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melanocyte stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927893/msx1-induced-neural-crest-like-reprogramming-promotes-melanoma-progression
#1
Markus V Heppt, Joshua X Wang, Denitsa M Hristova, Zhi Wei, Ling Li, Brianna Evans, Marilda Beqiri, Samir Zaman, Jie Zhang, Martin Irmler, Carola Berking, Robert Besch, Johannes Beckers, Frank J Rauscher, Rick A Sturm, David E Fisher, Meenhard Herlyn, Mizuho Fukunaga-Kalabis
Melanoma cells share many biological properties with neural crest stem cells. Here we show that the homeodomain transcription factor Msh homeobox 1 (MSX1), which is significantly correlated with melanoma disease progression, reprograms melanocytes and melanoma cells towards a neural crest precursor-like state. MSX1-reprogrammed normal human melanocytes express the neural crest marker p75 and become multipotent. MSX1 induces a phenotypic switch in melanoma, which is characterized by an oncogenic transition from an E-cadherin-high non-migratory state towards a ZEB1-high invasive state...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899502/melaleuca-quinquenervia-essential-oil-inhibits-%C3%AE-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-induced-melanin-production-and-oxidative-stress-in-b16-melanoma-cells
#2
Wen-Wan Chao, Chia-Chi Su, Hsin-Yi Peng, Su-Tze Chou
BACKGROUND: Essential oils are odorous, volatile products of plant secondary metabolism, which are found in many leaves and stems. They show important biological activities, which account for the development of aromatherapy used in complementary and alternative medicine. The essential oil extracted from Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake (paperbark) (MQ-EO) has various functional properties. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to investigate the chemical composition of MQ-EO by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and evaluate its tyrosinase inhibitory activity...
October 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887108/new-approach-for-the-derivation-of-melanocytes-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-ips-cells
#3
Tamihiro Kawakami, Tatsuro Okano, Sora Takeuchi, Kayoko Osumi, Yoshinao Soma, Munenari Itoh, Tomohisa Hirobe, Kowichi Jimbow
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have the ability to differentiate into multiple cell types in the body and have an unlimited growth potential. However, iPS cell-derived melanocytes produced by existing protocols have significant limitations in developing novel strategies for regenerative medicine and cell therapies of pigmentation disorders in humans, because they involve culture in media containing fetal bovine serum (FBS) and non-physiologic agents. In this study, we established a new in vitro approach to generate iPS cell-derived human melanocytes which have higher proliferation rates and increased melanin production compared to melanocytes prepared by previously reported approaches...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886268/implanted-hair-follicle-associated-pluripotent-hap-stem-cells-encapsulated-in-polyvinylidene-fluoride-membrane-cylinders-promote-effective-recovery-of-peripheral-nerve-injury
#4
Aiko Yamazaki, Kohya Obara, Natsuko Tohgi, Kyoumi Shirai, Sumiyuki Mii, Yuko Hamada, Nobuko Arakawa, Ryoichi Aki, Robert M Hoffman, Yasuyuki Amoh
Hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells are located in the bulge area of the hair follicle, express the stem-cell marker, nestin, and have been shown to differentiate to nerve cells, glial cells, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells, and melanocytes. Transplanted HAP stem cells promote the recovery of peripheral nerve and spinal cord injuries and have the potential for heart regeneration as well. In the present study, we implanted mouse HAP stem-cell spheres encapsulated in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-membrane cylinders into the severed sciatic nerve of immunocompetent and immunocompromised (nude) mice...
September 8, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833600/clinicopathologic-features-and-pathogenesis-of-melanocytic-colonization-in-atypical-meningioma
#5
Mitra Dehghan Harati, Andrew Yu, Shino D Magaki, Mari Perez-Rosendahl, Kyuseok Im, Young K Park, Marvin Bergsneider, William H Yong
Only two prior cases of benign dendritic melanocytes colonizing a meningioma have been reported. We add a third case, describe clinicopathologic features shared by the three, and elucidate the risk factors for this very rare phenomenon. A 29 year-old Hispanic woman presented with headache and hydrocephalus. MRI showed a lobulated enhancing pineal region mass measuring 41 mm in greatest dimension. Subtotal resection of the mass demonstrated an atypical meningioma, WHO grade II, and the patient subsequently underwent radiotherapy...
August 18, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809777/pigmented-epithelioid-melanocytoma-pem-animal-type-melanoma-atm-quest-for-an-origin-report-of-one-unusual-case-indicating-follicular-origin-and-another-arising-in-an-intradermal-nevus
#6
Ashley Tarasen, J Andrew Carlson, M Kathryn Leonard, Glenn Merlino, David Kaetzel, Andrzej T Slominski
Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM) is a tumor encompassing epithelioid blue nevus of Carney complex (EBN of CNC) and was previously termed animal-type melanoma. Histologically PEMs are heavily pigmented spindled and epithelioid dermal melanocytic tumors with infiltrative borders, however, their origin remains unclear. Stem cells for the epidermis and hair follicle are located in the bulge area of the hair follicle with the potential to differentiate into multiple lineages. Multiple cutaneous carcinomas, including follicular cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (FSCC), are thought to arise from stem cells in the follicular bulge...
