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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306338/the-epidemiology-of-childhood-salmonella-infections-in-alberta-canada
#1
Kate E Faulder, Kimberley Simmonds, Joan L Robinson
OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to describe the incidence, demographics, laboratory findings, and suspected sources of childhood Salmonella infections in Alberta, Canada, with a focus on preventable cases. METHODS: Data from Notifiable Disease Reports for children with nontyphoidal salmonellosis (NTS) or typhoid/paratyphoid fever from 2007 through 2015 were analyzed. RESULTS: NTS was detected from 2285 children. Bacteremia was documented in 55 cases (2...
March 17, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298206/burden-and-spectrum-of-bacterial-infections-among-sickle-cell-disease-children-living-in-cameroon
#2
Anastasie Nicole Alima Yanda, Jobert Richie N Nansseu, Hubert Désiré Mbassi Awa, Sandra A Tatah, Judith Seungue, Charlotte Eposse, Paul Olivier N Koki
BACKGROUND: Although sickle cell disease (SCD) children are highly susceptible to bacterial infections (BIs), there is a dreadful lack of data related to the burden and spectrum of BIs in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the highest affected region with SCD. This study aimed to determine the burden and spectrum of BIs among SCD children hospitalized in a pediatric reference hospital in Cameroon, a SSA country. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of records of children hospitalized from November 2012 to August 2015 in the SCD unit of the Mother and Child Centre of the Chantal Biya Foundation, Cameroon...
March 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288691/immunological-diagnosis-as-an-adjunctive-tool-for-an-early-diagnosis-of-tuberculous-meningitis-of-an-immune-competent-child-in-a-low-tuberculosis-endemic-country-a-case-report
#3
Serena Vita, Camilla Ajassa, Emanuela Caraffa, Miriam Lichtner, Claudia Mascia, Fabio Mengoni, Maria Grazia Paglia, Cristina Mancarella, Davide Colistra, Claudio Di Biasi, Rosa Maria Ciardi, Claudio Maria Mastroianni, Vincenzo Vullo
BACKGROUND: Pediatric tuberculous meningitis is a highly morbid, often fatal disease. Its prompt diagnosis and treatment saves lives, in fact delays in the initiation of therapy have been associated with high mortality rates. CASE PRESENTATION: This is a case of an Italian child who was diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis after a history of a month of headache, fatigue and weight loss. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed a lymphocytic pleocytosis with predominance and decreased glucose concentration...
March 13, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288046/fdg-pet-ct-in-pediatric-neurolymphomatosis
#4
Carole de Vaugelade, Henri de Clermont-Gallerande, Marie Meyer, Aude My Duyen Tiphaine, Alice Benjamin, Stephane Ducassou, Jean-François Chateil, Philippe Fernandez
An 8-year-old girl presented with back and leg pain and left arm and leg paresis. Lumbar puncture was suggestive of lymphocytic meningitis without identified organism. A second lumbar puncture demonstrated a large number of lymphoid B cells, with positive immunohistochemical staining for CD20 and CD25, proving the diagnosis of neurolymphomatosis. Brain and spine MRI demonstrated involvement of cervical and lumbosacral nerve roots. FDG PET/CT showed multiple bone metastases in addition to nerve involvement. Postchemotherapy FDG PET/CT demonstrated complete metabolic response...
March 10, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264021/antimicrobial-use-in-paediatric-patients-in-a-teaching-hospital-in-ethiopia
#5
Hafte Kahsay Kebede, Hailay Abrha Gesesew, Tewodros Eyob Woldehaimanot, Kabaye Kumela Goro
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics use in in children are different from adults due to a lack of data on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy and safety of drugs, different physiological spectrum, pediatrics populations being vulnerable to the majority of the illnesses, and the adverse effect of their irrational use is more serious. However, antibiotic use is not explored much in a paediatric population. The current study focused on antibiotic use among pediatric population using data from a tertiary hospital in Ethiopia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259480/do-all-children-who-present-with-a-complex-febrile-seizure-need-a-lumbar-puncture
#6
Romain Guedj, Hélène Chappuy, Luigi Titomanlio, Loic De Pontual, Sandra Biscardi, Gisèle Nissack-Obiketeki, Béatrice Pellegrino, Oussama Charara, François Angoulvant, Julien Denis, Corinne Levy, Robert Cohen, Solène Loschi, Pierre Louis Leger, Ricardo Carbajal
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We assess the prevalences of bacterial meningitis and herpes simplex virus meningoencephalitis (HSV-ME) in children with a complex febrile seizure and determine these prevalences in the subgroup of children with a clinical examination result not suggestive of meningitis or encephalitis. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study was conducted in 7 pediatric emergency departments (EDs) in the region of Paris, France. Visits of patients aged 6 months to 5 years for a complex febrile seizure from January 2007 to December 2011 were analyzed...
