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Zebrafish obesity

Alejandro S Mechaly, Ebony Richardson, Silke Rinkwitz
Serotonin has been implicated in the inhibition of food intake in vertebrates. However, the mechanisms through which serotonin acts has yet to be elucidated. Recently, ETV5 (ets variant gene 5) has been associated with obesity and food intake control mechanisms in mammals. We have analyzed a putative physiological function of the two etv5 paralogous genes (etv5a and etv5b) in neuronal food intake control in adult zebrafish that have been exposed to different nutritional conditions. A feeding assay was established and fluoxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI), was applied...
December 29, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Hara Lim, Jinbong Park, Hye-Lin Kim, JongWook Kang, Mi-Young Jeong, Dong-Hyun Youn, Yunu Jung, Yong-Il Kim, Hyun-Ju Kim, Kwang Seok Ahn, Su-Jin Kim, Seong-Kyu Choe, Seung-Heon Hong, Jae-Young Um
Chrysophanic acid (CA) is a member of the anthraquinone family abundant in rhubarb, a widely used herb for obesity treatment in Traditional Korean Medicine. Though several studies have indicated numerous features of CA, no study has yet reported the effect of CA on obesity. In this study, we tried to identify the anti-obesity effects of CA. By using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and primary cultured brown adipocytes as in vitro models, high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, and zebrafish as in vivo models, we determined the anti-obesity effects of CA...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Deena A Oren, Yang Wei, Luce Skrabanek, Billy K C Chow, Thomas Mommsen, Svetlana Mojsov
GLP-1 and glucagon regulate glucose metabolism through a network of metabolic pathways initiated upon binding to their specific receptors that belong to class B G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). The therapeutic potential of glucagon is currently being evaluated, while GLP-1 is already used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Development of a second generation of GLP-1 based therapeutics depends on a molecular and structural understanding of the interactions between the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and its ligand GLP-1...
2016: PloS One
Trent Newman, Noel Jhinku, Michael Meier, Julia Horsfield
The burden of malnutrition, including both over- and undernutrition, is a major public health concern. Here we used a zebrafish model of diet-induced obesity to analyze the impact of dietary intake on fertility and the phenotype of the next generation. Over an eight-week period, one group received 60 mg of food each day (60 mg arm), while another received 5 mg (5 mg arm). At the end of the diet, the body mass index of the 60 mg arm was 1.5 fold greater than the 5 mg arm. The intervention also had a marked impact on fertility; breeding success and egg production in the 60 mg arm were increased 2...
2016: PloS One
Emma D Spikol, Caroline E Laverriere, Maya Robnett, Gabriela Carter, Erin Wolfe, Eric Glasgow
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by an insatiable appetite, leading to chronic overeating and obesity. Additional features include short stature, intellectual disability, behavioral problems and incomplete sexual development. Although significant progress has been made in understanding the genetic basis of PWS, the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of the disorder remain poorly understood. Treatment for PWS consists mainly of palliative therapies; curative therapies are sorely needed...
March 2016: Diseases (Basel)
Hongyang Yi, Zhuyao Wang, Xiaojiao Li, Min Yin, Lihua Wang, Ali Aldalbahi, Nahed Nasser El-Sayed, Hui Wang, Nan Chen, Chunhai Fan, Haiyun Song
Many types of biocompatible nanomaterials have proven of low cytotoxicity and hold great promise for various applications in nanomedicine. Whereas they generally do not cause apparent organ toxicity or tissue damage in adult animals, it is yet to determine their biological consequences in more general contexts. In this study, we investigate how silica nanoparticles (NPs) affect cellular activities and functions under several physiological or pathological conditions. Although silica NPs are generally regarded as "inert" nanocarriers and widely employed in biomedical studies, we find that they actively affect Wnt signaling in various types of cell lines, diminishing its anti-adipogenic effect in preadipocytes and pro-invasive effect in breast cancer cells, and more significantly, impair Wnt-regulated embryonic development in Zebrafish...
2016: Theranostics
Despina Bournele, Dimitris Beis
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The most significant risk factors associated with the development of heart diseases include genetic and environmental factors such as hypertension, high blood cholesterol levels, diabetes, smoking, and obesity. Coronary artery disease accounts for the highest percentage of CVD deaths and stroke, cardiomyopathies, congenital heart diseases, heart valve defects and arrhythmias follow. The causes, prevention, and treatment of all forms of cardiovascular disease remain active fields of biomedical research, with hundreds of scientific studies published on a weekly basis...
