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melanocyte stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537485/a-nad-parp1-sirt1-axis-in-aging
#1
Andrew R Mendelsohn, James Larrick
NAD+ levels decline with age in diverse animals from C. elegans to mice. Raising NAD+ levels by dietary supplementation with NAD+ precursors NR or NMN improves mitochondrial function and muscle, neural and melanocyte stem cell function in mice as well as increasing murine lifespan. Decreased NAD+ levels with age reduces SIRT1 function and reduces the mitochondrial unfolded protein response, which can be overcome by NR supplementation. Decreased NAD+ levels cause NAD+-binding protein DCB1 to form a complex with PARP1, inhibiting PARP catalytic activity...
May 24, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512235/identifying-the-niche-controlling-melanocyte-differentiation
#2
REVIEW
Manuel Zocco, Cédric Blanpain
Melanocytes present in hair follicles are responsible for their pigmentation. Melanocyte differentiation and hair pigmentation depend on the stem cell factor (SCF)/c-Kit signaling pathway, but the niche that regulates melanocyte differentiation is not well characterized. In this issue of Genes & Development, Liao and colleagues (pp. 744-756) identify Krox20(+)-derived cells of the hair shaft as the niche and the essential source of SCF required for melanocyte maturation. This study delineates the niche factors regulating melanocyte differentiation and hair pigmentation and opens up new avenues to further characterize the cross-talk between the hair follicle and melanocytes that controls melanocyte maintenance and differentiation...
April 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488417/melanogenesis-inhibitory-and-antioxidant-activities-of-phenolics-from-periploca-forrestii
#3
Cai-Ling Sun, Lei Chen, Jian Xu, Wei Qu, Li Guan, Wen-Yuan Liu, Toshihiro Akihisa, Feng Feng, Jie Zhang
Two new tetrahydrofuran-type lignans, (-)-gentioluteol-9-O-β-D-glucoside (1), (-)-berchemol 9-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), along with sixteen known compounds 3-18 were isolated from the 95% EtOH extract of the stems of Periploca forrestii. The structures of new tetrahydrofuran-type lignans were determined by HR-ESI-MS and various NMR techniques in combination with CD method. Then, their antioxidant abilities were evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazul (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays...
May 10, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465357/identification-of-hair-shaft-progenitors-that-create-a-niche-for-hair-pigmentation
#4
Chung-Ping Liao, Reid C Booker, Sean J Morrison, Lu Q Le
Hair differentiates from follicle stem cells through progenitor cells in the matrix. In contrast to stem cells in the bulge, the identities of the progenitors and the mechanisms by which they regulate hair shaft components are poorly understood. Hair is also pigmented by melanocytes in the follicle. However, the niche that regulates follicular melanocytes is not well characterized. Here, we report the identification of hair shaft progenitors in the matrix that are differentiated from follicular epithelial cells expressing transcription factor KROX20...
May 2, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434791/neuronal-cells-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-as-a-functional-tool-of-melanocortin-system
#5
Nobuko Yamada-Goto, Yukari Ochi, Goro Katsuura, Yui Yamashita, Ken Ebihara, Michio Noguchi, Junji Fujikura, Daisuke Taura, Masakatsu Sone, Kiminori Hosoda, Paul E Gottschall, Kazuwa Nakao
BACKGROUND: The preparation of human neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can serve as a potential tool for evaluating the physiological and pathophysiological properties of human neurons and for drug development. METHODS: In the present study, the functional activity in neuronal cells differentiated from human iPS cells was observed. RESULTS: The differentiated cells expressed mRNAs for classical neuronal markers (microtubule-associated protein 2, β-tubulin III, calbindin 1, synaptophysin and postsynaptic density protein 95) and for subunits of various excitatory and inhibitory transmitters (NR1, NR2A, NR2B, GABAA α1)...
