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Katharina N Muth, Sandra Piefke, Matthias Weider, Elisabeth Sock, Irm Hermans-Borgmeyer, Michael Wegner, Melanie Küspert
Differentiation of oligodendrocytes and myelin production in the vertebrate central nervous system require highly concerted changes in gene expression. The transcription factors Sox10 and Myrf are both central to this process and jointly regulate expression of myelin genes. Here we show that Sox10 and Myrf also cooperate in the activation of the gene coding for the dual specificity protein phosphatase Dusp15 (also known as VHY) during this process. Activation is mediated by the Dusp15 promoter, which is also sufficient to drive oligodendroglial gene expression in vivo...
August 17, 2016: Glia
Lin Xiao, David Ohayon, Ian A McKenzie, Alexander Sinclair-Wilson, Jordan L Wright, Alexander D Fudge, Ben Emery, Huiliang Li, William D Richardson
We identified mRNA encoding the ecto-enzyme Enpp6 as a marker of newly forming oligodendrocytes, and used Enpp6 in situ hybridization to track oligodendrocyte differentiation in adult mice as they learned a motor skill (running on a wheel with unevenly spaced rungs). Within just 2.5 h of exposure to the complex wheel, production of Enpp6-expressing immature oligodendrocytes was accelerated in subcortical white matter; within 4 h, it was accelerated in motor cortex. Conditional deletion of myelin regulatory factor (Myrf) in oligodendrocyte precursors blocked formation of new Enpp6(+) oligodendrocytes and impaired learning within the same ∼2-3 h time frame...
September 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Garrett S Barry, Maggie C Cheang, Hector Li Chang, Hagen F Kennecke
A prospective study was conducted to identify biomarkers associated with resistance to panitumumab monotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Patients with previously treated, codon 12/13 KRAS wt, mCRC were prospectively administered panitumumab 6 mg/kg IV q2weeks. Of 34 panitumumab-treated patients, 11 (32%) had progressive disease at 8 weeks and were classified as non-responders. A Nanostring nCounter-based assay identified a 5-gene expression signature (ERBB2, MLPH, IRX3, MYRF, and KLK6) associated with panitumumab resistance (P = 0...
April 5, 2016: Oncotarget
Huiliang Li, William D Richardson
Myelin is a specialized subcellular structure that evolved uniquely in vertebrates. A myelinated axon conducts action potentials many times faster than an unmyelinated axon of the same diameter; for the same conduction speed, the unmyelinated axon would need a much larger diameter and volume than its myelinated counterpart. Hence myelin speeds information transfer and saves space, allowing the evolution of a powerful yet portable brain. Myelination in the central nervous system (CNS) is controlled by a gene regulatory program that features a number of master transcriptional regulators including Olig1, Olig2 and Myrf...
June 15, 2016: Brain Research
Camila Lopez-Anido, Guannan Sun, Matthias Koenning, Rajini Srinivasan, Holly A Hung, Ben Emery, Sunduz Keles, John Svaren
Myelin is formed by specialized myelinating glia: oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells in the central and peripheral nervous systems, respectively. While there are distinct developmental aspects and regulatory pathways in these two cell types, myelination in both systems requires the transcriptional activator Sox10. Sox10 interacts with cell type-specific transcription factors at some loci to induce myelin gene expression, but it is largely unknown how Sox10 transcriptional networks globally compare between oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells...
May 14, 2015: Glia
Brenda Huang, WenJie Wei, Guohao Wang, Marta A Gaertig, Yue Feng, Wei Wang, Xiao-Jiang Li, Shihua Li
Growing evidence indicates that non-neuronal mutant huntingtin toxicity plays an important role in Huntington's disease (HD); however, whether and how mutant huntingtin affects oligodendrocytes, which are vitally important for neural function and axonal integrity, remains unclear. We first verified the presence of mutant huntingtin in oligodendrocytes in HD140Q knockin mice. We then established transgenic mice (PLP-150Q) that selectively express mutant huntingtin in oligodendrocytes. PLP-150Q mice show progressive neurological symptoms and early death, as well as age-dependent demyelination and reduced expression of myelin genes that are downstream of myelin regulatory factor (MYRF or MRF), a transcriptional regulator that specifically activates and maintains the expression of myelin genes in mature oligodendrocytes...
