitats of the tropical dry forest in Chamela, Mexico. The results indicated that 60-98% of standing dead trees and 23-59% of living trees in Chamela were associated with termites...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782655/cross-scale-occupancy-dynamics-of-a-post-fire-specialist-in-response-to-variation-across-a-fire-regime
#8
Morgan W Tingley, Andrew N Stillman, Robert L Wilkerson, Christine A Howell, Sarah C Sawyer, Rodney B Siegel
1.Fire creates challenges and opportunities for wildlife through rapid destruction, modification, and creation of habitat. Fire has spatially variable effects on landscapes, however, and for species that benefit from the ephemeral resource patches created by fire, it is critical to understand characteristics of fires that promote post-fire colonization and persistence, and the spatial scales on which they operate. 2.Using a model post-fire specialist, the black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus), we examined how colonization and persistence varied across two spatial scales as a function of four characteristics of fire regimes - fire severity, fire size, fire ignition date, and number of years since fire...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781413/drivers-potentially-influencing-host-bat-fly-interactions-in-anthropogenic-neotropical-landscapes-at-different-spatial-scales
#9
Jacqueline Hernández-Martínez, Juan B Morales-Malacara, Mariana Yolotl Alvarez-Añorve, Sergio Amador-Hernández, Ken Oyama, Luis Daniel Avila-Cabadilla
The anthropogenic modification of natural landscapes, and the consequent changes in the environmental conditions and resources availability at multiple spatial scales can affect complex species interactions involving key-stone species such as bat-parasite interactions. In this study, we aimed to identify the drivers potentially influencing host-bat fly interactions at different spatial scales (at the host, vegetation stand and landscape level), in a tropical anthropogenic landscape. For this purpose, we mist-netted phyllostomid and moormopid bats and collected the bat flies (streblids) parasitizing them in 10 sites representing secondary and old growth forest...
May 21, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780172/a-spatially-integrated-framework-for-assessing-socioecological-drivers-of-carnivore-decline
#10
Nicolás Gálvez, Gurutzeta Guillera-Arroita, Freya A V St John, Elke Schüttler, David W Macdonald, Zoe G Davies
Habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation are key threats to the long-term persistence of carnivores, which are also susceptible to direct persecution by people. Integrating natural and social science methods to examine how habitat configuration/quality and human-predator relations may interact in space and time to effect carnivore populations within human-dominated landscapes will help prioritise conservation investment and action effectively.We propose a socioecological modelling framework to evaluate drivers of carnivore decline in landscapes where predators and people coexist...
May 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774944/can-traits-predict-individual-growth-performance-a-test-in-a-hyperdiverse-tropical-forest
#11
Lourens Poorter, Carolina V Castilho, Juliana Schietti, Rafael S Oliveira, Flávia R C Costa
The functional trait approach has, as a central tenet, that plant traits are functional and shape individual performance, but this has rarely been tested in the field. Here, we tested the individual-based trait approach in a hyperdiverse Amazonian tropical rainforest and evaluated intraspecific variation in trait values, plant strategies at the individual level, and whether traits are functional and predict individual performance. We evaluated > 1300 tree saplings belonging to > 383 species, measured 25 traits related to growth and defense, and evaluated the effects of environmental conditions, plant size, and traits on stem growth...
May 18, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774443/science-based-approach-for-credible-accounting-of-mitigation-in-managed-forests
#12
Giacomo Grassi, Roberto Pilli, Jo House, Sandro Federici, Werner A Kurz
BACKGROUND: The credibility and effectiveness of country climate targets under the Paris Agreement requires that, in all greenhouse gas (GHG) sectors, the accounted mitigation outcomes reflect genuine deviations from the type and magnitude of activities generating emissions in the base year or baseline. This is challenging for the forestry sector, as the future net emissions can change irrespective of actual management activities, because of age-related stand dynamics resulting from past management and natural disturbances...
May 17, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773336/seasonal-dynamics-geographical-range-size-hosts-genetic-diversity-and-phylogeography-of-amblyomma-sculptum-in-argentina
#13
Evelina L Tarragona, Patrick S Sebastian, María N Saracho Bottero, Emilia I Martinez, Valeria N Debárbora, Atilio J Mangold, Alberto A Guglielmone, Santiago Nava
The aim of this work was to generate knowledge on ecological aspects of Amblyomma sculptum in Argentina, such as seasonal dynamics, geographical range size, hosts, genetic diversity and phylogeography. Adult and immature A. sculptum ticks were collected in different localities of Argentina to know the geographical range size and hosts. The genetic diversity of this tick was studied through analyses of 16S rDNA sequences. To describe the seasonal dynamics, free-living ticks were monthly collected from October 2013 to October 2015...
