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Mariner transposon

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723287/a-streamlined-method-for-transposon-mutagenesis-of-rickettsia-parkeri-yields-numerous-mutations-that-impact-infection
#1
Rebecca L Lamason, Natasha M Kafai, Matthew D Welch
The rickettsiae are obligate intracellular alphaproteobacteria that exhibit a complex infectious life cycle in both arthropod and mammalian hosts. As obligate intracellular bacteria, rickettsiae are highly adapted to living inside a variety of host cells, including vascular endothelial cells during mammalian infection. Although it is assumed that the rickettsiae produce numerous virulence factors that usurp or disrupt various host cell pathways, they have been challenging to genetically manipulate to identify the key bacterial factors that contribute to infection...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720997/transposable-element-genomic-fissuring-in-pyrenophora-teres-is-associated-with-genome-expansion-and-dynamics-of-host-pathogen-genetic-interactions
#2
Robert A Syme, Anke Martin, Nathan A Wyatt, Julie A Lawrence, Mariano J Muria-Gonzalez, Timothy L Friesen, Simon R Ellwood
Pyrenophora teres , P. teres f. teres (PTT) and P. teres f. maculata (PTM) cause significant diseases in barley, but little is known about the large-scale genomic differences that may distinguish the two forms. Comprehensive genome assemblies were constructed from long DNA reads, optical and genetic maps. As repeat masking in fungal genomes influences the final gene annotations, an accurate and reproducible pipeline was developed to ensure comparability between isolates. The genomes of the two forms are highly collinear, each composed of 12 chromosomes...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659815/plant-lineage-specific-amplification-of-transcription-factor-binding-motifs-by-miniature-inverted-repeat-transposable-elements-mites
#3
Jordi Morata, Fatima Marín, Jordi Payet, Josep M Casacuberta
Transposable elements are one of the main drivers of plant genome evolution. Transposon insertions can modify the gene coding capacity or the regulation of their expression, the latter being a more subtle effect, and therefore particularly useful for evolution. Transposons have been show to contain transcription factor binding sites that can be mobilized upon transposition with the potential to integrate new genes into transcriptional networks. MITEs are a type of non-coding DNA transposons that could be particularly suited as a vector to mobilize transcription factor binding sites and modify transcriptional networks during evolution...
April 5, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530928/nucleosomes-and-dna-methylation-shape-meiotic-dsb-frequency-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-transposons-and-gene-regulatory-regions
#4
Kyuha Choi, Xiaohui Zhao, Andrew J Tock, Christophe Lambing, Charles J Underwood, Thomas J Hardcastle, Heïdi Serra, Juhyun Kim, Hyun Seob Cho, Jaeil Kim, Piotr A Ziolkowski, Nataliya E Yelina, Ildoo Hwang, Robert A Martienssen, Ian R Henderson
Meiotic recombination initiates from DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated by SPO11 topoisomerase-like complexes. Meiotic DSB frequency varies extensively along eukaryotic chromosomes, with hotspots controlled by chromatin and DNA sequence. To map meiotic DSBs throughout a plant genome, we purified and sequenced Arabidopsis thaliana SPO11-1-oligonucleotides. SPO11-1-oligos are elevated in gene promoters, terminators, and introns, which is driven by AT-sequence richness that excludes nucleosomes and allows SPO11-1 access...
April 2018: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480976/discovery-of-pantoea-stewartii-ssp-stewartii-genes-important-for-survival-in-corn-xylem-through-a-tn-seq-analysis
#5
Duy An Duong, Roderick V Jensen, Ann M Stevens
The bacterium Pantoea stewartii ssp. stewartii causes Stewart's wilt disease in corn. Pantoea stewartii is transmitted to plants via corn flea beetles, where it first colonizes the apoplast causing water-soaked lesions, and then migrates to the xylem and forms a biofilm that blocks water transport. Bacterial quorum sensing ensures that the exopolysaccharide production necessary for biofilm formation occurs only at high cell density. A genomic-level transposon sequencing (Tn-Seq) analysis was performed to identify additional bacterial genes essential for survival in planta and to provide insights into the plant-microbe interactions occurring during wilt disease...
