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Medical laboratory technology

Simon Heeke, Véronique Hofman, Elodie Long-Mira, Virginie Lespinet, Salomé Lalvée, Olivier Bordone, Camille Ribeyre, Virginie Tanga, Jonathan Benzaquen, Sylvie Leroy, Charlotte Cohen, Jérôme Mouroux, Charles Hugo Marquette, Marius Ilié, Paul Hofman
Background : With the integration of various targeted therapies into the clinical management of patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has become the technology of choice and has led to an increase in simultaneously interrogated genes. However, the broader adoption of NGS for routine clinical practice is still hampered by sophisticated workflows, complex bioinformatics analysis and medical interpretation. Therefore, the performance of the novel QIAGEN GeneReader NGS system was compared to an in-house ISO-15189 certified Ion PGM NGS platform...
March 21, 2018: Cancers
Lucie Matouskova, Michal Ackermann, Jana Horakova, Lukas Capek, Petr Henys, Jiri Safka
The study investigates the potential for producing medical components via Selective Laser Melting technology (SLM). The material tested consisted of the biocompatible titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. The research involved the testing of laboratory specimens produced using SLM technology both in vitro and for surface roughness. The aim of the research was to clarify whether SLM technology affects the cytocompatibility of implants and, thus, whether SLM implants provide suitable candidates for medical use following zero or minimum post-fabrication treatment...
March 21, 2018: Expert Review of Medical Devices
Peng Chen, Xiaohu Liu, Garima Goyal, Nhung Thi Tran, James Chin Shing Ho, Yi Wang, Daniel Aili, Bo Liedberg
Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) constitutes a versatile technique for biodetection exploiting the sensitivity of plasmonic nanostructures to small changes in refractive index. The optical shift in the LSPR band caused by molecular in-teractions in the vicinity of the nanostructures are typically < 5 nm and can readily be detected using a spectrophotometer. Widespread use of LSPR based sensors require cost effective devices and would benefit from sensing schemes that enables use of very simple spectrophotometers or even naked eye detection...
March 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Jinzhao Song, Vikram Pandian, Michael G Mauk, Haim H Bau, Sara Cherry, Laurence C Tisi, Changchun Liu
Rapid and quantitative molecular diagnostics in the field, at home, and at remote clinics is essential for evidence-based disease management, control, and prevention. Conventional molecular diagnostics requires extensive sample preparation, complex instruments, and skilled personnel, restricting its use to centralized laboratories. To overcome these limitations, we designed a simple, inexpensive, hand-held, smartphone-based mobile detection platform, dubbed "smart-connected cup" (SCC), for rapid, connected and quantitative molecular diagnostics...
March 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
(no author information available yet)
Andrew McAinsh received his PhD from the University of Cambridge, UK, working in the laboratory of Steve Jackson on DNA damage and repair mechanisms in yeast. He then joined the laboratory of Peter Sorger as a Jane Coffin Childs Fellow to work as a post-doc on kinetochore biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, USA. In 2005, he returned to the UK to establish his independent laboratory at the Marie Curie Research Institute, Surrey, before moving to the University of Warwick in 2009 to co-found the Centre for Mechanochemical Cell Biology (CMCB)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Edna Garcia, Iman Kundu, Asma Ali, Ryan Soles
Objectives: To determine the extent and distribution of workforce shortages within the nation's medical laboratories. Methods: The 2016-2017 Vacancy Survey was conducted through collaboration between the American Society for Clinical Pathology's Institute of Science, Technology, & Policy in Washington, DC, and the Evaluation, Measurement, and Assessment division and Board of Certification in Chicago, Illinois. Data were collected via an internet survey that was distributed to individuals who were able to report on staffing and certifications for their laboratories...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
Elena Neiterman, Ivy Bourgeault, Julie Peters, Victoria Esses, Elaine Dever, Rae Gropper, Christine Nielsen, Jenna Kelland, Peggy Sattler
AIMS: Bridging education for internationally trained professionals has grown in popularity, but little is known about promising practices for bridging education in allied health professions. This paper addresses this gap by examining the expected outcomes of effective bridging programs, the key features that contribute to their effectiveness, challenges faced by bridging programs, and the appropriate role of regulatory colleges, government, employers, and professional associations in bridging education...
