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Riki Bergel, Eran Hadar, Yoel Toledano, Moshe Hod
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common morbidities complicating pregnancy, with short- and long-term consequences to the mothers, fetuses, and newborns. Management and treatment are aimed to achieve best possible glycemic control, while avoiding hypoglycemia and ensuring maternal and fetal safety. It involves behavioral modifications, nutrition and medications, if needed; concurrent with maternal and fetal surveillance for possible adverse outcomes. This review aims to elaborate on the pharmacological options for GDM therapy...
November 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
Alexandre Baptista, Inês Teixeira, Sónia Romano, António Vaz Carneiro, Julian Perelman
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of cost-effectiveness, cost-utility, and cost-benefit studies of DPP-4 inhibitors for diabetes treatment versus other antidiabetics. METHODS: Three investigators searched the CRD York, Tufts CEA Registry, and MEDLINE databases through 2015. We reviewed all potentially relevant titles and abstracts, and screened full-text articles, according to inclusion criteria. We established a quality score for each study based on a 35-item list...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
R Krysiak, W Szkróbka, B Okopień
Background: Metformin decreases serum levels of monomeric prolactin. No previous study has investigated the effect of metformin on macroprolactin content in patients with macroprolactinemia. Methods: We studied three age-, sex- and weight-matched groups of patients: 15 women with monomeric prolactin, 12 women with macroprolactin, as well as 15 women with normal prolactin levels. Because of coexisting 2 diabetes or prediabetes all patients were treated with metformin (1.7-3 g daily). Plasma lipids, glucose homeostasis markers, as well as serum levels of prolactin and macroprolactin were assessed at baseline and after 4 months of metformin treatment...
October 17, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Bianca Hemmingsen, David Peick Sonne, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Bernd Richter
BACKGROUND: The projected rise in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) could develop into a substantial health problem worldwide. Whether insulin secretagogues (sulphonylureas and meglitinide analogues) are able to prevent or delay T2DM and its associated complications in people at risk for the development of T2DM is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of insulin secretagogues on the prevention or delay of T2DM and its associated complications in people with impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting blood glucose, moderately elevated glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or any combination of these...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Bowen Jiang, Mingli Ji, Wei Liu, Lili Chen, Zhiyu Cai, Yuqing Zhao, Xiuli Bi
Momordica charantia has been used to treat a variety of diseases, including inflammation, diabetes and cancer. A cucurbitane‑type triterpenoid [(19R,23E)‑5β, 19‑epoxy‑19‑methoxy‑cucurbita‑6,23,25‑trien‑3 β‑o‑l] previously isolated from M. charantia was demonstrated to possess significant cytotoxicity against cancer cells. The current study investigated the effects of this compound (referred to as compound K16) on diabetes using an alloxan‑induced diabetic mouse model. C57BL/6J mice were intraperitoneally injected with alloxan (10 mg/kg body weight), and those with blood glucose concentration higher than 10 mM were selected for further experiments...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Mohamed Alalem, Alpana Ray, Bimal K Ray
Activation of mTOR is implicated in the development and progression of breast cancer. mTOR inhibition exhibited promising antitumor effects in breast cancer; however, its effect is compromised by several feedback mechanisms. One of such mechanisms is the upregulation of mTOR pathway in breast cancer cells. Despite the established role of mTOR activation in breast cancer, the status of total mTOR protein and its impact on the tumor behavior and response to treatment are poorly understood. Besides, the mechanisms underlying mTOR protein degradation in normal and cancer breast cells are still largely unknown...
October 17, 2016: Cancer Medicine
S Gibiino, A Trappoli, B Balzarro, A R Atti, D De Ronchi
A 71-year-old man developed coma with severe respiratory failure, hypotension, and tachycardia induced by the intentional ingestion of quetiapine fumarate extended release (XR) 20 g. At the time, he had been treated for bipolar depression with venlafaxine 75 mg/day, lamotrigine 100 mg/day, pregabalin 75 mg/day, and quetiapine XR 400 mg/day for approximately 1 year. Comorbidities were hypertension treated with metoprolol, diabetes mellitus type 2 treated with metformin, and benign prostatic hyperplasia treated with silodosin...