February 26, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439662/comparative-genome-analysis-of-52-fish-species-suggests-differential-associations-of-repetitive-elements-with-their-living-aquatic-environments
#6
Zihao Yuan, Shikai Liu, Tao Zhou, Changxu Tian, Lisui Bao, Rex Dunham, Zhanjiang Liu
BACKGROUND: Repetitive elements make up significant proportions of genomes. However, their roles in evolution remain largely unknown. To provide insights into the roles of repetitive elements in fish genomes, we conducted a comparative analysis of repetitive elements of 52 fish species in 22 orders in relation to their living aquatic environments. RESULTS: The proportions of repetitive elements in various genomes were found to be positively correlated with genome sizes, with a few exceptions...
February 13, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389865/the-listeria-monocytogenes-key-virulence-determinants-hly-and-prfa-are-involved-in-biofilm-formation-and-aggregation-but-not-colonization-of-fresh-produce
#7
Robert Price, Victor Jayeola, Jeffrey Niedermeyer, Cameron Parsons, Sophia Kathariou
Listeria monocytogenes has been extensively studied as a model facultative intracellular pathogen. While the roles of major virulence factors in host-pathogen interactions have been extensively characterized, recent work suggests that some of these factors can also contribute to environmental proliferation of this pathogen. In this study, we characterized two non-hemolytic transposon mutants of strain 2011L-2858 (serotype 1/2b), implicated in the 2011 listeriosis outbreak via whole cantaloupe, for their capacity to form biofilms on polystyrene, aggregate, and colonize cantaloupe rind...
February 1, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380577/-annotation-of-the-mobilomes-of-nine-teleost-species
#8
Bo Gao, Dan Shen, Cai Chen, Saisai Wang, Kunlun Yang, Wei Chen, Wei Wang, Li Zhang, Chengyi Song
In this study, the mobilomes of nine teleost species were annotated by bioinformatics methods. Both of the mobilome size and constitute displayed a significant difference in 9 species of teleost fishes. The species of mobilome content ranking from high to low were zebrafish, medaka, tilapia, coelacanth, platyfish, cod, stickleback, tetradon and fugu. Mobilome content and genome size were positively correlated. The DNA transposons displayed higher diversity and larger variation in teleost (0.50% to 38.37%), was a major determinant of differences in teleost mobilomes, and hAT and Tc/Mariner superfamily were the major DNA transposons in teleost...
January 25, 2018: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352755/a-mos1-transposase-in-vivo-assay-to-screen-new-hiv-1-integrase-inhibitors
#9
Mariana Cancian, Elgion L S Loreto
The integrase and transposase enzymes of retrovirus and transposons, respectively, share the catalytic DDE domain. In vitro assays showed that inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase generally inhibit the mariner Mos1 transposase. Using a Drosophila strain in which the mobilisation of the mariner element can be quantified by mosaic eyes, we showed that flies maintained in medium containing 210 µM to 4 mM of raltegravir, or 1 or 2 mM of dolutegravir, which are HIV-1 integrase inhibitor used in AIDS treatment, have 23-33% less somatic mobilisation in mosaic eyes when treated with raltegravir and 28-32% when treated with dolutegravir...
April 2018: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308093/human-transposable-elements-in-repbase-genomic-footprints-from-fish-to-humans
#10
REVIEW
Kenji K Kojima
Repbase is a comprehensive database of eukaryotic transposable elements (TEs) and repeat sequences, containing over 1300 human repeat sequences. Recent analyses of these repeat sequences have accumulated evidences for their contribution to human evolution through becoming functional elements, such as protein-coding regions or binding sites of transcriptional regulators. However, resolving the origins of repeat sequences is a challenge, due to their age, divergence, and degradation. Ancient repeats have been continuously classified as TEs by finding similar TEs from other organisms...
