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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317526/medical-and-maintenance-treatments-for-vitiligo
#1
REVIEW
Thierry Passeron
Medical treatments alone, or in combination with phototherapy, are key approaches for treating nonsegmental vitiligo and, to a lesser extent, segmental vitiligo. The treatments are useful for halting disease progression and have been proven effective for inducing repigmentation and decreasing risk of relapses. Although the treatments have side effects and limitations, vitiligo often induces a marked decrease in quality of life and in most cases the risk:benefit ratio is in favor of an active approach. Systemic and topical agents targeting the pathways involved in loss of melanocytes and in differentiation of melanocyte stem cells should provide more effective approaches in the near future...
April 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292562/a-quantitative-analysis-of-multilineage-differentiating-stress-enduring-muse-cells-in-human-adipose-tissue-and-efficacy-of-melanocytes-induction
#2
Takeshi Yamauchi, Kenshi Yamasaki, Kenichiro Tsuchiyama, Saaya Koike, Setsuya Aiba
We have shown previously that multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells in neonatal fibroblasts can differentiate into functional melanocytes. In this study, we quantitate Muse cells in adipose-mesenchymal stem cells (adipose-MSCs) of human subcutaneous tissue obtained from 11 subjects of various ages, and measured efficacy of melanocytes induction from Adipose-MSC-derived Muse cells (hASC-Muse cells). There was a statistically significant negative correlation between the age of donors and the numbers of adipose-MSCs recovered per g fat as well as the percentage of SSEA3+ cells in the adipose-MSC populations, but isolated hASC-Muse cells showed pluripotency and growth curves equally regardless the age of donors...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242477/nerve-associated-neural-crest-peripheral-glial-cells-generate-multiple-fates-in-the-body
#3
REVIEW
Julian Petersen, Igor Adameyko
Recent studies demonstrated that neural crest-derived Schwann cell precursors (SCPs) dwelling in the nerves are multipotent and can be recruited in the local tissue to provide building blocks of neural crest-derived nature. The variety of fates produced by SCPs is widening with every year and currently includes melanocytes/melanophores, parasympathetic and enteric neurons, endoneural fibroblast, mesenchymal stem cells and, of course, mature Schwann cells of different subtypes. However, it is still unclear if SCPs are, in fact, nerve-dwelling population of the neural crest or they are rather a different, more specialized, cell type...
February 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158294/deep-proteome-mapping-of-wm-266-4-human-metastatic-melanoma-cells-from-oncogenic-addiction-to-druggable-targets
#4
Eumorphia G Konstantakou, Athanassios D Velentzas, Athanasios K Anagnostopoulos, Zoi I Litou, Ourania A Konstandi, Aikaterini F Giannopoulou, Ema Anastasiadou, Gerassimos E Voutsinas, George Th Tsangaris, Dimitrios J Stravopodis
Cutaneous melanoma is a malignant tumor of skin melanocytes that are pigment-producing cells located in the basal layer (stratum basale) of epidermis. Accumulation of genetic mutations within their oncogenes or tumor-suppressor genes compels melanocytes to aberrant proliferation and spread to distant organs of the body, thereby resulting in severe and/or lethal malignancy. Metastatic melanoma's heavy mutational load, molecular heterogeneity and resistance to therapy necessitate the development of novel biomarkers and drug-based protocols that target key proteins involved in perpetuation of the disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142205/reprogramming-postnatal-human-epidermal-keratinocytes-toward-functional-neural-crest-fates
#5
Vivek K Bajpai, Laura Kerosuo, Georgios Tseropoulos, Kirstie A Cummings, Xiaoyan Wang, Pedro Lei, Biao Liu, Song Liu, Gabriela Popescu, Marianne E Bronner, Stelios T Andreadis
During development, neural crest cells are induced by signaling events at the neural plate border of all vertebrate embryos. Initially arising within the central nervous system, neural crest cells subsequently undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition to migrate into the periphery, where they differentiate into diverse cell types. Here we provide evidence that postnatal human epidermal keratinocytes, in response to FGF2 and IGF1 signals, can be reprogrammed toward a neural crest fate. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses show that keratinocyte-derived neural crest cells are similar to those derived from human embryonic stem cells...
