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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667564/the-recency-ratio-as-predictor-of-early-mci
#1
Davide Bruno, Rebecca L Koscik, John L Woodard, Nunzio Pomara, Sterling C Johnson
ABSTRACTObjectives:Individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) present poor immediate primacy recall accompanied by intact or exaggerated recency, which then tends to decline after a delay. Bruno et al. (Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, Vol. 38, 2016, pp. 967-973) have shown that higher ratio scores between immediate and delayed recency (i.e. the recency ratio; Rr) are associated with cognitive decline in high-functioning older individuals. We tested whether Rr predicted conversion to early mild cognitive impairment (early MCI) from a cognitively healthy baseline...
April 18, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665124/how-does-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-start-prodromal-cognitive-changes-in-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#2
Daphné Génier Marchand, Ronald B Postuma, Frédérique Escudier, Jessie De Roy, Amélie Pelletier, Jacques Montplaisir, Jean-François Gagnon
Objective We describe the progression of cognitive decline and identify the predictive values of cognitive tests in three groups of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) patients classified at their last follow-up as having Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), or still-idiopathic. Methods Patients (n=109) underwent polysomnographic, neurological, and neuropsychological assessments. We used linear mixed-model analyses to compare the progression of cognitive test performance between the three groups over a three-year prodromal period, and performed linear regressions for a six-year prodromal period...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663130/differences-in-modal-distortion-in-time-perception-due-to-working-memory-capacity-a-response-with-a-developmental-study-in-children-and-adults
#3
Sylvie Droit-Volet, Quentin Hallez
This study tested the modality effect on time judgment in a bisection task in children and adults when auditory and visual stimuli were presented in the same session. Cognitive capacities of children and adults were assessed with different neuropsychological tests. The results showed a modality effect, with the auditory stimuli judged longer than the visual stimuli. However, this modality distortion in time judgment was higher in the younger children. Statistical analyses revealed that the size of this time distortion was directly related to individual working memory capacities...
April 16, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663129/effects-of-cogmed-working-memory-training-on-cognitive-performance
#4
Joseph L Etherton, Crystal D Oberle, Jayson Rhoton, Ashley Ney
Research on the cognitive benefits of working memory training programs has produced inconsistent results. Such research has frequently used laboratory-specific training tasks, or dual-task n-back training. The current study used the commercial Cogmed Working Memory (WM) Training program, involving several different training tasks involving visual and auditory input. Healthy college undergraduates were assigned to either the full Cogmed training program of 25, 40-min training sessions; an abbreviated Cogmed program of 25, 20-min training sessions; or a no-contact control group...
April 16, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658746/older-adults-show-impaired-modulation-of-attentional-alpha-oscillations-evidence-from-dichotic-listening
#5
Chad S Rogers, Lisa Payne, Sujala Maharjan, Arthur Wingfield, Robert Sekuler
Auditory attention is critical for selectively listening to speech from a single talker in a multitalker environment (e.g., Cherry, 1953). Listening in such situations is notoriously more difficult and more poorly encoded to long-term memory in older than in young adults (Tun, O'Kane, & Wingfield, 2002). Recent work by Payne, Rogers, Wingfield, and Sekuler (2017) in young adults demonstrated a neural correlate of auditory attention in the directed dichotic listening task (DDLT), where listeners attend to one ear while ignoring the other...
March 2018: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656094/social-interaction-with-a-tutor-modulates-responsiveness-of-specific-auditory-neurons-in-juvenile-zebra-finches
#6
Shin Yanagihara, Yoko Yazaki-Sugiyama
Behavioral states of animals, such as observing the behavior of a conspecific, modify signal perception and/or sensations that influence state-dependent higher cognitive behavior, such as learning. Recent studies have shown that neuronal responsiveness to sensory signals is modified when animals are engaged in social interactions with others or in locomotor activities. However, how these changes produce state-dependent differences in higher cognitive function is still largely unknown. Zebra finches, which have served as the premier songbird model, learn to sing from early auditory experiences with tutors...
April 12, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655652/protective-role-of-rosmarinic-acid-on-amyloid-beta-42-induced-echoic-memory-decline-implication-of-oxidative-stress-and-cholinergic-impairment
#7
Deniz Kantar Gok, Enis Hidisoglu, Guzide Ayse Ocak, Hakan Er, Alev Duygu Acun, Piraye Yargıcoglu
In the present study, we examined whether rosmarinic acid (RA) reverses amyloid β (Aβ) induced reductions in antioxidant defense, lipid peroxidation, cholinergic damage as well as the central auditory deficits. For this purpose, Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups; Sham(S), Sham + RA (SR), Aβ42 peptide (Aβ) and Aβ42 peptide + RA (AβR) groups. Rat model of Alzheimer was established by bilateral injection of Aβ42 peptide (2,2 nmol/10 μl) into the lateral ventricles. RA (50 mg/kg, daily) was administered orally by gavage for 14 days after intracerebroventricular injection...
