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Zebrafish obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217809/-generation-and-phenotype-analysis-of-zebrafish-mutations-of-obesity-related-genes-lepr-and-mc4r
#1
Fei Fei, Shao-Yang Sun, Yu-Xiao Yao, Xu Wang
Obesity has become a severe public health problem across the world, and seriously affects the health and life quality of human beings. Here we generated lepr and mc4r mutant zebrafish via the CRISPR/Cas9 technique, and performed morphological and functional characterizations of those mutants. We observed that there was no significant phenotypic difference between homozygous mutants and wild-type controls before 2.5 months post-fertilization (mpf). However, the adult lepr(-/-) and mc4r(-/-) individuals displayed increased food intake, heavier weight, and higher body fat percentage, the characteristics of obesity phenotypes...
February 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157659/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-imaging-of-peroxynitrite-by-a-ratiometric-boronate-based-fluorescent-probe
#2
Sathyadevi Palanisamy, Pei-Yu Wu, Shou-Cheng Wu, Yu-Jen Chen, Shey-Cherng Tzou, Chih-Hong Wang, Chiao-Yun Chen, Yun-Ming Wang
Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is an important species involved in many physiopathological processes. Progresses have been made in developing novel fluorescent probes to detect peroxynitrite with relatively high sensitivity and specificity. Herein, we report the synthesis, characterization and biological applications of a new boronate-based fluorescent probe, 4-MB. The studies showed that 4-MB exhibits a dual ratiometric and calorimetric response toward peroxynitrite due to ONOO(-)-triggered oxidative reaction. A possible mechanism of the oxidation reaction was proposed and the reaction product was isolated and characterized using different spectroscopic methods...
May 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130355/2intestinal-epithelial-cell-caveolin-1-regulates-fatty-acid-and-lipoprotein-cholesterol-plasma-levels
#3
Jessica P Otis, Meng-Chieh Shen, Vanessa Quinlivan, Jennifer L Anderson, Steven A Farber
Caveolae and their structural protein caveolin 1 (CAV1) have roles in cellular lipid processing and systemic lipid metabolism. Global deletion of CAV1 in mice results in insulin resistance and increases in atherogenic plasma lipids and cholesterol, but protects from diet-induced obesity and atherosclerosis. Despite the fundamental role of the intestinal epithelia in the regulation of dietary lipid processing and metabolism, the contributions of CAV1 to lipid metabolism in this tissue have never been directly investigated...
January 26, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129845/the-lymphatic-vasculature-revisited-new-developments-in-the-zebrafish
#4
Y Padberg, S Schulte-Merker, A van Impel
The lymphatic system is lined by endothelial cells and part of the vasculature. It is essential for tissue fluid homeostasis, absorption of dietary fats, and immune surveillance in vertebrates. Misregulation of lymphatic vessel formation and dysfunction of the lymphatic system have been indicated in a number of pathological conditions including lymphedema formation, obesity or chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. In zebrafish, lymphatics were discovered about 10years ago, and the underlying molecular pathways involved in its development have since been studied in detail...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123318/ginsenoside-rg1-suppresses-early-stage-of-adipocyte-development-via-activation-of-c-ebp-homologous-protein-10-in-3t3-l1-and-attenuates-fat-accumulation-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-zebrafish
#5
Eun-Jeong Koh, Kui-Jin Kim, Jia Choi, Hui Jeon Jeon, Min-Jung Seo, Boo-Yong Lee
BACKGROUND: Ginsenoside Rg1 is a class of steroid glycoside and triterpene saponin in Panax ginseng. Many studies suggest that Rg1 suppresses adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1. However, the detail molecular mechanism of Rg1 on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 is still not fully understood. METHODS: 3T3-L1 preadipocyte was used to evaluate the effect of Rg1 on adipocyte development in the differentiation in a stage-dependent manner in vitro. Oil Red O staining and Nile red staining were conducted to measure intracellular lipid accumulation and superoxide production, respectively...
January 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041791/activity-of-etv5a-and-etv5b-genes-in-the-hypothalamus-of-fasted-zebrafish-is-influenced-by-serotonin
#6
Alejandro S Mechaly, Ebony Richardson, Silke Rinkwitz
Serotonin has been implicated in the inhibition of food intake in vertebrates. However, the mechanisms through which serotonin acts has yet to be elucidated. Recently, ETV5 (ets variant gene 5) has been associated with obesity and food intake control mechanisms in mammals. We have analyzed a putative physiological function of the two etv5 paralogous genes (etv5a and etv5b) in neuronal food intake control in adult zebrafish that have been exposed to different nutritional conditions. A feeding assay was established and fluoxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI), was applied...