January 31, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137308/therapeutic-implications-of-cellular-and-molecular-biology-of-cancer-stem-cells-in-melanoma
#6
REVIEW
Dhiraj Kumar, Mahadeo Gorain, Gautam Kundu, Gopal C Kundu
Melanoma is a form of cancer that initiates in melanocytes. Melanoma has multiple phenotypically distinct subpopulation of cells, some of them have embryonic like plasticity which are involved in self-renewal, tumor initiation, metastasis and progression and provide reservoir of therapeutically resistant cells. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) can be identified and characterized based on various unique cell surface and intracellular markers. CSCs exhibit different molecular pattern with respect to non-CSCs. They maintain their stemness and chemoresistant features through specific signaling cascades...
January 30, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132887/pc1-3-deficiency-impacts-pro-opiomelanocortin-processing-in-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-hypothalamic-neurons
#7
Liheng Wang, Lina Sui, Sunil K Panigrahi, Kana Meece, Yurong Xin, Jinrang Kim, Jesper Gromada, Claudia A Doege, Sharon L Wardlaw, Dieter Egli, Rudolph L Leibel
We recently developed a technique for generating hypothalamic neurons from human pluripotent stem cells. Here, as proof of principle, we examine the use of these cells in modeling of a monogenic form of severe obesity: PCSK1 deficiency. The cognate enzyme, PC1/3, processes many prohormones in neuroendocrine and other tissues. We generated PCSK1 (PC1/3)-deficient human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines using both short hairpin RNA and CRISPR-Cas9, and investigated pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) processing using hESC-differentiated hypothalamic neurons...
February 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029168/trends-in-regenerative-medicine-repigmentation-in-vitiligo-through-melanocyte-stem-cell-mobilization
#8
REVIEW
Stanca A Birlea, Gertrude-E Costin, Dennis R Roop, David A Norris
Vitiligo is the most frequent human pigmentary disorder, characterized by progressive autoimmune destruction of mature epidermal melanocytes. Of the current treatments offering partial and temporary relief, ultraviolet (UV) light is the most effective, coordinating an intricate network of keratinocyte and melanocyte factors that control numerous cellular and molecular signaling pathways. This UV-activated process is a classic example of regenerative medicine, inducing functional melanocyte stem cell populations in the hair follicle to divide, migrate, and differentiate into mature melanocytes that regenerate the epidermis through a complex process involving melanocytes and other cell lineages in the skin...
December 28, 2016: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009049/zebrafish-adult-pigment-stem-cells-are-multipotent-and-form-pigment-cells-by-a-progressive-fate-restriction-process-clonal-analysis-identifies-shared-origin-of-all-pigment-cell-types
#9
Robert N Kelsh, Karen C Sosa, Jennifer P Owen, Christian A Yates
Skin pigment pattern formation is a paradigmatic example of pattern formation. In zebrafish, the adult body stripes are generated by coordinated rearrangement of three distinct pigment cell-types, black melanocytes, shiny iridophores and yellow xanthophores. A stem cell origin of melanocytes and iridophores has been proposed although the potency of those stem cells has remained unclear. Xanthophores, however, seemed to originate predominantly from proliferation of embryonic xanthophores. Now, data from Singh et al...