November 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
Min-Jung Seo, Young-Jin Seo, Cheol-Ho Pan, Ok-Hwan Lee, Kui-Jin Kim, Boo-Yong Lee
Fucoxanthin, a pigment from the chloroplasts of marine brown algae, has a number of effects against obesity, diabetes, inflammation and cancer and provides cerebrovascular protection. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of fucoxanthin on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during adipogenesis. Treatment with fucoxanthin suppresses protein levels of the adipogenic transcription factors CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha C/EBPα and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and of their target protein, fatty acid binding protein 4...
July 13, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Elliott J Hagedorn, Jennifer L Cillis, Caitlyn R Curley, Taylor C Patch, Brian Li, Bradley W Blaser, Raquel Riquelme, Leonard I Zon, Dhvanit I Shah
Surgical parabiosis of two animals of different genetic backgrounds creates a unique scenario to study cell-intrinsic versus cell-extrinsic roles for candidate genes of interest, migratory behaviors of cells, and secreted signals in distinct genetic settings. Because parabiotic animals share a common circulation, any blood or blood-borne factor from one animal will be exchanged with its partner and vice versa. Thus, cells and molecular factors derived from one genetic background can be studied in the context of a second genetic background...
June 11, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
J L Anderson, J D Carten, S A Farber
Lipids serve essential functions in cells as signaling molecules, membrane components, and sources of energy. Defects in lipid metabolism are implicated in a number of pandemic human diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia. Many aspects of how fatty acids and cholesterol are absorbed and processed by intestinal cells remain unclear and present a hurdle to developing approaches for disease prevention and treatment. Numerous studies have shown that the zebrafish is an excellent model for vertebrate lipid metabolism...
2016: Methods in Cell Biology
Guodong Huang, Fanmiao Zhang, Qiang Ye, Han Wang
Autophagy is a highly conserved intracellular degradation system, and recently was shown to display circadian rhythms in mice. The mechanisms underlying circadian regulation of autophagy, however, are still unclear. Here, we observed that numbers of autophagosomes and autolysosomes exhibit daily rhythms in the zebrafish liver, and cebpb/(c/ebpβ) and various autophagy genes are rhythmically expressed in zebrafish larvae but significantly upregulated in per1b and TALEN-generated nr1d1/rev-erbα mutant fish, indicating that both Per1b and Nr1d1 play critical roles in autophagy rhythms...
August 2, 2016: Autophagy
Raúl Guillot, Raúl Cortés, Sandra Navarro, Morena Mischitelli, Víctor García-Herranz, Elisa Sánchez, Laura Cal, Juan Carlos Navarro, Jesús M Míguez, Sergey Afanasyev, Aleksei Krasnov, Roger D Cone, Josep Rotllant, Jose Miguel Cerdá-Reverter
Melanocortin signaling is regulated by the binding of naturally occurring antagonists, agouti-signaling protein (ASIP) and agouti-related protein (AGRP) that compete with melanocortin peptides by binding to melanocortin receptors to regulate energy balance and growth. Using a transgenic model overexpressing ASIP, we studied the involvement of melanocortin system in the feeding behaviour, growth and stress response of zebrafish. Our data demonstrate that ASIP overexpression results in enhanced growth but not obesity...
June 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Timothy L Hostelley, Sukanya Lodh, Norann A Zaghloul
BACKGROUND: Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS) and Alström Syndrome are two pleiotropic ciliopathies with significant phenotypic overlap between them across many tissues. Although BBS and Alström genes are necessary for the proper function of primary cilia, their role in defects across multiple organ systems is unclear. METHODS: To provide insight into the pathways underlying BBS and Alström phenotypes, we carried out whole organism transcriptome analysis by RNA sequencing in established zebrafish models of the syndromes...
2016: BMC Genomics
Sarah Burbridge, Iain Stewart, Marysia Placzek
The neuroendocrine hypothalamus is composed of the tuberal and anterodorsal hypothalamus, together with the median eminence/neurohypophysis. It centrally governs wide-ranging physiological processes, including homeostasis of energy balance, circadian rhythms and stress responses, as well as growth and reproductive behaviours. Homeostasis is maintained by integrating sensory inputs and effecting responses via autonomic, endocrine and behavioural outputs, over diverse time-scales and throughout the lifecourse of an individual...