December 29, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008317/chrysophanic-acid-suppresses-adipogenesis-and-induces-thermogenesis-by-activating-amp-activated-protein-kinase-alpha-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#7
Hara Lim, Jinbong Park, Hye-Lin Kim, JongWook Kang, Mi-Young Jeong, Dong-Hyun Youn, Yunu Jung, Yong-Il Kim, Hyun-Ju Kim, Kwang Seok Ahn, Su-Jin Kim, Seong-Kyu Choe, Seung-Heon Hong, Jae-Young Um
Chrysophanic acid (CA) is a member of the anthraquinone family abundant in rhubarb, a widely used herb for obesity treatment in Traditional Korean Medicine. Though several studies have indicated numerous features of CA, no study has yet reported the effect of CA on obesity. In this study, we tried to identify the anti-obesity effects of CA. By using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and primary cultured brown adipocytes as in vitro models, high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, and zebrafish as in vivo models, we determined the anti-obesity effects of CA...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930690/structural-mapping-and-functional-characterization-of-zebrafish-class-b-g-protein-coupled-receptor-gpcr-with-dual-ligand-selectivity-towards-glp-1-and-glucagon
#8
Deena A Oren, Yang Wei, Luce Skrabanek, Billy K C Chow, Thomas Mommsen, Svetlana Mojsov
GLP-1 and glucagon regulate glucose metabolism through a network of metabolic pathways initiated upon binding to their specific receptors that belong to class B G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). The therapeutic potential of glucagon is currently being evaluated, while GLP-1 is already used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Development of a second generation of GLP-1 based therapeutics depends on a molecular and structural understanding of the interactions between the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and its ligand GLP-1...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870856/dietary-intake-influences-adult-fertility-and-offspring-fitness-in-zebrafish
#9
Trent Newman, Noel Jhinku, Michael Meier, Julia Horsfield
The burden of malnutrition, including both over- and undernutrition, is a major public health concern. Here we used a zebrafish model of diet-induced obesity to analyze the impact of dietary intake on fertility and the phenotype of the next generation. Over an eight-week period, one group received 60 mg of food each day (60 mg arm), while another received 5 mg (5 mg arm). At the end of the diet, the body mass index of the 60 mg arm was 1.5 fold greater than the 5 mg arm. The intervention also had a marked impact on fertility; breeding success and egg production in the 60 mg arm were increased 2...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857842/zebrafish-models-of-prader-willi-syndrome-fast-track-to-pharmacotherapeutics
#10
Emma D Spikol, Caroline E Laverriere, Maya Robnett, Gabriela Carter, Erin Wolfe, Eric Glasgow
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by an insatiable appetite, leading to chronic overeating and obesity. Additional features include short stature, intellectual disability, behavioral problems and incomplete sexual development. Although significant progress has been made in understanding the genetic basis of PWS, the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of the disorder remain poorly understood. Treatment for PWS consists mainly of palliative therapies; curative therapies are sorely needed...
March 2016: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570552/silica-nanoparticles-target-a-wnt-signal-transducer-for-degradation-and-impair-embryonic-development-in-zebrafish
#11
Hongyang Yi, Zhuyao Wang, Xiaojiao Li, Min Yin, Lihua Wang, Ali Aldalbahi, Nahed Nasser El-Sayed, Hui Wang, Nan Chen, Chunhai Fan, Haiyun Song
Many types of biocompatible nanomaterials have proven of low cytotoxicity and hold great promise for various applications in nanomedicine. Whereas they generally do not cause apparent organ toxicity or tissue damage in adult animals, it is yet to determine their biological consequences in more general contexts. In this study, we investigate how silica nanoparticles (NPs) affect cellular activities and functions under several physiological or pathological conditions. Although silica NPs are generally regarded as "inert" nanocarriers and widely employed in biomedical studies, we find that they actively affect Wnt signaling in various types of cell lines, diminishing its anti-adipogenic effect in preadipocytes and pro-invasive effect in breast cancer cells, and more significantly, impair Wnt-regulated embryonic development in Zebrafish...
2016: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503203/zebrafish-models-of-cardiovascular-disease
#12
Despina Bournele, Dimitris Beis
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The most significant risk factors associated with the development of heart diseases include genetic and environmental factors such as hypertension, high blood cholesterol levels, diabetes, smoking, and obesity. Coronary artery disease accounts for the highest percentage of CVD deaths and stroke, cardiomyopathies, congenital heart diseases, heart valve defects and arrhythmias follow. The causes, prevention, and treatment of all forms of cardiovascular disease remain active fields of biomedical research, with hundreds of scientific studies published on a weekly basis...
November 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406217/fucoxanthin-suppresses-lipid-accumulation-and-ros-production-during-differentiation-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#13
Min-Jung Seo, Young-Jin Seo, Cheol-Ho Pan, Ok-Hwan Lee, Kui-Jin Kim, Boo-Yong Lee
Fucoxanthin, a pigment from the chloroplasts of marine brown algae, has a number of effects against obesity, diabetes, inflammation and cancer and provides cerebrovascular protection. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of fucoxanthin on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during adipogenesis. Treatment with fucoxanthin suppresses protein levels of the adipogenic transcription factors CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha C/EBPα and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and of their target protein, fatty acid binding protein 4...