March 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904182/comparative-study-of-efficacy-of-epidermal-melanocyte-transfer-versus-hair-follicular-melanocyte-transfer-in-stable-vitiligo
#10
Navya Donaparthi, Ajay Chopra
BACKGROUND: Vitiligo surgery has come up a long way from punch skin grafts to epidermal cell suspension and latest to the extracted hair follicle outer root sheath cell suspension (EHFORSCS) transplantation. The progressive development from one technique to the other is always on a quest for the best. In the latest development, EHFORSCS, which is an enriched source of follicular inactive melanocyte (melanocyte stem cells), seems to be a good addition to the prevailing cell-based therapies for vitiligo...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882588/clinical-and-epidemiological-analysis-in-149-cases-of-rhododendrol-induced-leukoderma
#11
Momoko Yoshikawa, Yasuyuki Sumikawa, Tokimasa Hida, Takafumi Kamiya, Kimi Kase, Yasue Ishii-Osai, Junji Kato, Yuji Kan, Shiori Kamiya, Yuki Sato, Toshiharu Yamashita
Rhododendrol-induced leukoderma is an acquired depigmentation that develops mainly at the contact site after repeated use of skin-whitening cosmetics containing rhododendrol. In most cases, cessation of further depigmentation or occurrence of repigmentation is observed after discontinuing the use of cosmetics. However, some patients develop vitiligo vulgaris through the spread of depigmentation into the non-exposed areas. Our study aims to investigate the patient-specific factors that may affect the extent of depigmentation or repigmentation, as well as development of vitiligo vulgaris...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880068/human-hair-follicle-associated-pluripotent-hhap-stem-cells-differentiate-to-cardiac-muscle-cells
#12
Natsuko Tohgi, Koya Obara, Masateru Yashiro, Yuko Hamada, Nobuko Arakawa, Sumiyuki Mii, Ryoichi Aki, Robert M Hoffman, Yasuyuki Amoh
We have previously demonstrated that nestin-expressing hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells are located in the bulge area. HAP stem cells have been previously shown to differentiate to neurons, glial cells, keratinocytes, smooth-muscle cells, melanocytes and cardiac-muscle cells in vitro. Subsequently, we demonstrated that HAP stem cells could effect nerve and spinal cord regeneration in mouse models, differentiating to Schwann cells and neurons. In previous studies, we established an efficient protocol for the differentiation of cardiac-muscle cells from mouse HAP stem cells...
January 2, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828841/the-histocompatibility-research-of-hair-follicle-stem-cells-with-bladder-acellular-matrix
#13
Jia Li, Wenguang Wang, Jiuzhi Li, Mulati Rexiati, Henqing An, Feng Wang, Yujie Wang
BACKGROUND: Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) were reported to have multidirectional differentiation ability and could be differentiated into melanocytes, keratin cells, smooth muscle cells, and neurons. However, the functionality of HFSCs in bladder tissue regeneration is unknown. METHODS: This study was conducted to build HFSCs vs bladder acellular matrix (BAM) complexes (HFSCs-BAM complexes) in vitro and evaluated whether HFSCs have well biocompatibility with BAM...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807664/intercellular-crosstalk-in-human-malignant-melanoma
#14
REVIEW
Barbora Dvořánková, Pavol Szabo, Ondřej Kodet, Hynek Strnad, Michal Kolář, Lukáš Lacina, Eliška Krejčí, Ondřej Naňka, Aleksi Šedo, Karel Smetana
Incidence of malignant melanoma is increasing globally. While the initial stages of tumors can be easily treated by a simple surgery, the therapy of advanced stages is rather limited. Melanoma cells spread rapidly through the body of a patient to form multiple metastases. Consequently, the survival rate is poor. Therefore, emphasis in melanoma research is given on early diagnosis and development of novel and more potent therapeutic options. The malignant melanoma is arising from melanocytes, cells protecting mitotically active keratinocytes against damage caused by UV light irradiation...
November 3, 2016: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797132/a-light-colored-region-of-caudal-fin-a-niche-of-melanocyte-progenitors-in-crucian-carp-cyprinus-carpio-l
#15
Yaping Huang, Yurong Luo, Jinhui Liu, Saiyu Gui, Mei Wang, Wenbin Liu, Liangyue Peng, Yamei Xiao
Melanocyte stem cells are a population of immature cells which sustain the self-renewal and replenish the differentiated melanocytes. In this research, a light-colored region (LCR) is observed at the heel of caudal fin in juvenile crucian carp. By cutting off the caudal fin, the operated caudal fin can regenerate in accordance with the original pigment pattern from the retained LCR. As markers of stem cells, Oct4 and Sox2 have been found to be highly expressed in the LCR as well as Mitfa, a label of the melanoblasts...