December 2015: Drug Saf Case Rep
Xiaojing Liu, Iris L Romero, Lacey M Litchfield, Ernst Lengyel, Jason W Locasale
Repurposing metformin for cancer therapy is attractive due to its safety profile, epidemiological evidence, and encouraging data from human clinical trials. Although it is known to systemically affect glucose metabolism in liver, muscle, gut, and other tissues, the molecular determinants that predict a patient response in cancer remain unknown. Here, we carry out an integrative metabolomics analysis of metformin action in ovarian cancer. Metformin accumulated in patient biopsies, and pathways involving nucleotide metabolism, redox, and energy status, all related to mitochondrial metabolism, were affected in treated tumors...
October 12, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Dan Y Gui, Lucas B Sullivan, Alba Luengo, Aaron M Hosios, Lauren N Bush, Nadege Gitego, Shawn M Davidson, Elizaveta Freinkman, Craig J Thomas, Matthew G Vander Heiden
Metformin use is associated with reduced cancer mortality, but how metformin impacts cancer outcomes is controversial. Although metformin can act on cells autonomously to inhibit tumor growth, the doses of metformin that inhibit proliferation in tissue culture are much higher than what has been described in vivo. Here, we show that the environment drastically alters sensitivity to metformin and other complex I inhibitors. We find that complex I supports proliferation by regenerating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)+, and metformin's anti-proliferative effect is due to loss of NAD+/NADH homeostasis and inhibition of aspartate biosynthesis...
October 12, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Pamela T Soliman, Qian Zhang, Russell R Broaddus, Shannon N Westin, David Iglesias, Mark F Munsell, Rosemarie Schmandt, Melinda Yates, Lois Ramondetta, Karen H Lu
OBJECTIVE: Metformin reduces cancer incidence and improves overall survival in diabetic patients. In preclinical studies, metformin decreases endometrial cancer (EC) cell growth by activation of AMPK/mTOR inhibition. We sought to determine the effects of metformin on serum/tumor biomarkers in women with EC. METHODS: In this prospective trial, newly diagnosed EC patients underwent pre-treatment blood draw/endometrial biopsy, were administered oral metformin 850mg daily for ≥7days, and underwent post-treatment blood draw/definitive surgery...
October 13, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
M B Rehman, B V Tudrej, J Soustre, M Buisson, P Archambault, D Pouchain, H Vaillant-Roussel, F Gueyffier, J-L Faillie, M-C Perault-Pochat, C Cornu, R Boussageon
BACKGROUND: Guidelines for type 2 diabetes (T2D) recommend reducing HbA1c through lifestyle interventions and glucose-lowering drugs (metformin, then combination with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors [DPP-4Is] among other glucose-lowering drugs). However, no double-blind randomized clinical trial (RCT) compared with placebo has so far demonstrated that DDP-4Is reduce micro- and macrovascular complications in T2D. Moreover, the safety of DPP-4Is (with increased heart failure and acute pancreatitis) remains controversial...
October 10, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism
Muyesser Sayki Arslan, Esra Tutal, Mustafa Sahin, Melia Karakose, Bekir Ucan, Gulfer Ozturk, Erman Cakal, Zeynep Biyikli Gencturk, Mustafa Ozbek, Tuncay Delibasi
Osteoprotegerin has been shown to be increased in cardiovascular disorders and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Prediabetes represents a high risk condition for diabetes and diabetic complications. Therefore, we aimed to find the relationship between prediabetes and osteoprotegerin with nuclear factor-B ligand, carotid intima media thickness, and metabolic markers. A total of 54 participants with prediabetes including impaired fasting glucose (n = 21), impaired glucose tolerance (n = 8), impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance (n = 25), and 60 healthy individuals as a control were admitted to the study...
October 15, 2016: Endocrine
Yu-Shen Huang, Yi-Chieh Li, Pei-Yun Tsai, Chia-En Lin, Chien-Ming Chen, Shih-Ming Chen, Jen-Ai Lee
Lead (Pb) is an environmental pollutant associated with several diseases, such as nephrotoxicity. Methylglyoxal (MG) is a reactive dicarbonyl compound formed during glycolysis and reported to increase in kidney damage. Metformin is used as a MG scavenger in the clinic. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of Pb-induced renal injury and the effect of metformin on Pb-induced nephrotoxicity. Eighteen Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, Pb, and Pb + metformin groups. Pb (250 ppm) was administered in drinking water, and 50 mg/Kg of metformin was co-administered orally...