2018: Journal of Allied Health
Margareta Nordin, Kristi Randhawa, Paola Torres, Hainan Yu, Scott Haldeman, O'Dane Brady, Pierre Côté, Carlos Torres, Michael Modic, Rajani Mullerpatan, Christine Cedraschi, Roger Chou, Emre Acaroğlu, Eric L Hurwitz, Nadège Lemeunier, Jean Dudler, Anne Taylor-Vaisey, Erkin Sönmez
PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic literature review was to develop recommendations for the assessment of spine-related complaints in medically underserved areas with limited resources. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and best evidence synthesis of guidelines on the assessment of spine-related complaints. Independent reviewers critically appraised eligible guidelines using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation-II criteria. Low risk of bias clinical practice guidelines was used to develop recommendations...
February 28, 2018: European Spine Journal
Kunj Bhatt, Ali Pourmand, Neal Sikka
INTRODUCTION: Advances in technology have revolutionized the medical field and changed the way healthcare is delivered. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are the next wave of technological advancements that have the potential to make a huge splash in clinical medicine. UAVs, originally developed for military use, are making their way into the public and private sector. Because they can be flown autonomously and can reach almost any geographical location, the significance of UAVs are becoming increasingly apparent in the medical field...
February 28, 2018: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
T Platteau, J van Lankveld, L Apers, K Fransen, J Rockstroh, E Florence
OBJECTIVES: With persisting high numbers of new HIV diagnoses in Europe, HIV testing remains an important aspect of HIV prevention. The traditional centralized and medicalized HIV testing approach has been complemented with newly developed and evaluated non-traditional approaches. Two important factors guided this process: technological innovation and empowerment of the patient. METHODS: We present a matrix to develop an HIV testing approach, and elaborate on three commonly used ones: community based testing, self-testing, and self-sampling...
February 2018: HIV Medicine
Rachel Chen
Oligosaccharides, in either free or bound forms, play crucial roles in a wide range of biological processes. Increasing appreciation of their roles in cellular communication, interaction, pathogenesis, and prebiotic functions has stimulated tremendous interests in their synthesis. Pure and structurally defined oligosaccharides are essential for fundamental studies. On the other hand, for those with near term medical and nutraceutical applications, their large-scale synthesis is necessary. Unfortunately, oligosaccharides are notoriously difficult in their synthesis, and their enormous diverse structures leave a vast gap between what have been synthesized in laboratory and those present in various biological systems...
February 23, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Michael J Mello, Sara J Becker, Julie Bromberg, Janette Baird, Mark R Zonfrillo, Anthony Spirito
BACKGROUND: The American College of Surgeons mandates universal screening for alcohol misuse and delivery of an intervention for those screening positive as a requirement for certification as a level 1 trauma center. Though this requirement has been mandated for over a decade, its implementation has been challenging. Our research team completed an implementation study supporting seven pediatric trauma centers' compliance with the requirement by developing and implementing an institutional alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) policy for adolescent trauma patients...
February 22, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
Shelby Baird
Over the past forty years, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has successfully restricted consumers' access to home-testing applications based on the notion that it should protect individuals from their own reactions to test results. In the 1970s, the FDA briefly denied women access to home pregnancy tests that were identical to those used in laboratories. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, it relied on concerns about consumer responses to HIV status results to justify a categorical ban on applications for HIV home-testing technology...