January 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764776/igf-1-contributes-to-the-expansion-of-melanoma-initiating-cells-through-an-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-process
#16
Vincent Le Coz, Chaobin Zhu, Aurore Devocelle, Aimé Vazquez, Claude Boucheix, Sandy Azzi, Cindy Gallerne, Pierre Eid, Séverine Lecourt, Julien Giron-Michel
Melanoma is a particularly virulent human cancer, due to its resistance to conventional treatments and high frequency of metastasis. Melanomas contain a fraction of cells, the melanoma-initiating cells (MICs), responsible for tumor propagation and relapse. Identification of the molecular pathways supporting MICs is, therefore, vital for the development of targeted treatments. One factor produced by melanoma cells and their microenvironment, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF- 1), is linked to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness features in several cancers...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760642/-attention-to-the-impression-cytology-in-the-evaluation-of-ocular-surface-tumors
#17
B Li, Q F Liang
Impression cytology (IC) has been widely used as a method for evaluating the ocular surface and superficial cells layers in the diagnosis and follow-up after treatment of several ocular surface tumors of both epithelial and melanocytic origin. Compared with exfoliative cytology with spatula, IC is less traumatic to the patient's eye. It provides a precise location of the area being studied and allows accurate observation of the cells the way they exist in vivo. The additional advantage of IC is the preservation of limbal stem cells responsible for continuous corneal epithelium renewal...
October 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715423/regeneration-of-murine-hair-follicles-is-inhibited-by-low-dose-rate-gamma-irradiation
#18
Kimihiko Sugaya, Tomohisa Hirobe, Yoshie Ishihara, Sonoe Inoue
To determine whether the effects of low-dose-rate gamma (γ) irradiation are identifiable in the regeneration of murine hair follicles, we irradiated whole bodies of C57BL/10JHir mice in the first telogen phase of the hair cycle with (137)Cs γ-rays. The mice were examined for effects on hair follicles, including number, morphology, and pigmentation in the second anagen phase. Effects of γ-radiation on melanocyte stem cells were also investigated by the indirect immunolabeling of tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2)...
October 2016: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689402/integration-of-zebrafish-fin-regeneration-genes-with-expression-data-of-human-tumors-in-silico-uncovers-potential-novel-melanoma-markers
#19
Martin Hagedorn, Géraldine Siegfried, Katarzyna B Hooks, Abdel-Majid Khatib
Tissue regeneration requires expression of a large, unknown number of genes to initiate and maintain cellular processes such as proliferation, extracellular matrix synthesis, differentiation and migration. A unique model to simulate this process in a controlled manner is the re-growth of the caudal fin of zebrafish after amputation. Within this tissue stem cells differentiate into fibroblasts, epithelial and endothelial cells as well as melanocytes. Many genes implicated in the regeneration process are deregulated in cancer...
September 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663144/expression-of-sox10-abcb5-and-cd271-in-melanocytic-lesions-and-correlation-with-survival-data-of-patients-with-melanoma
#20
T Gambichler, A-L Petig, E Stockfleth, M Stücker
BACKGROUND: In malignant melanoma (MM), the proteins SOX10, ABCB5 and CD271 are strongly expressed, and are associated with tumour-initiating potential and stem cell-like properties. AIM: To compare SOX10, ABCB5 and CD271 expression profiles in melanocytic naevi and MM at different stages, and to correlate these with survival data. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed for SOX10, ABCB5 and CD271 expression in common naevi (n = 14), dysplastic naevi (n = 11), primary MM (n = 39), lymph node metastases (n = 14) and distant metastases (n = 14)...
October 2016: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
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