April 7, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424421/the-soy-derived-peptide-lunasin-inhibits-invasive-potential-of-melanoma-initiating-cells
#6
Chris Shidal, Jun-Ichi Inaba, Kavitha Yaddanapudi, Keith R Davis
Lunasin is a 44 amino acid peptide with multiple functional domains including an aspartic acid tail, an RGD domain, and a chromatin-binding helical domain. We recently showed that Lunasin induced a phenotype switch of cancer initiating cells (CIC) out of the stem compartment by inducing melanocyte-associated differentiation markers while simultaneously reducing stem-cell-associated transcription factors. In the present study, we advance the hypothesis that Lunasin can reduce pools of melanoma cells with stem cell-like properties, and demonstrate that Lunasin treatment effectively inhibits the invasive potential of CICs in vitro as well as in vivo in a mouse experimental metastasis model...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368416/sox2-is-dispensable-for-primary-melanoma-and-metastasis-formation
#7
S M Schaefer, C Segalada, P F Cheng, M Bonalli, V Parfejevs, M P Levesque, R Dummer, S K Nicolis, L Sommer
Tumor initiation and metastasis formation in many cancers have been associated with emergence of a gene expression program normally active in embryonic or organ-specific stem cells. In particular, the stem cell transcription factor Sox2 is not only expressed in a variety of tumors, but is also required for their formation. Melanoma, the most aggressive skin tumor, derives from melanocytes that during development originate from neural crest stem cells. While neural crest stem cells do not express Sox2, expression of this transcription factor has been reported in melanoma...
April 3, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368402/sox2-is-not-required-for-melanomagenesis-melanoma-growth-and-melanoma-metastasis-in-vivo
#8
V Cesarini, E Guida, F Todaro, S Di Agostino, V Tassinari, S Nicolis, R Favaro, S Caporali, P M Lacal, E Botti, A Costanzo, P Rossi, E A Jannini, S Dolci
Melanoma is a dangerous form of skin cancer derived from the malignant transformation of melanocytes. The transcription factor SOX2 is not expressed in melanocytes, however, it has been shown to be differentially expressed between benign nevi and malignant melanomas and to be essential for melanoma stem cell maintenance and expansion in vitro and in xenograft models. By using a mouse model in which BRaf(V600E) mutation cooperates with Pten loss to induce the development of metastatic melanoma, we investigated if Sox2 is required during the process of melanomagenesis, melanoma growth and metastasis and in the acquisition of resistance to BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) treatments...
April 3, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368380/risk-of-melanocytic-nevi-and-nonmelanoma-skin-cancer-in-children-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#9
J S Song, W B London, E B Hawryluk, D Guo, M Sridharan, D E Fisher, L E Lehmann, C N Duncan, J T Huang
There is a known increased risk of skin cancer in the adult population after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, late dermatologic effects that children may experience after HSCT have not been well described. The primary objective of this study was to characterize nevi and skin cancers affecting children after allogeneic HSCT. A cross-sectional cohort study of 85 pediatric HSCT recipients and 85 controls matched for age, sex and skin phototype was performed at a single institution. All participants underwent a full skin examination...
April 3, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342024/towards-optimization-of-odonto-osteogenic-bioengineering-in-vitro-comparison-of-simvastatin-sodium-fluoride-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone
#10
Vahid Zijah, Roya Salehi, Marziyeh Aghazadeh, Mohammad Samiei, Effat Alizadeh, Soodabeh Davaran
Tissue engineering has emerged as a potential therapeutic option for dental problems in recent years. One of the policies in tissue engineering is to use both scaffolds and additive factors for enhancing cell responses. This study aims to evaluate and compare the effect of three types of biofactors on poly-caprolactone-poly-ethylene glycol-poly caprolactone (PCL-PEG-PCL) nanofibrous scaffold on human dental pulp stem cell (hDPSCs) engineering. The PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer was synthesized with ring opening polymerization method, and its nanofiber scaffold was prepared by electrospinning method...