October 14, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
R Ravi Shankar, Yuqian Bao, Ping Han, Ji Hu, Jianhua Ma, Yongde Peng, Fan Wu, Lei Xu, Samuel S Engel, Weiping Jia
INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the tolerability and efficacy of the addition of sitagliptin in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on stable insulin therapy alone or in combination with metformin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred sixty-seven patients with inadequate glycemic control on insulin (HbA1c ≥7.5% and ≤11%) were randomized 1:1 to receive sitagliptin 100 mg once-daily or matching placebo for 24 weeks. Randomization was stratified based on metformin use (on or not on metformin) and type of insulin (pre-mixed versus intermediate-/long-acting) at screening...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Seol Ju Moon, Sun-Young Kim, Cheol-Hee Lim, Hwan Bong Jang, Min-Gul Kim, Ji-Young Jeon
We investigated botanical drug-pharmaceutical drug interactions between DW1029 (a botanical extract of Morus alba linne root bark and Puerariae radix) and metformin, losartan, and linagliptin in the steady state. Three studies were conducted as a randomized, open-label, two-period, two-treatment, multiple-dose, two-way crossover designs. Eligible subjects received metformin (500 mg twice daily), losartan (50 mg once daily), or linagliptin (5 mg once daily) with DW1029M (300 mg × 2T twice daily) every 12 h on days 1 through 6 and a single dose in the morning of day 7...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
Jeffrey T Kullgren, Megan Knaus, Kristi Rahrig Jenkins, Michele Heisler
BACKGROUND: Many employers use screenings to identify and recommend modification of employees' risk factors for type 2 diabetes, yet little is known about how often employees then engage in recommended behaviors and what factors influence engagement. We examined the frequency of, facilitators of, and barriers to engagement in recommended behaviors among employees found to have pre-diabetes during a workplace screening. METHODS: We surveyed 82 University of Michigan employees who were found to have pre-diabetes during a 2014 workplace screening and compared the characteristics of employees who 3 months later were and were not engaged in recommended behaviors...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
Qilong Wang, Miao Zhang, Gloria Torres, Shengnan Wu, Changhan Ouyang, Zhonglin Xie, Ming-Hui Zou
Metformin is a widely used anti-diabetic drug that exerts cardiovascular protective effects in patients with diabetes. How metformin protects diabetes-related cardiovascular diseases remains poorly understood. Here, we show that metformin abated the progression of diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis by inhibiting mitochondrial fission in endothelial cells.Metformin treatments markedly reduced mitochondrial fragmentation, mitigated mitochondrial-derived superoxide release, improved endothelial-dependent vasodilation, inhibited vascular inflammation, and suppressed atherosclerotic lesions in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic ApoE(-/-) mice...
October 13, 2016: Diabetes
A Kargulewicz, M Szulińska, M Kujawska-Łuczak, E Swora-Cwynar, K Musialik, M Grzymisławska, M Kręgielska-Narożna, P Bogdański
OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of three weight loss interventions on serum concentrations of adiponectin and leptin in obese premenopausal women. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 114 obese Caucasian women were randomized into three groups receiving a low-calorie diet (LC; n = 39), an isocaloric diet with 500 mg of metformin twice a day (IM; n = 38), and an isocaloric diet with 120 mg of orlistat three times a day (IO; n = 37), for three months. Serum concentrations of adiponectin and leptin were evaluated, along with anthropometric and body composition parameters, at baseline and after the study...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Y Liu, L-B Guo, J-K Xu
OBJECTIVE: These case series present a retrospective analysis of clinical effects that an allogeneic amniotic cell transplantation can have in treating 4 patients with type 2 diabetes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible diabetic patients were onset within 3 years, with fasting blood glucose > 7.0 mmol/l. Stem - cells that are collected from neonatal amniotic membrane when a child is born (2 x 107 cells) - are used for the treatment of these patients. Measured by the flow cytometry, stem cells transfer clusters of differentiation CD113 and CD34 at a high level, and through the femoral artery on the left, they are administered into the patient's pancreatic dorsal artery...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Hao Liu, Yun Hu, Feng-Fei Li, Bing-Li Liu, Xiao-Fei Su, Jian-Hua Ma
BACKGROUND: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are widely used as second-option medications when metformin fails. Variance of the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) response to DPP-4 inhibitions in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been observed, but the characteristics which predict the response to DPP-4 inhibitor therapy are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of α- and β-cell functions which might predict the efficacy of saxagliptin and facilitate personalization of treatment...
October 12, 2016: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
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