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Zebrafish fitness

Chien-Cheng Chen, Christopher J Bockisch, Dominik Straumann, Melody Ying-Yu Huang
Spontaneous eye movements of zebrafish larvae in the dark consist of centrifugal saccades that move the eyes from a central to an eccentric position and postsaccadic centripetal drifts. In a previous study, we showed that the fitted single-exponential time constants of the postsaccadic drifts are longer in the temporal-to-nasal (T->N) direction than in the nasal-to-temporal (N->T) direction. In the present study, we further report that saccadic peak velocities are higher and saccadic amplitudes are larger in the N->T direction than in the T->N direction...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Olivia L Guayasamin, Iain D Couzin, Noam Y Miller
An individual's behavioural phenotype is a combination of its unique behavioural propensities and its responsiveness to environmental variation, also known as behavioural plasticity. In social species, we must not only explore how individuals respond to variations in the physical environment but also how they react to changes in their social environment. A growing body of work has demonstrated that the behavioural heterogeneity of a group can alter its responsiveness, decision making, and fitness. Whether an individual is more or less extreme than a partner - what we term its 'relative personality' - may also alter individual behavioural responses...
October 11, 2016: Behavioural Processes
J Wragg, F Müller
Embryo development commences with the fusion of two terminally differentiated haploid gametes into the totipotent fertilized egg, which through a series of major cellular and molecular transitions generate a pluripotent cell mass. The activation of the zygotic genome occurs during the so-called maternal to zygotic transition and prepares the embryo for zygotic takeover from maternal factors, in the control of the development of cellular lineages during differentiation. Recent advances in next generation sequencing technologies have allowed the dissection of the genomic and epigenomic processes mediating this transition...
2016: Advances in Genetics
Giovanni Anthony, Ju-Ahng Lee
Recent development in 3D printing technology has opened an exciting possibility for manufacturing 3D devices on one's desktop. We used 3D modeling programs to design 3D models of a tissue-handling system and these models were "printed" in a stereolithography (SLA) 3D printer to create precision histology devices that are particularly useful to handle multiple samples with small dimensions in parallel. Our system has been successfully tested for in situ hybridization of zebrafish embryos. Some of the notable features include: (1) A conveniently transferrable chamber with 6 mesh-bottomed wells, each of which can hold dozens of zebrafish embryos...
2016: PloS One
Cecilia Zampedri, Maryana Tinoco-Cuellar, Samantha Carrillo-Rosas, Abigail Diaz-Tellez, Jose Luis Ramos-Balderas, Francisco Pelegri, Ernesto Maldonado
Stress granules are cytoplasmic foci that directly respond to the protein synthesis status of the cell. Various environmental insults, such as oxidative stress or extreme heat, block protein synthesis; consequently, mRNA will stall in translation, and stress granules will immediately form and become enriched with mRNAs. P54 DEAD box RNA helicases are components of RNA granules such as P-bodies and stress granules. We studied the expression, in cytoplasmic foci, of both zebrafish P54 RNA helicases (P54a and P54b) during development and found that they are expressed in cytoplasmic granules under both normal conditions and stress conditions...
October 15, 2016: Biology Open
Richard Ramsden, Evan P Gallagher
The transcription factor NFE2L2 (Nuclear Factor, Erythroid 2-Like 2, or NRF2) plays a key role in maintaining the redox state within cells. Characterization of this pathway has extended to fish, most notably zebrafish (Danio rerio), in which two paralogs of the transcription factor exist: Nrf2a, an activator, and Nrf2b, a negative regulator during embryogenesis. Only one ARE target has been thoroughly delineated in zebrafish, and this deviated from the canonical sequence derived from studies in mammals. In general, the mechanistic pathway has not been characterized in non-model aquatic organisms that are commonly exposed to environmental pollutants...