April 27, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771923/invasion-complexity-at-large-spatial-scales-is-an-emergent-property-of-interactions-among-landscape-characteristics-and-invader-traits
#14
Ranjan Muthukrishnan, Adam S Davis, Nicholas R Jordan, James D Forester
Invasion potential should be part of the evaluation of candidate species for any species introduction. However, estimating invasion risks remains a challenging problem, particularly in complex landscapes. Certain plant traits are generally considered to increase invasive potential and there is an understanding that landscapes influence invasions dynamics, but little research has been done to explore how those drivers of invasions interact. We evaluate the relative roles of, and potential interactions between, plant invasiveness traits and landscape characteristics on invasions with a case study using a model parameterized for the potentially invasive biomass crop, Miscanthus × giganteus...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770969/homeostatic-levels-of-nonstructural-carbohydrates-after-13-yr-of-drought-and-irrigation-in-pinus-sylvestris
#15
Leonie Schönbeck, Arthur Gessler, Günter Hoch, Nate G McDowell, Andreas Rigling, Marcus Schaub, Mai-He Li
Nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) are important for the growth and survival of trees. Drought may lead to a decrease in tree growth and to NSC depletion, whereas increased soil moisture in otherwise dry ecosystems may increase growth and NSC concentrations. A long-term (13 yr) irrigation experiment was conducted in a Pinus sylvestris-dominated forest located at the dry margin of the species in southern Switzerland. We measured the relative leaf area, growth, NSCs, needle δ13 C, [N] and [P] in trees on control and irrigated plots...
May 17, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770964/below-ground-biotic-interactions-moderated-the-postglacial-range-dynamics-of-trees
#16
Jason Pither, Brian J Pickles, Suzanne W Simard, Alejandro Ordonez, John W Williams
Tree range shifts during geohistorical global change events provide a useful real-world model for how future changes in forest biomes may proceed. In North America, during the last deglaciation, the distributions of tree taxa varied significantly as regards the rate and direction of their responses for reasons that remain unclear. Local-scale processes such as establishment, growth, and resilience to environmental stress ultimately influence range dynamics. Despite the fact that interactions between trees and soil biota are known to influence local-scale processes profoundly, evidence linking below-ground interactions to distribution dynamics remains scarce...
May 17, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763452/factors-affecting-forest-area-change-in-southeast-asia-during-1980-2010
#17
Nobuo Imai, Takuya Furukawa, Riyou Tsujino, Shumpei Kitamura, Takakazu Yumoto
While many tropical countries are experiencing rapid deforestation, some have experienced forest transition (FT) from net deforestation to net reforestation. Numerous studies have identified causative factors of FT, among which forest scarcity has been considered as a prerequisite for FT. In fact, in SE Asia, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam, which experienced FT since 1990, exhibited a lower remaining forest area (30±8%) than the other five countries (68±6%, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, and Myanmar) where forest loss continues...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762644/indexed-variation-graphs-for-efficient-and-accurate-resistome-profiling
#18
Will P M Rowe, Martyn D Winn
Motivation: Antimicrobial resistance remains a major threat to global health. Profiling the collective antimicrobial resistance genes within a metagenome (the "resistome") facilitates greater understanding of antimicrobial resistance gene diversity and dynamics. In turn, this can allow for gene surveillance, individualised treatment of bacterial infections and more sustainable use of antimicrobials. However, resistome profiling can be complicated by high similarity between reference genes, as well as the sheer volume of sequencing data and the complexity of analysis workflows...
May 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762516/seasonal-patterns-in-the-prevalence-and-diversity-of-tick-borne-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-and-rickettsia-spp-in-an-urban-temperate-forest-in-south-western-slovakia
#19
Michal Chvostáč, Eva Špitalská, Radovan Václav, Tatiana Vaculová, Lenka Minichová, Markéta Derdáková
In Europe, Ixodes ricinus is the most important vector of tick-borne zoonotic bacteria. It transmits spirochaetes from the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. Although spatial differences in the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens have been intensively studied, seasonal (within-year) fluctuations in the prevalence of these pathogens within sites are often overlooked. We analyzed the occurrence and seasonal dynamics of Ixodes ricinus in an urban forest in Bratislava, Slovakia...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758885/impact-of-anthropogenic-climate-change-and-human-activities-on-environment-and-ecosystem-services-in-arid-regions
#20
Shereif H Mahmoud, Thian Y Gan
The implications of anthropogenic climate change, human activities and land use change (LUC) on the environment and ecosystem services in the coastal regions of Saudi Arabia were analyzed. Earth observations data was used to drive land use categories between 1970 and 2014. Next, a Markov-CA model was developed to characterize the dynamic of LUC between 2014 and 2100 and their impacts on regions' climate and environment. Non-parametric change point and trend detection algorithms were applied to temperature, precipitation and greenhouse gases data to investigate the presence of anthropogenic climate change...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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