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Auditory memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526621/electrophysiological-signatures-of-phonological-and-semantic-maintenance-in-sentence-repetition
#1
Jed A Meltzer, Aneta Kielar, Lilia Panamsky, Kira A Links, Tiffany Deschamps, Rosie C Leigh
Verbal short-term memory comprises resources for phonological rehearsal, which have been characterized anatomically, and for maintenance of semantic information, which are less understood. Sentence repetition tasks tap both processes interactively. To distinguish brain activity involved in phonological vs. semantic maintenance, we recorded magnetoencephalography during a sentence repetition task, incorporating three manipulations emphasizing one mechanism over the other. Participants heard sentences or word lists and attempted to repeat them verbatim after a 5-second delay...
May 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522983/a-dynamical-model-of-pitch-memory-provides-an-improved-basis-for-implied-harmony-estimation
#2
Ji Chul Kim
Tonal melody can imply vertical harmony through a sequence of tones. Current methods for automatic chord estimation commonly use chroma-based features extracted from audio signals. However, the implied harmony of unaccompanied melodies can be difficult to estimate on the basis of chroma content in the presence of frequent nonchord tones. Here we present a novel approach to automatic chord estimation based on the human perception of pitch sequences. We use cohesion and inhibition between pitches in auditory short-term memory to differentiate chord tones and nonchord tones in tonal melodies...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513073/early-neurocognitive-improvements-following-parathyroidectomy-for-primary-hyperparathyroidism
#3
Shivani Shah-Becker, Jonathan Derr, Benjamin S Oberman, Aaron Baker, Brian Saunders, Michele M Carr, David Goldenberg
OBJECTIVES: To establish a time frame for postoperative improvements in neurocognitive function in patients who undergo parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism by utilizing repeat neuropsychological assessment at multiple time points before and after surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted at a tertiary academic medical center between August 2014 and December 2015, including 50 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism who underwent parathyroidectomy...
May 16, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512011/modulation-of-alpha-oscillations-is-required-for-the-suppression-of-semantic-interference-to-avoid-false-memories-in-short-term
#4
Natalia Melnik, Igor Mapelli, Tolga Esat Özkurt
Recent findings on alpha band oscillations suggest their important role in memory consolidation and suppression of external distractors. However, less attention was given to the phenomenon of internal distracting information. Human memory may be prone to internal distortions being caused by semantic relatedness between the memory items to be encoded. Our study investigates the brain oscillatory dynamics behind the semantic interference phenomenon and its possible outcome known as false memories. In this direction, Deese-Roediger-McDermott word lists were appropriated for a modified Sternberg paradigm in auditory modality...
May 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511918/molecular-imaging-of-serotonin-degeneration-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#5
Gwenn S Smith, Frederick S Barrett, Jin Hui Joo, Najlla Nassery, Alena Savonenko, Devin J Sodums, Christopher M Marano, Cynthia A Munro, Jason Brandt, Michael A Kraut, Yun Zhou, Dean F Wong, Clifford I Workman
Neuropathological and neuroimaging studies have consistently demonstrated degeneration of monoamine systems, especially the serotonin system, in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. The evidence for degeneration of the serotonin system in mild cognitive impairment is limited. Thus, the goal of the present study was to measure the serotonin transporter in vivo in mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls. The serotonin transporter is a selective marker of serotonin terminals and of the integrity of serotonin projections to cortical, subcortical and limbic regions, as well as the cell bodies of origin (raphe nuclei)...
May 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511826/use-of-hypnosis-meditation-and-biofeedback-in-dermatology
#6
Philip D Shenefelt
Hypnosis utilizes trance to access otherwise inaccessible repressed or unconscious memories and features of the psyche and control of physiology not attainable in the ordinary conscious waking state. Medical uses of hypnosis in dermatology include reducing discomfort from itching or skin pain, altering ingrained dysfunctional habits such as scratching, promoting healing of skin disorders, searching for psychosomatic aspects of skin disorders and alleviating them, and reframing cognitive and emotional dysfunctional patterns related to skin disorders...
May 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508125/judgement-bias-in-pigs-is-independent-of-performance-in-a-spatial-holeboard-task-and-conditional-discrimination-learning
#7
Sanne Roelofs, Eimear Murphy, Haifang Ni, Elise Gieling, Rebecca E Nordquist, F Josef van der Staay
Biases in judgement of ambiguous stimuli, as measured in a judgement bias task, have been proposed as a measure of the valence of affective states in animals. We recently suggested a list of criteria for behavioural tests of emotion, one of them stating that responses on the task used to assess emotionality should not be confounded by, among others, differences in learning capacity, i.e. must not simply reflect the cognitive capacity of an animal. We performed three independent studies in which pigs acquired a spatial holeboard task, a free choice maze which simultaneously assesses working memory and reference memory...