2018: Mobile DNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229542/random-knock-in-expression-system-for-high-yield-production-of-heterologous-protein-in-bacillus-subtilis
#11
Da-Eun Jeong, Younju So, Soo-Young Park, Seung-Hwan Park, Soo-Keun Choi
Chromosome-integrated recombinant protein expression in bacteria has advantages for the stable maintenance of genes without any use of antibiotics during large-scale fermentation. Even though different levels of gene expression were reported, depending upon their chromosomal position in bacterial species, only a limited number of integration sites have been used in B. subtilis. In this study, we randomly integrated the GFP and AprE expression cassettes into the B. subtilis genome to determine integration sites that can produce a high yield of heterologous protein expression...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164822/a-transposon-mutant-library-of-bacillus-cereus-atcc-10987-reveals-novel-genes-required-for-biofilm-formation-and-implicates-motility-as-an-important-factor-for-pellicle-biofilm-formation
#12
Mira Okshevsky, Matilde Greve Louw, Elena Otero Lamela, Martin Nilsson, Tim Tolker-Nielsen, Rikke Louise Meyer
Bacillus cereus is one of the most common opportunistic pathogens causing foodborne illness, as well as a common source of contamination in the dairy industry. B. cereus can form robust biofilms on food processing surfaces, resulting in food contamination due to shedding of cells and spores. Despite the medical and industrial relevance of this species, the genetic basis of biofilm formation in B. cereus is not well studied. In order to identify genes required for biofilm formation in this bacterium, we created a library of 5000 +  transposon mutants of the biofilm-forming strain B...
November 22, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036477/a-single-active-site-in-the-mariner-transposase-cleaves-dna-strands-of-opposite-polarity
#13
Corentin Claeys Bouuaert, Ronald Chalmers
The RNase H structural fold defines a large family of nucleic acid metabolizing enzymes that catalyze phosphoryl transfer reactions using two divalent metal ions in the active site. Almost all of these reactions involve only one strand of the nucleic acid substrates. In contrast, cut-and-paste transposases cleave two DNA strands of opposite polarity, which is usually achieved via an elegant hairpin mechanism. In the mariner transposons, the hairpin intermediate is absent and key aspects of the mechanism by which the transposon ends are cleaved remained unknown...
November 16, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029084/penicillin-binding-protein-encoded-by-pbp4-is-involved-in-mediating-copper-stress-in-listeria-monocytogenes
#14
Cameron Parsons, Ben Costolo, Phillip Brown, Sophia Kathariou
Listeria monocytogenes raises major food safety and public health concerns due its potential for severe foodborne disease and persistent colonization of food processing facilities. Copper is often employed to control pathogens in agriculture and is increasingly used in healthcare facilities, but mechanisms mediating tolerance of L. monocytogenes to copper remain poorly understood. A mariner-based mutant library of L. monocytogenes 2011L-2858, implicated in the 2011 listeriosis outbreak via whole cantaloupe, was screened for growth at sublethal levels of copper yielding mutant G2B4 with decreased copper tolerance...
October 4, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018421/-himar1-transposon-for-efficient-random-mutagenesis-in-aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans
#15
Qinfeng Ding, Kai Soo Tan
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is the primary etiological agent of aggressive periodontal disease. Identification of novel virulence factors at the genome-wide level is hindered by lack of efficient genetic tools to perform mutagenesis in this organism. The Himar1 mariner transposon is known to yield a random distribution of insertions in an organism's genome with requirement for only a TA dinucleotide target and is independent of host-specific factors. However, the utility of this system in A. actinomycetemcomitans is unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993850/expression-of-collagenase-is-regulated-by-the-vars-vara-two-component-regulatory-system-in-vibrio-alginolyticus
#16
Takehiko Mima, Kazuyoshi Gotoh, Yumiko Yamamoto, Keiko Maeda, Taku Shirakawa, Shunsuke Matsui, Yumi Murata, Takaki Koide, Hiroshi Tokumitsu, Osamu Matsushita
Vibrio alginolyticus is an opportunistic pathogen in both humans and marine animals. Collagenase encoded by colA is considered to be one of the virulence factors. Expression of colA is regulated by multiple environmental factors, e.g., temperature, growth phase, and substrate. To elucidate the mechanism of regulation of colA expression, transposon mutagenesis was performed. VarS, a sensor histidine kinase of the two-component regulatory system, was demonstrated to regulate the expression of colA. VarA, a cognate response regulator of VarS, was also identified and shown to be involved in the regulation of colA expression...