November 2017: Duke Law Journal
Ricardo Castro, Nicolas Nin, Fernando Ríos, Leyla Alegría, Elisa Estenssoro, Gastón Murias, Gilberto Friedman, Manuel Jibaja, Gustavo Ospina-Tascon, Javier Hurtado, María Del Carmen Marín, Flavia R Machado, Alexandre Biasi Cavalcanti, Arnaldo Dubin, Luciano Azevedo, Maurizio Cecconi, Jan Bakker, Glenn Hernandez
BACKGROUND: Intensive care medicine is a relatively young discipline that has rapidly grown into a full-fledged medical subspecialty. Intensivists are responsible for managing an ever-increasing number of patients with complex, life-threatening diseases. Several factors may influence their performance, including age, training, experience, workload, and socioeconomic context. The aim of this study was to examine individual- and work-related aspects of the Latin American intensivist workforce, mainly with academic appointments, which might influence the quality of care provided...
February 21, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Patrick J Silva, Valerie M Schaibley, Kenneth S Ramos
While the promise of the Human Genome Project provided significant insights into the structure of the human genome, the complexities of disease at the individual level have made it difficult to utilize -omic information in clinical decision making. Some of the existing constraints have been minimized by technological advancements that have reduced the cost of sequencing to a rate far in excess of Moore's Law (a halving in cost per unit output every 18 months). The reduction in sequencing costs has made it economically feasible to create large data commons capturing the diversity of disease across populations...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
José Luis Soto, Ignacio Blanco, Orland Díez, Javier García Planells, Isabel Lorda, Gert Matthijs, Mercedes Robledo, Erika Souche, Conxi Lázaro
Genetic diagnosis of hereditary cancer syndromes offers the opportunity to establish more effective predictive and preventive measures for the patient and their families. The ultimate objective is to decrease cancer morbidity and mortality in high genetic risk families. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) offers an important improvement in the efficiency of genetic diagnosis, allowing an increase in diagnostic yield with a substantial reduction in response times and economic costs. Consequently, the implementation of this new technology is a great opportunity for improvement in the clinical management of affected families...
February 10, 2018: Medicina Clínica
Kristin Torre, Preeti Jhorar, Rong Wu, John Pfeifer, Zendee Elaba, Michael Murphy
BACKGROUND: We evaluated how dermatopathologists are employing molecular testing in the setting of neoplastic skin diseases, and assess their opinions of the broader role and utility of molecular technologies in clinical practice. METHODS: A 15-question online survey was sent to Fellows of the American Society of Dermatopathology in April 2017. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-six dermatopathologists completed the survey (response rate = 16%)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Ping Yi Chan, Zaidi Mohd Ripin, Sanihah Abdul Halim, John Tharakan, Mustapha Muzaimi, Kwang Sheng Ng, Muhammad Imran Kamarudin, Gaik Bee Eow, Jyh Yung Hor, Kenny Tan, Chun Fai Cheah, Nelson Soong, Linda Then, Ahmad Shukri Yahya
Despite the advancement of the tremor assessment systems, the current technology still lacks a method that can objectively characterize tremors in relative segmental movements. This paper presents a measurement system, which quantifies multi-degrees-of-freedom coupled relative motions of hand-arm tremor, in terms of joint angular displacement. In-laboratory validity and reliability tests of the system algorithm to provide joint angular displacement was carried out by using the two-degrees-of-freedom tremor simulator with incremental rotary encoder systems installed...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Dongni Johansson, Kristina Malmgren, Margit Alt Murphy
OBJECTIVES: Wearable technology is increasingly used to monitor neurological disorders. The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize knowledge from quantitative and qualitative clinical researches using wearable sensors in epilepsy, Parkinson's disease (PD), and stroke. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed and Scopus spanning from 1995 to January 2017. A synthesis of the main findings, reported adherence to wearables and missing data from quantitative studies, is provided...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neurology
André M Ilbawi, Adriana Velazquez-Berumen
Universal coverage of basic laboratory services is fundamental to achieving sustainable development goals and attaining health for all. Yet, comprehensive laboratory services are unavailable to large percentages of the global population. To help policymakers identify a basic package of services for cancer, the World Health Organization (WHO) published Priority Medical Devices for Cancer Management. The package of services includes key interventions, associated devices and technologies, and the requirements for health workforce and infrastructure...
March 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
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