May 15, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506486/preoperative-and-intraoperative-neurophysiological-investigations-for-surgical-resections-in-functional-areas
#8
G Huberfeld, A Trébuchon, L Capelle, J-M Badier, S Chen, J-P Lefaucheur, M Gavaret
Brain regions are removed to treat lesions, but great care must be taken not to disturb or remove functional areas in the lesion and in surrounding tissue where healthy and diseased cells may be intermingled, especially for infiltrating tumors. Cortical functional areas and fiber tracts can be localized preoperatively by probabilistic anatomical tools, but mapping of functional integrity by neurophysiology is essential. Identification of the primary motor cortex seems to be more effectively performed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) than functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
May 12, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502691/long-term-seizure-quality-of-life-depression-and-verbal-memory-outcomes-in-a-controlled-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-surgical-series-using-portuguese-validated-instruments
#9
Luis Dias, Geisa Angelis, Wagner Teixeira, Luiz Casulari
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate long-term surgical outcomes in patients treated for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) compared to a similar group of patients that underwent a preoperative evaluation. METHODS: Patient interviews were conducted by an independent neuropsychologist and included a socio-demographic questionnaire and validated versions of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Adverse Events Profile (AEP), Quality of Life in Epilepsy-31 (QOLIE-31), and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT)...
May 11, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501655/changes-of-auditory-event-related-potentials-in-ovariectomized-rats-injected-with-d-galactose-protective-role-of-rosmarinic-acid
#10
Deniz Kantar Gok, Enis Hidisoglu, Hakan Er, Alev Duygu Acun, Yusuf Olgar, Piraye Yargıcoglu
Rosmarinic acid (RA), which has multiple bioactive properties, might be a useful agent for protecting central nervous system against age related alterations. In this context, the purpose of the present study was to investigate possible protective effects of RA on mismatch negativity (MMN) component of auditory event-related potentials (AERPs) as an indicator of auditory discrimination and echoic memory in the ovariectomized (OVX) rats injected with D-galactose combined with neurochemical and histological analyses...
May 10, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495599/effects-of-the-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-val66met-polymorphism-and-resting-brain-functional-connectivity-on-individual-differences-in-tactile-cognitive-performance-in-healthy-young-adults
#11
Xuejuan Yang, Ziliang Xu, Lin Liu, Peng Liu, Jinbo Sun, Lingmin Jin, Yuanqiang Zhu, Ningbo Fei, Wei Qin
Cognitive processes involve input from multiple sensory modalities and obvious differences in the level of cognitive function can be observed between individuals. Evidence to date understanding the biological basis of tactile cognitive variability, however, is limited compared with other forms of sensory cognition. Data from auditory and visual cognition research suggest that variations in both genetics and intrinsic brain function might contribute to individual differences in tactile cognitive performance...
May 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493346/no-effect-of-targeted-memory-reactivation-during-slow-wave-sleep-on-emotional-recognition-memory
#12
Jennifer E Ashton, Scott A Cairney, M Gareth Gaskell
Recent work has suggested that the benefits of sleep for memory consolidation are enhanced for highly salient (versus non-salient) memories. Using a technique known as targeted memory reactivation, it is possible to selectively strengthen newly learned memories by re-exposing the sleeping brain to auditory cues. The aim of the current study was to examine whether emotionally salient memories are also more responsive to targeted memory reactivation in slow-wave sleep than neutral memories. In an initial training phase, participants memorised emotionally negative and neutral pictures, which were each paired with a semantically related sound...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492912/auditory-verbal-working-memory-as-a-predictor-of-speech-perception-in-modulated-maskers-in-listeners-with-normal-hearing
#13
Rebecca E Millman, Sven L Mattys
Purpose: Background noise can interfere with our ability to understand speech. Working memory capacity (WMC) has been shown to contribute to the perception of speech in modulated noise maskers. WMC has been assessed with a variety of auditory and visual tests, often pertaining to different components of working memory. This study assessed the relationship between speech perception in modulated maskers and components of auditory verbal working memory (AVWM) over a range of signal-to-noise ratios...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491025/change-of-rin1-and-stathmin-in-the-animal-model-of-traumatic-stresses
#14
Fang Han, Jingzhi Jiang, Jinlan Ding, Hong Liu, Bing Xiao, Yuxiu Shi