November 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27341538/generation-of-parabiotic-zebrafish-embryos-by-surgical-fusion-of-developing-blastulae
#14
Elliott J Hagedorn, Jennifer L Cillis, Caitlyn R Curley, Taylor C Patch, Brian Li, Bradley W Blaser, Raquel Riquelme, Leonard I Zon, Dhvanit I Shah
Surgical parabiosis of two animals of different genetic backgrounds creates a unique scenario to study cell-intrinsic versus cell-extrinsic roles for candidate genes of interest, migratory behaviors of cells, and secreted signals in distinct genetic settings. Because parabiotic animals share a common circulation, any blood or blood-borne factor from one animal will be exchanged with its partner and vice versa. Thus, cells and molecular factors derived from one genetic background can be studied in the context of a second genetic background...
June 11, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27263413/using-fluorescent-lipids-in-live-zebrafish-larvae-from-imaging-whole-animal-physiology-to-subcellular-lipid-trafficking
#15
J L Anderson, J D Carten, S A Farber
Lipids serve essential functions in cells as signaling molecules, membrane components, and sources of energy. Defects in lipid metabolism are implicated in a number of pandemic human diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia. Many aspects of how fatty acids and cholesterol are absorbed and processed by intestinal cells remain unclear and present a hurdle to developing approaches for disease prevention and treatment. Numerous studies have shown that the zebrafish is an excellent model for vertebrate lipid metabolism...
2016: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27171500/the-circadian-clock-regulates-autophagy-directly-through-the-nuclear-hormone-receptor-nr1d1-rev-erb%C3%AE-and-indirectly-via-cebpb-c-ebp%C3%AE-in-zebrafish
#16
Guodong Huang, Fanmiao Zhang, Qiang Ye, Han Wang
Autophagy is a highly conserved intracellular degradation system, and recently was shown to display circadian rhythms in mice. The mechanisms underlying circadian regulation of autophagy, however, are still unclear. Here, we observed that numbers of autophagosomes and autolysosomes exhibit daily rhythms in the zebrafish liver, and cebpb/(c/ebpβ) and various autophagy genes are rhythmically expressed in zebrafish larvae but significantly upregulated in per1b and TALEN-generated nr1d1/rev-erbα mutant fish, indicating that both Per1b and Nr1d1 play critical roles in autophagy rhythms...
August 2, 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27156808/behind-melanocortin-antagonist-overexpression-in-the-zebrafish-brain-a-behavioral-and-transcriptomic-approach
#17
Raúl Guillot, Raúl Cortés, Sandra Navarro, Morena Mischitelli, Víctor García-Herranz, Elisa Sánchez, Laura Cal, Juan Carlos Navarro, Jesús M Míguez, Sergey Afanasyev, Aleksei Krasnov, Roger D Cone, Josep Rotllant, Jose Miguel Cerdá-Reverter
Melanocortin signaling is regulated by the binding of naturally occurring antagonists, agouti-signaling protein (ASIP) and agouti-related protein (AGRP) that compete with melanocortin peptides by binding to melanocortin receptors to regulate energy balance and growth. Using a transgenic model overexpressing ASIP, we studied the involvement of melanocortin system in the feeding behaviour, growth and stress response of zebrafish. Our data demonstrate that ASIP overexpression results in enhanced growth but not obesity...
June 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27142762/whole-organism-transcriptome-analysis-of-zebrafish-models-of-bardet-biedl-syndrome-and-alstr%C3%A3-m-syndrome-provides-mechanistic-insight-into-shared-and-divergent-phenotypes
#18
Timothy L Hostelley, Sukanya Lodh, Norann A Zaghloul
BACKGROUND: Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS) and Alström Syndrome are two pleiotropic ciliopathies with significant phenotypic overlap between them across many tissues. Although BBS and Alström genes are necessary for the proper function of primary cilia, their role in defects across multiple organ systems is unclear. METHODS: To provide insight into the pathways underlying BBS and Alström phenotypes, we carried out whole organism transcriptome analysis by RNA sequencing in established zebrafish models of the syndromes...
2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27065164/development-of-the-neuroendocrine-hypothalamus
#19
REVIEW
Sarah Burbridge, Iain Stewart, Marysia Placzek
The neuroendocrine hypothalamus is composed of the tuberal and anterodorsal hypothalamus, together with the median eminence/neurohypophysis. It centrally governs wide-ranging physiological processes, including homeostasis of energy balance, circadian rhythms and stress responses, as well as growth and reproductive behaviours. Homeostasis is maintained by integrating sensory inputs and effecting responses via autonomic, endocrine and behavioural outputs, over diverse time-scales and throughout the lifecourse of an individual...
March 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27008867/mutations-in-c8orf37-cause-bardet-biedl-syndrome-bbs21
#20
Elise Heon, Gunhee Kim, Sophie Qin, Janelle E Garrison, Erika Tavares, Ajoy Vincent, Nina Nuangchamnong, C Anthony Scott, Diane C Slusarski, Val C Sheffield
Bardet Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a multisystem genetically heterogeneous ciliopathy that most commonly leads to obesity, photoreceptor degeneration, digit anomalies, genito-urinary abnormalities, as well as cognitive impairment with autism, among other features. Sequencing of a DNA sample from a 17-year-old female affected with BBS did not identify any mutation in the known BBS genes. Whole-genome sequencing identified a novel loss-of-function disease-causing homozygous mutation (K102*) in C8ORF37, a gene coding for a cilia protein...
June 1, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
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