February 2018: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919950/chromosome-mapping-of-a-tc1-like-transposon-in-species-of-the-catfish-ancistrus
#17
Keteryne Rodrigues da Silva, Sandra Mariotto, Liano Centofante, Patricia Pasquali Parise-Maltempi
The Tc1 mariner element is widely distributed among organisms and have been already described in different species of fish. The genus Ancistrus (Kner, 1854) has 68 nominal species and is part of an interesting taxonomic and cytogenetic group, as well as presenting a variation of chromosome number, ranging from 2n=34 to 54 chromosomes, and the existence of simple and multiple sex chromosome system and the occurrence of chromosomal polymorphisms involving chromosomes that carry the nucleolus organizer region...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904414/identification-of-arsenic-resistance-genes-from-marine-sediment-metagenome
#18
Nar Singh Chauhan, Sonam Nain, Rakesh Sharma
A metagenomic library of sea sediment metagenome containing 245,000 recombinant clones representing ~ 2.45 Gb of sea sediment microbial DNA was constructed. Two unique arsenic resistance clones, A7 and A12, were identified by selection on sodium arsenite containing medium. Clone A7 showed a six-fold higher resistance to arsenate [As(V)], a three-fold higher resistance to arsenite [As(III)] and significantly increased resistance to antimony [Sb(III)], while clone A12 showed increased resistance only to sodium arsenite and not to the other two metalloids...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892254/transcriptional-regulation-of-ectoine-catabolism-in-response-to-multiple-metabolic-and-environmental-cues
#19
Annina Schulz, Lucas Hermann, Sven-Andreas Freibert, Tobias Bönig, Tamara Hoffmann, Ramona Riclea, Jeroen S Dickschat, Johann Heider, Erhard Bremer
Ectoine and hydroxyectoine are effective microbial osmostress protectants, but can also serve as versatile nutrients for bacteria. We have studied the genetic regulation of ectoine and hydroxyectoine import and catabolism in the marine Roseobacter species Ruegeria pomeroyi and identified three transcriptional regulators involved in these processes: the GabR/MocR-type repressor EnuR, the feast and famine-type regulator AsnC and the two-component system NtrYX. The corresponding genes are widely associated with ectoine and hydroxyectoine uptake and catabolic gene clusters (enuR, asnC), and with microorganisms predicted to consume ectoines (ntrYX)...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887418/chitinase-expression-in-listeria-monocytogenes-is-influenced-by-lmo0327-which-encodes-an-internalin-like-protein
#20
Dafni Katerina Paspaliari, Vicky Gaedt Kastbjerg, Hanne Ingmer, Magdalena Popowska, Marianne Halberg Larsen
The chitinolytic system of Listeria monocytogenes thus far comprises two chitinases, ChiA and ChiB, and a lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase, Lmo2467. The role of the system in the bacterium appears to be pleiotropic, as besides mediating the hydrolysis of chitin, the second most ubiquitous carbohydrate in nature, the chitinases have been deemed important for the colonization of unicellular molds, as well as mammalian hosts. To identify additional components of the chitinolytic system, we screened a transposon mutant library for mutants exhibiting impaired chitin hydrolysis...
November 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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