March 1, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257285/population-pharmacokinetics-of-vancomycin-in-chinese-pediatric-patients%C3%A2
#7
Taotao Liu, Chen Deng, Daohai Cheng, Tianyan Zhou, Hua Lu, Wenxing Wei, Wei Lu
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) model for vancomycin and to detect the significant covariates that influence the PopPKs to facilitate individualized therapy for Chinese pediatric patients. METHODS: Patients ≤ 10 years old who received vancomycin for ≥ 72 hours between 2007 and 2010 were analyzed using a nonlinear mixed-effects modeling approach (-NONMEM). A one-compartment model with first-order elimination was chosen to depict the data...
March 3, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230605/microscopic-transnasal-transsphenoidal-surgery-for-pediatric-pituitary-adenomas
#8
Wei Jiao, Yimin Huang, Wei Sun, Ting Lei
Microscopic transnasal transsphenoidal surgery (MTTS) has been a time-confirmed effective treatment for pituitary adenomas; however, the data supporting its use in pediatric patients is limited. In this study, the authors summarize the authors' 5-year experience of pituitary adenomectomy via MTTS in a pediatric population. The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 35 patients aged ≤18 years who underwent microscopic transnasal transsphenoidal approach for pituitary adenomas between January 2011 and December 2015...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216208/a-rare-case-of-pediatric-lumbar-spinal-ependymoma-mimicking-meningitis
#9
Ezeali Mike Ekuma, Kiyoshi Ito, Akihiro Chiba, Yosuke Hara, Kohei Kanaya, Tetsuyoshi Horiuchi, Samuel Ohaegbulam, Kazuhiro Hongo
Spontaneous acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from lumbar ependymoma in children is rare. We report a case of a14-year-old boy who developed sudden radicular low back pain while playing baseball. He was initially managed conservatively in a local hospital for suspected lumbar disc herniation, but later developed meningeal symptoms and fever before being referred to our hospital. There he underwent a diagnostic lumbar puncture in the emergency room; his cerebrospinal fluid suggested an SAH. Physical examination showed meningeal signs and cauda equina features...
February 12, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214758/comparative-analysis-of-viral-shedding-in-pediatric-and-adult-subjects-with-central-nervous-system-associated-enterovirus-infections-from-2013-to-2015-in-switzerland
#10
S Cordey, M Schibler, A G L'Huillier, N Wagner, A R Gonçalves, J Ambrosioni, S Asner, L Turin, K M Posfay-Barbe, L Kaiser
BACKGROUND: Several enterovirus (EV) genotypes can result in aseptic meningitis, but their routes of access to the central nervous system remain to be elucidated and may differ between the pediatric and adult populations. OBJECTIVE: To assess the pattern of viral shedding in pediatric and adult subjects with acute EV meningitis and to generate EV surveillance data for Switzerland. STUDY DESIGN: All pediatric and adult subjects admitted to the University Hospitals of Geneva with a diagnosis of EV meningitis between 2013 and 2015 were enrolled...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187060/risk-factors-in-children-older-than-5-years-with-pneumococcal-meningitis-data-from-a-national-network
#11
Fanny Hénaff, Corinne Levy, Robert Cohen, Capucine Picard, Emmanuelle Varon, Christèle Gras Le Guen, Elise Launay
INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of meningitis in children > 5 years old may be associated with specific predisposing factors that can be anatomic, such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula or breach, or related to genetic susceptibility or N inborn or acquired immunologic defect. This study aimed to assess the anatomical and immunologic risk factors in children > 5 years old with pneumococcal meningitis and prospectively enrolled in the French national meningitis network. METHODS: We analyzed all data for children 5 to 15 years old with a diagnosis of pneumococcal meningitis between 2001 and 2013...
December 13, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186476/risk-factors-for-surgical-site-infection-following-nonshunt-pediatric-neurosurgery-a-review-of-9296-procedures-from-a-national-database-and-comparison-with-a-single-center-experience
#12
Brandon A Sherrod, Anastasia A Arynchyna, James M Johnston, Curtis J Rozzelle, Jeffrey P Blount, W Jerry Oakes, Brandon G Rocque
OBJECTIVE Surgical site infection (SSI) following CSF shunt operations has been well studied, yet risk factors for nonshunt pediatric neurosurgery are less well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine SSI rates and risk factors following nonshunt pediatric neurosurgery using a nationwide patient cohort and an institutional data set specifically for better understanding SSI. METHODS The authors reviewed the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric (ACS NSQIP-P) database for the years 2012-2014, including all neurosurgical procedures performed on pediatric patients except CSF shunts and hematoma evacuations...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186474/morbidity-associated-with-30-day-surgical-site-infection-following-nonshunt-pediatric-neurosurgery
#13
Brandon A Sherrod, Brandon G Rocque
OBJECTIVE Morbidity associated with surgical site infection (SSI) following nonshunt pediatric neurosurgical procedures is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to analyze acute morbidity and mortality associated with SSI after nonshunt pediatric neurosurgery using a nationwide cohort. METHODS The authors reviewed data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric (NSQIP-P) 2012-2014 database, including all neurosurgical procedures performed on pediatric patients...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184287/of-the-phrensy-an-update-on-the-epidemiology-and-pathogenesis-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-the-pediatric-population
#14
REVIEW
Andrew Janowski, Jason Newland