March 25, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337220/paracrine-secreted-frizzled-related-protein-4-inhibits-melanocytes-differentiation-in-hair-follicle
#11
Haiying Guo, Mingxing Lei, Yuhong Li, Yingxin Liu, Yinhong Tang, Yizhan Xing, Fang Deng, Ke Yang
Wnt signaling plays crucial role in regulating melanocyte stem cells/melanocyte differentiation in the hair follicle. However, how the Wnt signaling is balanced to be overactivated to control follicular melanocytes behavior remains unknown. Here, by using immunofluorescence staining, we showed that secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (sFRP4) is preferentially expressed in the skin epidermal cells rather than in melanocytes. By overexpression of sFRP4 in skin cells in vivo and in vitro, we found that sFRP4 attenuates activation of Wnt signaling, resulting in decrease of melanocytes differentiation in the regenerating hair follicle...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317526/medical-and-maintenance-treatments-for-vitiligo
#12
REVIEW
Thierry Passeron
Medical treatments alone, or in combination with phototherapy, are key approaches for treating nonsegmental vitiligo and, to a lesser extent, segmental vitiligo. The treatments are useful for halting disease progression and have been proven effective for inducing repigmentation and decreasing risk of relapses. Although the treatments have side effects and limitations, vitiligo often induces a marked decrease in quality of life and in most cases the risk:benefit ratio is in favor of an active approach. Systemic and topical agents targeting the pathways involved in loss of melanocytes and in differentiation of melanocyte stem cells should provide more effective approaches in the near future...
April 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292562/a-quantitative-analysis-of-multilineage-differentiating-stress-enduring-muse-cells-in-human-adipose-tissue-and-efficacy-of-melanocytes-induction
#13
Takeshi Yamauchi, Kenshi Yamasaki, Kenichiro Tsuchiyama, Saaya Koike, Setsuya Aiba
We have shown previously that multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells in neonatal fibroblasts can differentiate into functional melanocytes. In this study, we quantitate Muse cells in adipose-mesenchymal stem cells (adipose-MSCs) of human subcutaneous tissue obtained from 11 subjects of various ages, and measured efficacy of melanocytes induction from Adipose-MSC-derived Muse cells (hASC-Muse cells). There was a statistically significant negative correlation between the age of donors and the numbers of adipose-MSCs recovered per g fat as well as the percentage of SSEA3+ cells in the adipose-MSC populations, but isolated hASC-Muse cells showed pluripotency and growth curves equally regardless the age of donors...
June 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242477/nerve-associated-neural-crest-peripheral-glial-cells-generate-multiple-fates-in-the-body
#14
REVIEW
Julian Petersen, Igor Adameyko
Recent studies demonstrated that neural crest-derived Schwann cell precursors (SCPs) dwelling in the nerves are multipotent and can be recruited in the local tissue to provide building blocks of neural crest-derived nature. The variety of fates produced by SCPs is widening with every year and currently includes melanocytes/melanophores, parasympathetic and enteric neurons, endoneural fibroblast, mesenchymal stem cells and, of course, mature Schwann cells of different subtypes. However, it is still unclear if SCPs are, in fact, nerve-dwelling population of the neural crest or they are rather a different, more specialized, cell type...
February 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158294/deep-proteome-mapping-of-wm-266-4-human-metastatic-melanoma-cells-from-oncogenic-addiction-to-druggable-targets
#15
Eumorphia G Konstantakou, Athanassios D Velentzas, Athanasios K Anagnostopoulos, Zoi I Litou, Ourania A Konstandi, Aikaterini F Giannopoulou, Ema Anastasiadou, Gerassimos E Voutsinas, George Th Tsangaris, Dimitrios J Stravopodis
Cutaneous melanoma is a malignant tumor of skin melanocytes that are pigment-producing cells located in the basal layer (stratum basale) of epidermis. Accumulation of genetic mutations within their oncogenes or tumor-suppressor genes compels melanocytes to aberrant proliferation and spread to distant organs of the body, thereby resulting in severe and/or lethal malignancy. Metastatic melanoma's heavy mutational load, molecular heterogeneity and resistance to therapy necessitate the development of novel biomarkers and drug-based protocols that target key proteins involved in perpetuation of the disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142205/reprogramming-postnatal-human-epidermal-keratinocytes-toward-functional-neural-crest-fates
#16
Vivek K Bajpai, Laura Kerosuo, Georgios Tseropoulos, Kirstie A Cummings, Xiaoyan Wang, Pedro Lei, Biao Liu, Song Liu, Gabriela K Popescu, Marianne E Bronner, Stelios T Andreadis
During development, neural crest (NC) cells are induced by signaling events at the neural plate border of all vertebrate embryos. Initially arising within the central nervous system, NC cells subsequently undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition to migrate into the periphery, where they differentiate into diverse cell types. Here we provide evidence that postnatal human epidermal keratinocytes (KC), in response to fibroblast growth factor 2 and insulin like growth factor 1 signals, can be reprogrammed toward a NC fate...
