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melanocyte stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772675/silencing-stem-cell-factor-gene-in-fibroblasts-to-regulate-paracrine-factor-productions-and-enhance-c-kit-expression-in-melanocytes-on-melanogenesis
#1
Pin-Hui Li, Li-Heng Liu, Cheng-Chung Chang, Rong Gao, Chung-Hang Leung, Dik-Lung Ma, Hui-Min David Wang
Melanogenesis is a complex physiological mechanism involving various paracrine factors. Skin cells such as keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and melanocytes communicate with one another through secreted regulators, thereby regulating the melanocytes' bio-functions. The stem cell factor (SCF) is a paracrine factor produced by fibroblasts, and its receptor, c-kit, is expressed on melanocytes. Binding of SCF to c-kit activates autophosphorylation and tyrosine kinase to switch on its signal transmission. SCF inhibition does not suppress fibroblast proliferation in MTT assay, and SCF silencing induced mRNA expressions of paracrine factor genes, HGF , NRG-1 , and CRH in qPCR results...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723194/a-direct-link-between-mitf-innate-immunity-and-hair-graying
#2
Melissa L Harris, Temesgen D Fufa, Joseph W Palmer, Sandeep S Joshi, Denise M Larson, Arturo Incao, Derek E Gildea, Niraj S Trivedi, Autumne N Lee, Chi-Ping Day, Helen T Michael, Thomas J Hornyak, Glenn Merlino, William J Pavan
Melanocyte stem cells (McSCs) and mouse models of hair graying serve as useful systems to uncover mechanisms involved in stem cell self-renewal and the maintenance of regenerating tissues. Interested in assessing genetic variants that influence McSC maintenance, we found previously that heterozygosity for the melanogenesis associated transcription factor, Mitf, exacerbates McSC differentiation and hair graying in mice that are predisposed for this phenotype. Based on transcriptome and molecular analyses of Mitfmi-vga9/+ mice, we report a novel role for MITF in the regulation of systemic innate immune gene expression...
May 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704117/regeneration-of-mouse-skin-melanocyte-stem-cells-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#3
Ke Yang, Weiming Qiu, Pei-Rong Gu, Mingxing Lei
Coordinated regeneration of melanocyte stem cells (McSCs) and hair follicle stem cells (HSCs) contributes to generation of pigmented hairs. Synchronous regeneration of McSCs with activation of HSCs occurs not only during initiation of a new hair cycle in vivo but also during reconstitution of hair follicles in vitro. The duration of the quiescent state of these stem cells becomes longer and longer in lifespan of mammals, leading to a decreased regenerative ability to form hair follicles. Here, we describe methods to activate McSCs during hair follicle regeneration in vivo, and isolate melanocytes from neonatal mouse skin to generate an immortalized cell line of melanocyte progenitors in vitro, aiming to use them for studying melanogenesis and future clinical application...
April 28, 2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664513/vitiligo-type-cutaneous-manifestation-of-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease-case-report
#4
Karla Gálvez, Paula Muñoz, Valentina Vera, Claudio Arce
INTRODUCTION: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is caused by a pathologic and destructive response of the organism as a result of the interaction between donor immunocompetent T lymphocytes and the recipient tisular antigens. It's considered the most serious complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, most frequently described after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The skin is usually the first and most commonly affected organ, in both acute and chronic, with a variable clinical spectrum of presentation...
February 2018: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623021/biochemical-aspects-of-mammalian-melanocytes-and-the-emerging-role-of-melanocyte-stem-cells-in-dermatological-therapies
#5
REVIEW
Sharique A Ali, Ishrat Naaz
Skin color in animals is richer than human beings and is determined by different types of pigments. Melanin is the key pigment responsible for the diverse pigmentation found in animal and human skin, hair, and eyes. Melanin pigment is synthesized by melanocytes and is consecutively transferred to adjacent keratinocytes; here, it acts as an internal sunscreen to defend from ultraviolet (UV) damage. Any defect in the process of melanocytes development and/or melanin synthesis results in esthetic problem of abnormal pigmentation...
January 2018: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614271/the-issue-of-the-multipotency-of-the-neural-crest-cells
#6
REVIEW
Elisabeth Dupin, Giordano W Calloni, Juliana M Coelho-Aguiar, Nicole M Le Douarin
In the neural primordium of vertebrate embryos, the neural crest (NC) displays a unique character: the capacity of its component cells to leave the neural primordium, migrate along definite (and, for long, not identified) routes in the developing embryo and invade virtually all tissues and organs, while producing a large array of differentiated cell types. The most striking diversity of the NC derivatives is found in its cephalic domain that produces, not only melanocytes and peripheral nerves and ganglia, but also various mesenchymal derivatives (connective tissues, bones, cartilages…) which, in other parts of the body, are mesoderm-derived...
March 31, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599975/exosomes-as-a-novel-pathway-for-regulating-development-and-diseases-of-the-skin
#7
Ying Liu, Haidong Wang, Juan Wang
Exosomes are one of the most potent intercellular communicators, which are able to communicate with adjacent or distant cells. Exosomes deliver various bioactive molecules, including membrane receptors, proteins, mRNA and microRNA, to target cells and serve roles. Recent studies have demonstrated that exosomes may regulate the functions and diseases of the skin, which is the largest organ of the human body. The abnormal functions of the skin lead to the progression of scleroderma, melanoma, baldness and other diseases...