March 18, 2015: Neuron
Matthias Weider, Amélie Wegener, Christian Schmitt, Melanie Küspert, Simone Hillgärtner, Michael R Bösl, Irm Hermans-Borgmeyer, Brahim Nait-Oumesmar, Michael Wegner
Oligodendrocytes are the myelinating glia of the central nervous system and ensure rapid saltatory conduction. Shortage or loss of these cells leads to severe malfunctions as observed in human leukodystrophies and multiple sclerosis, and their replenishment by reprogramming or cell conversion strategies is an important research aim. Using a transgenic approach we increased levels of the transcription factor Sox10 throughout the mouse embryo and thereby prompted Fabp7-positive glial cells in dorsal root ganglia of the peripheral nervous system to convert into cells with oligodendrocyte characteristics including myelin gene expression...
February 2015: PLoS Genetics
Akihiro Ishii, Miki Furusho, Jeffrey L Dupree, Rashmi Bansal
Oligodendrocytes form myelin during postnatal development and then maintain a functional myelin sheath throughout adult life. While many regulators of developmental myelination have been identified, the signal transduction mechanisms that regulate oligodendrocyte functions in adulthood are not well understood. The extracellular signal-regulated kinases-1 and -2 (ERK1/2), downstream mediators of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), have emerged as prominent regulators of myelin formation. Here, we investigated whether these signaling molecules are also required for myelin maintenance in the adult CNS...
November 26, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Julia Hornig, Franziska Fröb, Michael R Vogl, Irm Hermans-Borgmeyer, Ernst R Tamm, Michael Wegner
Myelin is essential for rapid saltatory conduction and is produced by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system and oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. In both cell types the transcription factor Sox10 is an essential component of the myelin-specific regulatory network. Here we identify Myrf as an oligodendrocyte-specific target of Sox10 and map a Sox10 responsive enhancer to an evolutionarily conserved element in intron 1 of the Myrf gene. Once induced, Myrf cooperates with Sox10 to implement the myelination program as evident from the physical interaction between both proteins and the synergistic activation of several myelin-specific genes...
October 2013: PLoS Genetics
Helena Bujalka, Matthias Koenning, Stacey Jackson, Victoria M Perreau, Bernard Pope, Curtis M Hay, Stanlislaw Mitew, Andrew F Hill, Q Richard Lu, Michael Wegner, Rajini Srinivasan, John Svaren, Melanie Willingham, Ben A Barres, Ben Emery
The myelination of axons is a crucial step during vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) development, allowing for rapid and energy efficient saltatory conduction of nerve impulses. Accordingly, the differentiation of oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells of the CNS, and their expression of myelin genes are under tight transcriptional control. We previously identified a putative transcription factor, Myelin Regulatory Factor (Myrf), as being vital for CNS myelination. Myrf is required for the generation of CNS myelination during development and also for its maintenance in the adult...
2013: PLoS Biology
Zhihua Li, Yungki Park, Edward M Marcotte
Myelination of the central nervous system (CNS) is critical to vertebrate nervous systems for efficient neural signaling. CNS myelination occurs as oligodendrocytes terminally differentiate, a process regulated in part by the myelin regulatory factor, MYRF. Using bioinformatics and extensive biochemical and functional assays, we find that MYRF is generated as an integral membrane protein that must be processed to release its transcription factor domain from the membrane. In contrast to most membrane-bound transcription factors, MYRF proteolysis seems constitutive and independent of cell- and tissue-type, as we demonstrate by reconstitution in E...
2013: PLoS Biology
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