July 6, 2016: Redox Biology
Minori Shinya
Genetically homogeneous populations such as inbred strains are valuable experimental tools in various fields of biomedical analyses. In many animals, inbred strains are established by consecutive sib-pair mating for a minimum of 20 generations. As the generation proceeds, fitness of the population reduces usually. Therefore, in order to establish inbred strains, the important point is the selection of pairs in good condition at each generation. Here, I describe the procedure and tips for generating inbred strains in zebrafish...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
D G Howe, Y M Bradford, A Eagle, D Fashena, K Frazer, P Kalita, P Mani, R Martin, S T Moxon, H Paddock, C Pich, S Ramachandran, L Ruzicka, K Schaper, X Shao, A Singer, S Toro, C Van Slyke, M Westerfield
The Zebrafish Model Organism Database (ZFIN; serves as the central repository for genetic and genomic data produced using zebrafish (Danio rerio). Data in ZFIN are either manually curated from peer-reviewed publications or submitted directly to ZFIN from various data repositories. Data types currently supported include mutants, transgenic lines, DNA constructs, gene expression, phenotypes, antibodies, morpholinos, TALENs, CRISPRs, disease models, movies, and images. The rapidly changing methods of genomic science have increased the production of data that cannot readily be represented in standard journal publications...
2016: Methods in Cell Biology
Marta Busnelli, Gunnar Kleinau, Markus Muttenthaler, Stoytcho Stoev, Maurice Manning, Lucka Bibic, Lesley A Howell, Peter J McCormick, Simona Di Lascio, Daniela Braida, Mariaelvina Sala, G Enrico Rovati, Tommaso Bellini, Bice Chini
Dimeric/oligomeric states of G-protein coupled receptors have been difficult to target. We report here bivalent ligands consisting of two identical oxytocin-mimetics that induce a three order magnitude boost in G-protein signaling of oxytocin receptors (OTRs) in vitro and a 100- and 40-fold gain in potency in vivo in the social behavior of mice and zebrafish. Through receptor mutagenesis and interference experiments with synthetic peptides mimicking transmembrane helices (TMH), we show that such superpotent behavior follows from the binding of the bivalent ligands to dimeric receptors based on a TMH1-TMH2 interface...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Cara Conradsen, Jeffrey A Walker, Catherine Perna, Katrina McGuigan
There is good evidence that natural selection drives the evolution of locomotor performance, but the processes that generate among individual variation in locomotion, the substrate upon which selection acts, are relatively poorly understood. We measured prolonged swimming performance, Ucrit, and morphology in a large cohort (n=461) of wildtype zebrafish, Danio rerio, at ∼6 months and again at ∼9 months. Using mixed model analyses to estimate repeatability as the intraclass correlation coefficient, we determined that Ucrit was significantly repeatable (r = 0...
July 11, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Carlos Pantoja, Adam Hoagland, Elizabeth C Carroll, Vasiliki Karalis, Alden Conner, Ehud Y Isacoff
Inter-individual behavioral variation is thought to increase fitness and aid adaptation to environmental change, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We find that variation between individuals in neuromodulatory input contributes to individuality in short-term habituation of the zebrafish (Danio Rerio) acoustic startle response (ASR). ASR habituation varies greatly between individuals, but differences are stable over days and are heritable. Acoustic stimuli that activate ASR-command Mauthner cells also activate dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) serotonergic neurons, which project to the vicinity of the Mauthner cells and their inputs...
August 3, 2016: Neuron
Benjamin J Shaw, Corin C Liddle, Kirsten M Windeatt, Richard D Handy
There are concerns that regulatory toxicity tests are not fit for purpose for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) or need modifications. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the OECD 210 fish, early-life stage toxicity test for use with TiO2 ENMs, Ag ENMs, and MWCNT. Both TiO2 ENMS (≤160 mg l(-1)) and MWCNT (≤10 mg l(-1)) showed limited acute toxicity, whilst Ag ENMs were acutely toxic to zebrafish, though less so than AgNO3 (6-day LC50 values of 58.6 and 5.0 µg l(-1), respectively). Evidence of delayed hatching, decreased body length and increased muscle width in the tail was seen in fish exposed to Ag ENMs...
September 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Jason C Raine, Lise Lallemand, Connor M Pettem, David M Janz
The effects of chronic dietary selenomethionine (SeMet) exposure on the visual system of adult zebrafish and their progeny were investigated. Adult zebrafish were exposed to measured concentrations of 1.1 (control) and 10.3 µg Se/g dry mass as SeMet for 57 days, then encouraged to breed. Progeny were reared to swim-up and differences in mortality, eye size and visual behaviour were determined. Adult vision was also investigated using behavioural assays. Adults fed the SeMet-spiked diet exhibited significantly fewer positive reactions in the escape response assay when compared to controls...