March 2018: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582573/regulation-of-melanocyte-stem-cell-behavior-by-the-niche-microenvironment
#8
REVIEW
Huirong Li, Ling Hou
Somatic stem cells are regulated by their niches to maintain tissue homeostasis and repair throughout the lifetime of an organism. An excellent example to study stem cell/niche interactions is provided by the regeneration of melanocytes during the hair cycle and in response to various types of injury. These processes are regulated by neighboring stem cells and multiple signaling pathways, including WNT/β-catenin, KITL/KIT, EDNs/EDNRB, TGFβ/TGFβR, α-MSH/MC1R, and Notch signaling. In this review, we highlight recent studies that have advanced our understanding of the molecular crosstalk between melanocyte stem cells and their neighboring cells, which collectively form the niche microenvironment, and we focus on the question of how McSCs/niche interactions shape the responses to genotoxic damages and mechanical injury...
March 26, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536271/novel-rest-functions-revealed-by-conditional-gene-ablation
#9
REVIEW
Hitomi Aoki
Rest is a regulator of neuronal development and has been suggested to function in maintaining the pluripotent state of embryonic stem cells (ESCs); however, this remains controversial. Since Rest null mice show embryonic lethality, we herein generated conditional Rest knockout (CKO) models to investigate Rest functions in more detail. Our results revealed that Rest was not necessary for maintaining the pluripotency of ESCs and instead promoted primitive endoderm differentiation. In contrast to the repressive role of Rest in vitro, including ESCs, neural stem cells, and fibroblasts, on the expression of target neural genes, Rest CKO did not affect the in vivo development of brain tissue...
March 13, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523807/ultraviolet-irradiated-endothelial-cells-secrete-stem-cell-factor-and-induce-epidermal-pigmentation
#10
Misun Kim, Takako Shibata, Soohyun Kwon, Tae Jun Park, Hee Young Kang
Ultraviolet (UV)-associated hyperpigmented skins are characterized with increased vasculature underlying pigmentation, suggestive of the possible biological role of endothelial cells in the regulation of skin pigmentation during UV irradiation. In this study, we showed that UV-irradiated endothelial cells significantly increased the pigmentation of melanocytes through epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk. The stimulatory effect of endothelial cells was further demonstrated using ex vivo human skin. RNA sequence analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that endothelial cells secrete more stem cell factor (SCF) upon UV irradiation than non-irradiated cells...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487896/a-path-from-melanocyte-stem-cells-to-cutaneous-melanoma-illuminated-by-uvb
#11
Hyeongsun Moon, Andrew C White
The relationship between melanocyte stem cells (MCSCs) and melanoma has been unclear. We recently demonstrated that melanoma-prone MCSCs are able to initiate cutaneous melanoma following stem cell activation through ultraviolet-B (UVB) exposure or natural stem cell cycling. Conversely, MCSC quiescence is sufficient to suppress tumorigenesis. This provides new insight into the role of environmental factors in tumor initiation from adult stem cells.
2018: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428355/dissecting-wnt-signaling-for-melanocyte-regulation-during-wound-healing
#12
Qi Sun, Piul Rabbani, Makoto Takeo, Soung-Hoon Lee, Chae Ho Lim, En-Nekema Shandi Noel, M Mark Taketo, Peggy Myung, Sarah Millar, Mayumi Ito
Abnormal pigmentation is commonly seen in the wound scar. Despite advancements in the research of wound healing, little is known about the repopulation of melanocytes in the healed skin. Previous studies have shown the capacity of melanocyte stem cells in the hair follicle to contribute skin epidermal melanocytes after injury in mice and humans. Here, we focused on the Wnt pathway, known to be a vital regulator of melanocyte stem cells in efforts to better understand the regulation of follicle-derived epidermal melanocytes during wound healing...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387874/combination-of-follicular-and-epidermal-cell-suspension-as-a-novel-surgical-approach-in-difficult-to-treat-vitiligo-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#13
Muhammed Razmi T, Ravinder Kumar, Seema Rani, Sendhil M Kumaran, Sushma Tanwar, Davinder Parsad
Importance: Epidermal cell suspension (ECS) and follicular cell suspension (FCS) are successful surgical modalities for the treatment of stable vitiligo. However, repigmentation in generalized and acrofacial vitiligo and over acral or bony sites (eg, elbows, knees, iliac crests, and malleoli), which are difficult to treat, is challenging. Objective: To study the efficacy of transplanting a combination of autologous, noncultured ECS and FCS (ECS + FCS) compared with ECS alone in stable vitiligo...