August 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749199/hair-follicle-associated-pluripotent-hap-stem-cells
#7
Yasuyuki Amoh, Robert M Hoffman
Various types of stem cells reside in the skin, including keratinocyte progenitor cells, melanocyte progenitor cells, skin-derived precursors (SKPs), and nestin-expressing hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells. HAP stem cells, located in the bulge area of the hair follicle, have been shown to differentiate to nerve cells, glial cells, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells, and melanocytes. HAP stem cells are positive for the stem-cell marker CD34, as well as K15-negative, suggesting their relatively undifferentiated state...
July 27, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725654/stem-cells-from-human-hair-follicles-first-mechanical-isolation-for-immediate-autologous-clinical-use-in-androgenetic-alopecia-and-hair-loss
#8
Pietro Gentile, Maria G Scioli, Alessandra Bielli, Augusto Orlandi, Valerio Cervelli
BACKGROUND: Hair follicles are known to contain a well-characterized niche for adult stem cells: the bulge, which contains epithelial and melanocytic stem cells. Stem cells in the hair bulge, a clearly demarcated structure within the lower permanent portion of hair follicles, can generate the interfollicular epidermis, hair follicle structures, and sebaceous glands. The bulge epithelial stem cells can also reconstitute in an artificial in vivo system to a new hair follicle. METHODS: In this study, we have developed a new method to isolate human adult stem cells by mechanical centrifugation of punch biopsy from human hair follicles without culture condition...
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695960/galectin-1-enhances-the-generation-of-neural-crest-cells
#9
Tsutomu Motohashi, Masahiro Nishioka, Daisuke Kitagawa, Norito Kawamura, Natsuki Watanabe, Takanori Wakaoka, Toshihiko Kadoya, Takahiro Kunisada
Neural crest (NC) cells are multipotent cells that emerge from the dorsal region of the neural tube. After delaminating from the neural tube, NC cells migrate throughout the developing embryo and differentiate into various cells: neurons and glial cells of the peripheral nervous system, melanocytes of skin, and skeletal elements of the face and head. We previously analyzed the gene expression profile of a NC subpopulation isolated from Sox10-IRES-Venus mice and found that the carbohydrate-binding protein, Galectin-1 (Gal-1) was strongly expressed in generating NC cells...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683107/human-bone-marrow-harbors-cells-with-neural-crest-associated-characteristics-like-human-adipose-and-dermis-tissues
#10
Cécile Coste, Virginie Neirinckx, Anil Sharma, Gulistan Agirman, Bernard Rogister, Jacques Foguenne, François Lallemend, André Gothot, Sabine Wislet
Adult neural crest stem-derived cells (NCSC) are of extraordinary high plasticity and promising candidates for use in regenerative medicine. Several locations such as skin, adipose tissue, dental pulp or bone marrow have been described in rodent, as sources of NCSC. However, very little information is available concerning their correspondence in human tissues, and more precisely for human bone marrow. The main objective of this study was therefore to characterize NCSC from adult human bone marrow. In this purpose, we compared human bone marrow stromal cells to human adipose tissue and dermis, already described for containing NCSC...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679862/mysm1-2a-dub-is-an-epigenetic-regulator-in-human-melanoma-and-contributes-to-tumor-cell-growth
#11
Christina Wilms, Carsten M Kroeger, Adelheid V Hainzl, Ishani Banik, Clara Bruno, Ioanna Krikki, Vida Farsam, Meinhard Wlaschek, Martina V Gatzka
Histone modifying enzymes, such as histone deacetylases (HDACs) and polycomb repressive complex (PRC) components, have been implicated in regulating tumor growth, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, tumor stem cell maintenance, or repression of tumor suppressor genes - and may be promising targets for combination therapies of melanoma and other cancers. According to recent findings, the histone H2A deubiquitinase 2A-DUB/Mysm1 interacts with the p53-axis in hematopoiesis and tissue differentiation in mice, in part by modulating DNA-damage responses in stem cell and progenitor compartments...
June 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677151/getting-a-tan-without-getting-sik
#12
John A D'Orazio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592171/next-generation-human-skin-constructs-as-advanced-tools-for-drug-development
#13
H E Abaci, Zongyou Guo, Yanne Doucet, Joanna Jacków, Angela Christiano
Many diseases, as well as side effects of drugs, manifest themselves through skin symptoms. Skin is a complex tissue that hosts various specialized cell types and performs many roles including physical barrier, immune and sensory functions. Therefore, modeling skin in vitro presents technical challenges for tissue engineering. Since the first attempts at engineering human epidermis in 1970s, there has been a growing interest in generating full-thickness skin constructs mimicking physiological functions by incorporating various skin components, such as vasculature and melanocytes for pigmentation...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537485/the-nad-parp1-sirt1-axis-in-aging
#14
Andrew R Mendelsohn, James W Larrick
NAD+ levels decline with age in diverse animals from Caenorhabditis elegans to mice. Raising NAD+ levels by dietary supplementation with NAD+ precursors, nicotinamide riboside (NR) or nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), improves mitochondrial function and muscle and neural and melanocyte stem cell function in mice, as well as increases murine life span. Decreased NAD+ levels with age reduce SIRT1 function and reduce the mitochondrial unfolded protein response, which can be overcome by NR supplementation. Decreased NAD+ levels cause NAD+-binding protein DBC1 to form a complex with PARP1, inhibiting poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) catalytic activity...