The molecular mechanism of fear memory is poorly understood. Therefore, the pathogenesis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), whose symptom presentation can enhance fear memory, remains largely unclear. Recent studies with knockout animals have reported that Rin1 and stathmin regulate fear memory. Rin1 inhibits acquisition and promotes memory extinction, whereas stathmin regulates innate and basal fear. The aim of our study was to examine changes in the expression of Rin1 and stathmin in different animal models of stress, particluarly traumatic stress...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485649/loudness-and-annoyance-of-disturbing-sounds-perception-by-normal-hearing-subjects
#15
Åsa Skagerstrand, Susanne Köbler, Stefan Stenfelt
OBJECTIVE: Sounds in the daily environment may cause loudness and annoyance. The present study investigated the perception of loudness and annoyance for eight different sounds present in a daily sound environment and at nine different levels varying by ±20 dB around the recorded level. The outcomes were related to tests of participants' auditory and cognitive abilities. DESIGN: The participants undertook auditory and working memory (WM) tests prior to ratings of everyday sounds previously shown to be disturbing for persons with hearing impairment (hearing aid users)...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484411/age-related-interference-between-the-selection-of-input-output-modality-mappings-and-postural-control-a-pilot-study
#16
Christine Stelzel, Gesche Schauenburg, Michael A Rapp, Stephan Heinzel, Urs Granacher
Age-related decline in executive functions and postural control due to degenerative processes in the central nervous system have been related to increased fall-risk in old age. Many studies have shown cognitive-postural dual-task interference in old adults, but research on the role of specific executive functions in this context has just begun. In this study, we addressed the question whether postural control is impaired depending on the coordination of concurrent response-selection processes related to the compatibility of input and output modality mappings as compared to impairments related to working-memory load in the comparison of cognitive dual and single tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472633/the-effect-of-left-frontal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-propranolol-induced-fear-memory-acquisition-and-consolidation-deficits
#17
Mohammad Nasehi, Mozhgan Khani-Abyaneh, Mohaddeseh Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
Accumulating evidence supports the efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in modulating numerous cognitive functions. Despite the fact that tDCS has been used for the enhancement of memory and cognition, very few animal studies have addressed its impact on the modulation of fear memory. This study was designed to determine whether pre/post-training frontal tDCS application would alter fear memory acquisition and/or consolidation deficits induced by propranolol in NMRI mice. Results indicated that administration of β1-adrenoceptor blocker propranolol (0...
May 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467106/multiple-biomarkers-of-maternal-iron-predict-infant-cognitive-outcomes
#18
David G Thomas, Tay S Kennedy, Janna Colaizzi, Nicki Aubuchon-Endsley, Stephanie Grant, Barbara Stoecker, Elisa Duell
This study examined relations between multiple measures of maternal iron status assessed 3 months post-partum, and infant processing speed (longest look during visual habituation), memory (novelty preference), attention (heart rate changes), and neural response variability (in auditory event-related potentials) at 3 and 9 months. Plasma iron was associated with 9-month novelty preference and longest look, and developmental changes in longest look. Hemoglobin predicted sustained attention, and both plasma iron and soluble transferrin receptors predicted neural response variability at 9 months...
May 3, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463217/-neuropsychological-performance-in-patients-with-myasthenia-gravis
#19
María Bárbara Eizaguirre, Florencia Aguirre, Cecilia Yastremiz, Sandra Vanotti, Andrés Villa
Myasthenia gravis is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular transmission. Controversial findings had been reported about cognitive impairment in this disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive pattern of patients with myasthenia gravis. There were enrolled 24 patients with myasthenia gravis, anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies (ACRA) positive, and 24 healthy controls. PATIENTS: age 43.9 ± 14.8, years of education 10.9 ± 3.3. CONTROLS: age 44...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462941/%C3%AE-adrenoceptor-blockade-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-but-not-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-rescues-the-immediate-extinction-deficit
#20
Thomas F Giustino, Jocelyn R Seemann, Gillian M Acca, Travis D Goode, Paul J Fitzgerald, Stephen Maren
Early psychological interventions, such as exposure therapy, rely on extinction learning to reduce the development of stress- and trauma-related disorders. However, recent research suggests that extinction often fails to reduce fear when administered soon after trauma. This immediate extinction deficit (IED) may be due to stress-induced dysregulation of neural circuits involved in extinction learning. We have shown that systemic β-adrenoceptor blockade with propranolol rescues the IED, but impairs delayed extinction...
May 2, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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