April 12, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655595/working-memory-training-in-congenitally-blind-individuals-results-in-an-integration-of-occipital-cortex-in-functional-networks
#8
Helene Gudi-Mindermann, Johanna M Rimmele, Guido Nolte, Patrick Bruns, Andreas K Engel, Brigitte Röder
The functional relevance of crossmodal activation (e.g. auditory activation of occipital brain regions) in congenitally blind individuals is still not fully understood. The present study tested whether the occipital cortex of blind individuals is integrated into a challenged functional network. A working memory (WM) training over four sessions was implemented. Congenitally blind and matched sighted participants were adaptively trained with an n-back task employing either voices (auditory training) or tactile stimuli (tactile training)...
April 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649712/sexual-abuse-but-not-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-is-associated-with-neurocognitive-deficits-in-south-african-traumatized-adolescents
#9
Sarah V Biedermann, Stefanie Meliss, Candice Simmons, Jani Nöthling, Sharain Suliman, Soraya Seedat
OBJECTIVES: Neurocognitive impairments are commonly observed in adults suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The picture is less clear in adolescents. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may have an independent influence on neuropsychological test performance and provide partial explanatory power of the inconsistent findings. We hypothesized that adolescents with PTSD who have also suffered sexual abuse would have most pronounced deficits on neurocognitive testing. METHODS: In a cross-sectional design, 105 traumatized South African adolescents, of whom 52 fulfilled criteria of PTSD and 34 reported CSA, were studied...
April 9, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649583/noradrenergic-%C3%AE-receptor-antagonism-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-impairs-reconsolidation-but-not-extinction-of-alcohol-self-administration-intra-bla-propranolol-impairs-reconsolidation-of-alcohol-self-administration
#10
Rose Chesworth, Laura H Corbit
A critical barrier to recovery from alcohol addiction is relapse propensity. Alcohol cues can trigger relapse, and pharmacologically facilitating processes such as extinction, which decreases cue associations, may help prevent relapse. The noradrenergic system mediates extinction learning for alcohol; however, the neural locus of this effect is unknown. This study sought to determine whether the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a region critical for fear extinction, also mediates extinction of alcohol seeking. Hooded Wistar rats (N = 12-15 per experiment) were implanted with bilateral cannula targeting the BLA and trained to lever press for 10% ethanol during auditory or visual cues...
April 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627592/alignment-of-alpha-band-desynchronization-with-syntactic-structure-predicts-successful-sentence-comprehension
#11
Benedict Vassileiou, Lars Meyer, Caroline Beese, Angela D Friederici
Sentence comprehension requires the encoding of phrases and their relationships into working memory. To date, despite the importance of neural oscillations in language comprehension, the neural-oscillatory dynamics of sentence encoding are only sparsely understood. Although oscillations in a wide range of frequency bands have been reported both for the encoding of unstructured word lists and for working-memory intensive sentences, it is unclear to what extent these frequency bands subserve processes specific to the working-memory component of sentence comprehension or to general verbal working memory...
April 5, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623839/identifying-patterns-in-signs-and-symptoms-preceding-the-clinical-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-retrospective-medical-record-review-study-and-a-nested-case-control-design
#12
Fidelia Bature, Dong Pang, Anthea Robinson, Norma Polson, Yannis Pappas, Barbara Guinn
OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests that individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are often diagnosed in the later stages of their disease with a poor prognosis. This study aimed to identify patterns in signs and symptoms preceding the clinical diagnosis of AD to suggest a predictive model for earlier diagnosis of the disease in the primary care. DESIGN: A retrospective medical record review; nested case control design. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included one hundred and nine patients from three general practice (GP) surgeries in Milton Keynes and Luton Clinical Commissioning groups (CCG) (37 cases with AD and 72 controls without AD)...
April 4, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623054/the-duration-of-auditory-sensory-memory-for-vowel-processing-neurophysiological-and-behavioral-measures
#13
Yan H Yu, Valerie L Shafer, Elyse S Sussman
Speech perception behavioral research suggests that rates of sensory memory decay are dependent on stimulus properties at more than one level (e.g., acoustic level, phonemic level). The neurophysiology of sensory memory decay rate has rarely been examined in the context of speech processing. In a lexical tone study, we showed that long-term memory representation of lexical tone slows the decay rate of sensory memory for these tones. Here, we tested the hypothesis that long-term memory representation of vowels slows the rate of auditory sensory memory decay in a similar way to that of lexical tone...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611255/translational-validity-of-pasat-and-the-effect-of-fatigue-and-mood-in-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-ms-a-functional-mri-study
#14
Dessislava Iancheva, Anastasiya G Trenova, Kiril Terziyski, Sevdalina Kandilarova, Stefka Mantarova
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) is used for assessment of information processing speed, attention, and working memory, which are the most frequently affected cognitive domains in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, and may be significantly affected by fatigue. However, the effect of fatigue and mood on the PASAT performance in MS patients translationally validated by fMRI has not been studied yet. The aim of this study is to investigate the translational validity of the PASAT, using fMRI during a paced visual serial addition test (PVSAT) paradigm in patients with relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) and to assess the impact of fatigue and mood on test performance...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608637/nih-toolbox-picture-sequence-memory-test-for-assessing-clinical-memory-function-diagnostic-relationship-to-the-rey-auditory-verbal-learning-test
#15
David W Loring, Stephen C Bowden, Ekaterina Staikova, James A Bishop, Daniel L Drane, Felicia C Goldstein
Background: The NIH Cognitive Toolbox Picture Sequence Memory Test (PSMT) was developed as a measure of learning ability. PSMT use in clinical populations is only beginning to be investigated. Method: PSMT performance was analyzed in a retrospective series of 221 patients referred to either the Deep Brain Stimulation Clinic (n = 128) for presurgical evaluation, or to the Cognitive Screening Clinic (n = 93). Patients were also administered the Rey Verbal Auditory Verbal Learning test (AVLT)...