June 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512235/identifying-the-niche-controlling-melanocyte-differentiation
#15
REVIEW
Manuel Zocco, Cédric Blanpain
Melanocytes present in hair follicles are responsible for their pigmentation. Melanocyte differentiation and hair pigmentation depend on the stem cell factor (SCF)/c-Kit signaling pathway, but the niche that regulates melanocyte differentiation is not well characterized. In this issue of Genes & Development, Liao and colleagues (pp. 744-756) identify Krox20(+)-derived cells of the hair shaft as the niche and the essential source of SCF required for melanocyte maturation. This study delineates the niche factors regulating melanocyte differentiation and hair pigmentation and opens up new avenues to further characterize the cross-talk between the hair follicle and melanocytes that controls melanocyte maintenance and differentiation...
April 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488417/melanogenesis-inhibitory-and-antioxidant-activities-of-phenolics-from-periploca-forrestii
#16
Cai-Ling Sun, Lei Chen, Jian Xu, Wei Qu, Li Guan, Wen-Yuan Liu, Toshihiro Akihisa, Feng Feng, Jie Zhang
Two new tetrahydrofuran-type lignans, (-)-gentioluteol 9-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), (-)-berchemol 9-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), along with sixteen known compounds 3 - 18 were isolated from the 95% EtOH extract of the stems of Periploca forrestii. The structures of the new tetrahydrofuran-type lignans were determined by HR-ESI-MS and various NMR techniques in combination with CD method. Then, their antioxidant abilities were evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays...
May 10, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465357/identification-of-hair-shaft-progenitors-that-create-a-niche-for-hair-pigmentation
#17
Chung-Ping Liao, Reid C Booker, Sean J Morrison, Lu Q Le
Hair differentiates from follicle stem cells through progenitor cells in the matrix. In contrast to stem cells in the bulge, the identities of the progenitors and the mechanisms by which they regulate hair shaft components are poorly understood. Hair is also pigmented by melanocytes in the follicle. However, the niche that regulates follicular melanocytes is not well characterized. Here, we report the identification of hair shaft progenitors in the matrix that are differentiated from follicular epithelial cells expressing transcription factor KROX20...
April 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434791/neuronal-cells-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-as-a-functional-tool-of-melanocortin-system
#18
Nobuko Yamada-Goto, Yukari Ochi, Goro Katsuura, Yui Yamashita, Ken Ebihara, Michio Noguchi, Junji Fujikura, Daisuke Taura, Masakatsu Sone, Kiminori Hosoda, Paul E Gottschall, Kazuwa Nakao
BACKGROUND: The preparation of human neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can serve as a potential tool for evaluating the physiological and pathophysiological properties of human neurons and for drug development. METHODS: In the present study, the functional activity in neuronal cells differentiated from human iPS cells was observed. RESULTS: The differentiated cells expressed mRNAs for classical neuronal markers (microtubule-associated protein 2, β-tubulin III, calbindin 1, synaptophysin and postsynaptic density protein 95) and for subunits of various excitatory and inhibitory transmitters (NR1, NR2A, NR2B, GABAA α1)...
April 7, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424421/the-soy-derived-peptide-lunasin-inhibits-invasive-potential-of-melanoma-initiating-cells
#19
Chris Shidal, Jun-Ichi Inaba, Kavitha Yaddanapudi, Keith R Davis
Lunasin is a 44 amino acid peptide with multiple functional domains including an aspartic acid tail, an RGD domain, and a chromatin-binding helical domain. We recently showed that Lunasin induced a phenotype switch of cancer initiating cells (CIC) out of the stem compartment by inducing melanocyte-associated differentiation markers while simultaneously reducing stem-cell-associated transcription factors. In the present study, we advance the hypothesis that Lunasin can reduce pools of melanoma cells with stem cell-like properties, and demonstrate that Lunasin treatment effectively inhibits the invasive potential of CICs in vitro as well as in vivo in a mouse experimental metastasis model...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368416/sox2-is-dispensable-for-primary-melanoma-and-metastasis-formation
#20
S M Schaefer, C Segalada, P F Cheng, M Bonalli, V Parfejevs, M P Levesque, R Dummer, S K Nicolis, L Sommer
Tumor initiation and metastasis formation in many cancers have been associated with emergence of a gene expression program normally active in embryonic or organ-specific stem cells. In particular, the stem cell transcription factor Sox2 is not only expressed in a variety of tumors, but is also required for their formation. Melanoma, the most aggressive skin tumor, derives from melanocytes that during development originate from neural crest stem cells. While neural crest stem cells do not express Sox2, expression of this transcription factor has been reported in melanoma...
April 3, 2017: Oncogene
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