January 31, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137308/therapeutic-implications-of-cellular-and-molecular-biology-of-cancer-stem-cells-in-melanoma
#17
REVIEW
Dhiraj Kumar, Mahadeo Gorain, Gautam Kundu, Gopal C Kundu
Melanoma is a form of cancer that initiates in melanocytes. Melanoma has multiple phenotypically distinct subpopulation of cells, some of them have embryonic like plasticity which are involved in self-renewal, tumor initiation, metastasis and progression and provide reservoir of therapeutically resistant cells. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) can be identified and characterized based on various unique cell surface and intracellular markers. CSCs exhibit different molecular pattern with respect to non-CSCs. They maintain their stemness and chemoresistant features through specific signaling cascades...
January 30, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132887/pc1-3-deficiency-impacts-pro-opiomelanocortin-processing-in-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-hypothalamic-neurons
#18
Liheng Wang, Lina Sui, Sunil K Panigrahi, Kana Meece, Yurong Xin, Jinrang Kim, Jesper Gromada, Claudia A Doege, Sharon L Wardlaw, Dieter Egli, Rudolph L Leibel
We recently developed a technique for generating hypothalamic neurons from human pluripotent stem cells. Here, as proof of principle, we examine the use of these cells in modeling of a monogenic form of severe obesity: PCSK1 deficiency. The cognate enzyme, PC1/3, processes many prohormones in neuroendocrine and other tissues. We generated PCSK1 (PC1/3)-deficient human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines using both short hairpin RNA and CRISPR-Cas9, and investigated pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) processing using hESC-differentiated hypothalamic neurons...
February 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029168/trends-in-regenerative-medicine-repigmentation-in-vitiligo-through-melanocyte-stem-cell-mobilization
#19
REVIEW
Stanca A Birlea, Gertrude-E Costin, Dennis R Roop, David A Norris
Vitiligo is the most frequent human pigmentary disorder, characterized by progressive autoimmune destruction of mature epidermal melanocytes. Of the current treatments offering partial and temporary relief, ultraviolet (UV) light is the most effective, coordinating an intricate network of keratinocyte and melanocyte factors that control numerous cellular and molecular signaling pathways. This UV-activated process is a classic example of regenerative medicine, inducing functional melanocyte stem cell populations in the hair follicle to divide, migrate, and differentiate into mature melanocytes that regenerate the epidermis through a complex process involving melanocytes and other cell lineages in the skin...
December 28, 2016: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009049/zebrafish-adult-pigment-stem-cells-are-multipotent-and-form-pigment-cells-by-a-progressive-fate-restriction-process-clonal-analysis-identifies-shared-origin-of-all-pigment-cell-types
#20
Robert N Kelsh, Karen C Sosa, Jennifer P Owen, Christian A Yates
Skin pigment pattern formation is a paradigmatic example of pattern formation. In zebrafish, the adult body stripes are generated by coordinated rearrangement of three distinct pigment cell-types, black melanocytes, shiny iridophores and yellow xanthophores. A stem cell origin of melanocytes and iridophores has been proposed although the potency of those stem cells has remained unclear. Xanthophores, however, seemed to originate predominantly from proliferation of embryonic xanthophores. Now, data from Singh et al...
March 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
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