March 28, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605336/development-and-standardization-of-arabic-words-in-noise-test-in-egyptian-children
#16
Tayseer Taha Abdel Rahman
OBJECTIVES: To develop and establish norms of Arabic Words in Noise test in Egyptian children. METHOD: Total number of participants was 152 with normal hearing and ranging in age from 5 to 12 years. They are subdivided into two main groups (standardization group) which comprised 120 children with normal scholastic achievement and (application group) which comprised 32 children with different types of central auditory processing disorders. Arabic version of both Speech perception in noise (SPIN) and Words in Noise (WIN) tests were presented in each ear at zero signal to-noise ratio (SNR) using ipsilateral Cafeteria noise fixed at 50 dB sensation level (dBSL)...
May 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602533/the-neurocognitive-nature-of-children-with-adhd-comorbid-sluggish-cognitive-tempo-might-sct-be-a-disorder-of-vigilance
#17
Muharrem Burak Baytunca, Sevim Berrin Inci, Melis Ipci, Burcu Kardas, Gul Unsel Bolat, Eyup Sabri Ercan
Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) refers to a clinical construct including several symptoms such as sluggishness, absentmindedness, low energy. In the present study, we compared neurocognitive laboratory outcomes of ADHD children with or without SCT. METHOD: The CNS Vital Signs Battery was utilized to measure neurocognitive measure of the participants. The SCT+ADHD group comprised of 42 subjects, ADHD group was 41 subjects and control group was 24 subjects. RESULTS: The cognitive flexibility score was found to be more severely impaired in ADHD children with SCT in comparison to the ADHD-only...
March 21, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601855/egr-1-expression-in-catecholamine-synthesizing-neurons-reflects-auditory-learning-and-correlates-with-responses-in-auditory-processing-areas
#18
Jennifer B Dai, Yining Chen, Jon T Sakata
Distinguishing between familiar and unfamiliar individuals is an important task that shapes the expression of social behavior. As such, identifying the neural populations involved in processing and learning the sensory attributes of individuals is important for understanding mechanisms of behavior. Catecholamine-synthesizing neurons have been implicated in sensory processing, but relatively little is known about their contribution to auditory learning and processing across various vertebrate taxa. Here we investigated the extent to which immediate early gene expression in catecholaminergic circuitry reflects information about the familiarity of social signals and predicts immediate early gene expression in sensory processing areas in songbirds...
March 27, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594311/comparison-of-subjective-and-objective-measures-of-hearing-auditory-processing-and-cognition-among-older-adults-with-and-without-mild-cognitive-impairment
#19
Bernadette A Fausto, Adrian N S Badana, Michelle L Arnold, Jennifer J Lister, Jerri D Edwards
Purpose: The aims of the study were to compare the Cognitive Self-Report Questionnaire (CSRQ; Spina, Ruff, & Mahncke, 2006) Hearing and Cognitive subscale ratings among older adults with and without probable mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and to examine whether self-report, as measured by the CSRQ, is associated with objective measures of hearing, auditory processing, and cognition. Method: Data analyses included 97 older adults of ages 61-91 years. Participants completed the CSRQ self-report measure as well as a battery of objective measures, including pure-tone audiometry, degraded speech understanding, temporal processing, and memory...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594073/enhancing-working-memory-capacity-in-persian-cochlear-implanted-children-a-clinical-trial-study
#20
Afsaneh Doosti, Maryam Jalalipour, Tayebeh Ahmadi, Seyed Basir Hashemi, Shapour Haghjou, Enayatollah Bakhshi
Introduction: Sensory deprivations such as hearing impairment that affect sensory input have a secondary impact on cognitive functions such as working memory (WM). WM capacity is an important cognitive component that processes language-related activities. Moreover, several studies have shown a deficit in WM in children with a cochlear implant (CI). We aimed to assess the performance of children with CIs in pre- and post-training sessions and compare their scores on a battery of WM tests to investigate the efficacy of a WM training program...
March 2018: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
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