March 1, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369499/inducibly-decreased-mitf-levels-do-not-affect-proliferation-and-phenotype-switching-but-reduce-differentiation-of-melanoma-cells
#14
Kateřina Vlčková, Jiri Vachtenheim, Jiri Réda, Pavel Horák, Lubica Ondrušová
Melanoma arises from neural crest-derived melanocytes which reside mostly in the skin in an adult organism. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a tumorigenic programme through which cells acquire mesenchymal, more pro-oncogenic phenotype. The reversible phenotype switching is an event still not completely understood in melanoma. The EMT features and increased invasiveness are associated with lower levels of the pivotal lineage identity maintaining and melanoma-specific transcription factor MITF (microphthalmia-associated transcription factor), whereas increased proliferation is linked to higher MITF levels...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362867/the-stem-cell-factor-stimulated-melanogenesis-in-human-melanocytes-can-be-abrogated-by-interrupting-the-phosphorylation-of-msk1-evidence-for-involvement-of-the-p38-msk1-creb-mitf-axis
#15
Takao Niwano, Shuko Terazawa, Hiroaki Nakajima, Genji Imokawa
We recently found that treatment of normal human melanocytes (NHMs) with the antioxidant astaxanthin (AX) suppresses the stem cell factor (SCF)-stimulated protein expression levels of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) at 1.5 h and of tyrosinase and endothelin B receptor at 96 h post-treatment. Analysis of the signaling cascade(s) involved revealed that although the major SCF-activated signaling cascade that leads to CREB activation (the c-KIT/Shc/Raf-1/ERK/RSK/CREB axis) is not interrupted, the increased phosphorylation of CREB is significantly abrogated by AX...
April 2018: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337115/purification-of-gfr%C3%AE-1-and-gfr%C3%AE-1-spermatogonial-stem-cells-reveals-a-niche-dependent-mechanism-for-fate-determination
#16
Alina Garbuzov, Matthew F Pech, Kazuteru Hasegawa, Meena Sukhwani, Ruixuan J Zhang, Kyle E Orwig, Steven E Artandi
Undifferentiated spermatogonia comprise a pool of stem cells and progenitor cells that show heterogeneous expression of markers, including the cell surface receptor GFRα1. Technical challenges in isolation of GFRα1+ versus GFRα1- undifferentiated spermatogonia have precluded the comparative molecular characterization of these subpopulations and their functional evaluation as stem cells. Here, we develop a method to purify these subpopulations by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and show that GFRα1+ and GFRα1- undifferentiated spermatogonia both demonstrate elevated transplantation activity, while differing principally in receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and cell cycle...
February 13, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336307/activation-of-g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-signaling-inhibits-melanoma-and-improves-response-to-immune-checkpoint-blockade
#17
Christopher A Natale, Jinyang Li, Junqian Zhang, Ankit Dahal, Tzvete Dentchev, Ben Z Stanger, Todd W Ridky
Female sex and history of prior pregnancies are associated with favorable melanoma outcomes. Here, we show that much of the melanoma protective effect likely results from estrogen signaling through the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) on melanocytes. Selective GPER activation in primary melanocytes and melanoma cells induced long-term changes that maintained a more differentiated cell state as defined by increased expression of well-established melanocyte differentiation antigens, increased pigment production, decreased proliferative capacity, and decreased expression of the oncodriver and stem cell marker c-Myc...
January 16, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181082/sox10-mitf-pathway-activity-in-melanoma-cells
#18
Karol B Tudrej, Edyta Czepielewska, Małgorzata Kozłowska-Wojciechowska
Melanoma is one of the most dangerous and lethal skin cancers, with a considerable metastatic potential and drug resistance. It involves a malignant transformation of melanocytes. The exact course of events in which melanocytes become melanoma cells remains unclear. Nevertheless, this process is said to be dependent on the occurrence of cells with the phenotype of progenitor cells - cells characterized by expression of proteins such as nestin, CD-133 or CD-271. The development of these cells and their survival were found to be potentially dependent on the neural crest stem cell transcription factor SOX10...
October 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156643/melanoma-genetic-abnormalities-tumor-progression-clonal-evolution-and-tumor-initiating-cells
#19
REVIEW
Ugo Testa, Germana Castelli, Elvira Pelosi
Melanoma is an aggressive neoplasia issued from the malignant transformation of melanocytes, the pigment-generating cells of the skin. It is responsible for about 75% of deaths due to skin cancers. Melanoma is a phenotypically and molecularly heterogeneous disease: cutaneous, uveal, acral, and mucosal melanomas have different clinical courses, are associated with different mutational profiles, and possess distinct risk factors. The discovery of the molecular abnormalities underlying melanomas has led to the promising improvement of therapy, and further progress is expected in the near future...
November 20, 2017: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124688/uv-induced-molecular-signaling-differences-in-melanoma-and-non-melanoma-skin-cancer
#20
Feng Liu-Smith, Jinjing Jia, Yan Zheng
There are three major types of skin cancer: melanoma, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). BCC and SCC are often referred to as non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). NMSCs are relatively non-lethal and curable by surgery, hence are not reportable in most cancer registries all over the world. Melanoma is the deadliest skin cancer. Its incidence rate (case number) is about 1/10th of that for NMSC, yet its death toll is ~8 fold higher than NMSC.Melanomas arise from melanocytes which are normally located on the basement membrane with dendrites extending into the epidermal keratinocytes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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