In the past century, advances in antibiotics and vaccination have dramatically altered the incidence and clinical outcomes of bacterial meningitis. We review the shifting epidemiology of meningitis in children, including after the implementation of vaccines that target common meningitic pathogens and the introduction of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis offered to mothers colonized with Streptococcus agalactiae. We also discuss what is currently known about the pathogenesis of meningitis. Recent studies of the human microbiome have illustrated dynamic relationships of bacterial and viral populations with the host, which may potentiate the risk of bacterial meningitis...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182657/modeling-the-potential-for-vaccination-to-diminish-the-burden-of-invasive-non-typhoidal-salmonella-disease-in-young-children-in-mali-west-africa
#15
Kristin Bornstein, Laura Hungerford, David Hartley, John D Sorkin, Milagritos D Tapia, Samba O Sow, Uma Onwuchekwa, Raphael Simon, Sharon M Tennant, Myron M Levine
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, systematic surveillance of young children with suspected invasive bacterial disease (e.g., septicemia, meningitis) has revealed non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) to be a major pathogen exhibiting high case fatality (~20%). Where infant vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Streptococcus pneumoniae has been introduced to prevent invasive disease caused by these pathogens, as in Bamako, Mali, their burden has decreased markedly. In parallel, NTS has become the predominant invasive bacterial pathogen in children aged <5 years...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149700/retrospective-study-of-prognostic-factors-in-pediatric-invasive-pneumococcal-disease
#16
Nan-Chang Chiu, Hsin Chi, Chun-Chih Peng, Hung-Yang Chang, Daniel Tsung-Ning Huang, Lung Chang, Wei-Te Lei, Chien-Yu Lin
Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the leading causative pathogen in pediatric pneumonia and bacteremia throughout the world. The invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is known as isolation of S. pneumoniae from a normally sterile site (e.g., blood, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, pericardial fluid, pleural fluid, or peritoneal fluid). The aim of this study is to survey the clinical manifestations and laboratory results of IPD and identify the prognostic factors of mortality. From January 2001 to December 2006, a retrospective review of chart was performed in a teaching hospital in Taipei...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131730/distribution-of-capsular-types-and-drug-resistance-patterns-of-invasive-pediatric-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-in-teheran-iran
#17
Hamidreza Houri, Sedigheh Rafiei Tabatabaei, Yasaman Saee, Fatemeh Fallah, Mohammad Rahbar, Abdollah Karimi
OBJECTIVES: To explore the serotype distribution and drug resistance patterns of invasive pneumococcal isolates from children under 5 years of age. METHODS: During a 32-month period, 585 clinical samples (including blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and synovial fluid) from children suspected of having meningitis, sepsis, pneumonia, or septic arthritis were analyzed using the BACTEC culture system. Positive cultures were examined using biochemical tests and lytA amplification for the identification of pneumococcal strains...
January 25, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118536/csf-cytokines-correlate-with-aseptic-meningitis-and-blood-brain-barrier-function-in-neonatal-onset-multisystem-inflammatory-disease-nomid
#18
Jackeline Rodriguez-Smith, Yen-Chih Lin, Wanxia Li Tsai, Hanna Kim, Gina Montealegre-Sanchez, Dawn Chapelle, Yan Huang, Cailin H Sibley, Massimo Gadina, Robert Wesley, Bibiana Bielekova, Raphaela Goldbach-Mansky
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate proinflammatory cytokines and leukocyte subpopulations in cerebrospinal spinal fluid (CSF) and blood of NOMID patients post-treatment; and to compare inflammatory cytokines in CSF and blood in 6 patients treated with two IL-1 blockers, anakinra and canakinumab. METHODS: We immunophenotyped CSF on 17 anakinra-treated pediatric NOMID patients during routine follow-up visits between December 2011 and October 2013 and analyzed CSF cytokine levels in baseline and 3-5 years follow-up samples compared to healthy controls...
January 24, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115875/pediatric-endogenous-haemophilus-influenzae-endophthalmitis-with-presumed-hyposplenism
#19
Masatoshi Haruta, Yumiko Yoshida, Ryoji Yamakawa
BACKGROUND: Endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis is a rare but potentially devastating intraocular infection that can have severe sight-threatening complications. Most patients with endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis have underlying infectious conditions, such as diabetes or malignancy, which predispose them to infection. CASE REPORT: A 1-year-old girl presented with cloudiness of the right eye. Ocular examination showed a cloudy cornea in the right eye with conjunctival injection and hypopyon...
2017: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109794/mir-29a-expressions-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cell-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-diagnostic-value-in-patients-with-pediatric-tuberculous-meningitis
#20
Deng Pan, Miao Pan, Yu-Ming Xu
To evaluate the value of miR-29a expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the diagnosis of pediatric tuberculous meningitis (TBM). Our study enrolled 112 children with TBM and 130 healthy children, from which PBMC and CSF were collected. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to measure the expression of miR-29a in PBMC and CSF, and then analyze the diagnostic value. Compared with control group, the miR-29a expressions in PBMC and CSF were increased in TBM children (both P<0...
January 18, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
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