September 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Brian H Jensen
A strong literature base supports the notion that active learning improves retention in the science classroom. To that end, a course was designed to allow students to develop their own experiments around a central biological question. The model system used in this particular course is control of melanosome dispersal via second messenger systems in zebrafish (Danio rerio) scales. Students start by applying agonists and antagonists to the cAMP and Ca(2+) second messenger systems, and then can progress to more refined questions with the model system...
August 2016: Zebrafish
Shuo Hong Wang, Xi En Cheng, Zhi-Ming Qian, Ye Liu, Yan Qiu Chen
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one of the most widely used model organisms in collective behavior research. Multi-object tracking with high speed camera is currently the most feasible way to accurately measure their motion states for quantitative study of their collective behavior. However, due to difficulties such as their similar appearance, complex body deformation and frequent occlusions, it is a big challenge for an automated system to be able to reliably track the body geometry of each individual fish. To accomplish this task, we propose a novel fish body model that uses a chain of rectangles to represent fish body...
2016: PloS One
Arunita Chatterjee, Debasish Roy, Esha Patnaik, Upendra Nongthomba
Muscle contraction brings about movement and locomotion in animals. However, muscles have also been implicated in several atypical physiological processes including immune response. The role of muscles in immunity and the mechanism involved has not yet been deciphered. In this paper, using Drosophila indirect flight muscles (IFMs) as a model, we show that muscles are immune-responsive tissues. Flies with defective IFMs are incapable of mounting a potent humoral immune response. Upon immune challenge, the IFMs produce anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) through the activation of canonical signaling pathways, and these IFM-synthesized AMPs are essential for survival upon infection...
June 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Shubham Nema, Yogesh Bhargava
Maintenance of large number of zebrafish in captive conditions is a daunting task. This can be eased by the use of recirculating racks with self-cleaning zebrafish tanks. Commercially available systems are costly, and compatibility of intercompany products has never been investigated. Although various cost-effective designs and methods of construction of custom-made recirculating zebrafish racks are available in literature, the design of self-cleaning zebrafish tanks is still not available. In this study, we report the design and method of construction of the self-cleaning unit, which can be fitted in any zebrafish tank...
August 2016: Zebrafish
Arnab Saha, Masatoshi Nishikawa, Martin Behrndt, Carl-Philipp Heisenberg, Frank Jülicher, Stephan W Grill
Actin and myosin assemble into a thin layer of a highly dynamic network underneath the membrane of eukaryotic cells. This network generates the forces that drive cell- and tissue-scale morphogenetic processes. The effective material properties of this active network determine large-scale deformations and other morphogenetic events. For example, the characteristic time of stress relaxation (the Maxwell time τM) in the actomyosin sets the timescale of large-scale deformation of the cortex. Similarly, the characteristic length of stress propagation (the hydrodynamic length λ) sets the length scale of slow deformations, and a large hydrodynamic length is a prerequisite for long-ranged cortical flows...
March 29, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Wenqing Tu, Chao Xu, Yuanxiang Jin, Bin Lu, Chunmian Lin, Yongming Wu, Weiping Liu
Permethrin (PM), one of the most heavily used synthetic pyrethroids, has the potential to interfere with thyroid hormones in mammals, however, the effect is poorly recognized in aquatic organisms. Herein, embryonic zebrafish were exposed to PM (0, 1, 3 and 10μg/L) until 72h post-fertilization. We demonstrated that PM readily accumulated in larvae with a preference for cis-PM, inhibited development and increased thyroxine and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine levels accompanying increase in the transcription of most target genes, i...
June 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Magda C Teles, Sara D Cardoso, Rui F Oliveira
Social living animals need to adjust the expression of their behavior to their status within the group and to changes in social context and this ability (social plasticity) has an impact on their Darwinian fitness. At the proximate level social plasticity must rely on neuroplasticity in the brain social decision-making network (SDMN) that underlies the expression of social behavior, such that the same neural circuit may underlie the expression of different behaviors depending on social context. Here we tested this hypothesis in zebrafish by characterizing the gene expression response in the SDMN to changes in social status of a set of genes involved in different types of neural plasticity: bdnf, involved in changes in synaptic strength; npas4, involved in contextual learning and dependent establishment of GABAergic synapses; neuroligins (nlgn1 and nlgn2) as synaptogenesis markers; and genes involved in adult neurogenesis (wnt3 and neurod)...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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