March 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Elise Heon, Gunhee Kim, Sophie Qin, Janelle E Garrison, Erika Tavares, Ajoy Vincent, Nina Nuangchamnong, C Anthony Scott, Diane C Slusarski, Val C Sheffield
Bardet Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a multisystem genetically heterogeneous ciliopathy that most commonly leads to obesity, photoreceptor degeneration, digit anomalies, genito-urinary abnormalities, as well as cognitive impairment with autism, among other features. Sequencing of a DNA sample from a 17-year-old female affected with BBS did not identify any mutation in the known BBS genes. Whole-genome sequencing identified a novel loss-of-function disease-causing homozygous mutation (K102*) in C8ORF37, a gene coding for a cilia protein...
June 1, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Dragana J Josifova, Glen R Monroe, Federico Tessadori, Esther de Graaff, Bert van der Zwaag, Sarju G Mehta, Magdalena Harakalova, Karen J Duran, Sanne M C Savelberg, Isaäc J Nijman, Heinz Jungbluth, Casper C Hoogenraad, Jeroen Bakkers, Nine V Knoers, Helen V Firth, Phil L Beales, Gijs van Haaften, Mieke M van Haelst
We identifiedde novononsense variants inKIDINS220/ARMSin three unrelated patients with spastic paraplegia, intellectual deficit, nystagmus, and obesity. KIDINS220 is an essential scaffold protein coordinating neurotrophin signal pathways in neurites and is spatially and temporally regulated in the brain. Molecular analysis of patients' variants confirmed expression and translation of truncated transcripts similar to recently characterized alternative terminal exon splice isoforms ofKIDINS220KIDINS220undergoes extensive alternative splicing in specific neuronal populations and developmental time points, reflecting its complex role in neuronal maturation...
March 22, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Ana Luzio, Sandra M Monteiro, Eduardo Rocha, António A Fontaínhas-Fernandes, Ana M Coimbra
Exposure of wildlife to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is not necessarily continuous. Due to seasonal changes and variable industrial and agricultural activities it often occurs intermittently. Thus, it is possible that aquatic organisms may be more affected by periodic peak exposure than by chronic exposure. Therefore, an experimental scenario including an exposure from 2h to 90 days post-fertilization (dpf) and a subsequent recovery period until 150 dpf was chosen to assess the potential reversibility of the effects of sex steroids on sexual and gonad development of zebrafish (Danio rerio)...
June 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Camila Idelí Morales Fénero, Alicia Angelina Colombo Flores, Niels Olsen Saraiva Câmara
The ingest of diets with high content of fats and carbohydrates, low or no physical exercise and a stressful routine are part of the everyday lifestyle of most people in the western world. These conditions are triggers for different diseases with complex interactions between the host genetics, the metabolism, the immune system and the microbiota, including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), obesity and diabetes. The incidence of these disorders is growing worldwide; therefore, new strategies for its study are needed...
February 20, 2016: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
Maximilian Michel, Patrick S Page-McCaw, Wenbiao Chen, Roger D Cone
Leptin is the primary adipostatic factor in mammals. Produced largely by adipocytes in proportion to total adipose mass, the hormone informs the brain regarding total energy stored as triglycerides in fat cells. The hormone acts on multiple circuits in the brain to regulate food intake, autonomic outflow, and endocrine function to maintain energy balance. In addition to regulating adipose mass, mammalian leptin also plays a role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and as a gating factor in reproductive competence...
March 15, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Savannah Y Williams, Benjamin J Renquist
Zebrafish are an important model organism with inherent advantages that have the potential to make zebrafish a widely applied model for the study of energy homeostasis and obesity. The small size of zebrafish allows for assays on embryos to be conducted in a 96- or 384-well plate format, Morpholino and CRISPR based technologies promote ease of genetic manipulation, and drug treatment by bath application is viable. Moreover, zebrafish are ideal for forward genetic screens allowing for novel gene discovery. Given the relative novelty of zebrafish as a model for obesity, it is necessary to develop tools that fully exploit these benefits...
January 27, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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