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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526939/awareness-of-cancer-signs-and-barriers-to-help-seeking-a-national-survey
#1
Mohammad Al Qadire
About 27% of cancer patients in Jordan are discovered in advanced stages; this resulted in poor prognosis and survival rates. One possible cause of late presentation is lack of awareness of warning signs and risk factors of cancer. The purpose of this study is to identify the level of awareness of cancer warning signs, risk factors, and barriers to seeking medical advice among the Jordanian public. A cross-sectional survey design was used. A convenience sample of 2292 participants from the Jordanian public was included in the study...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516959/adaptive-psychological-structure-in-childhood-hearing-impairment-audiological-correlations
#2
A Serra, G Spinato, S Cocuzza, L Licciardello, P Pavone, L Maiolino
The present research deals with the clinical and social problems present during linguistic and cognitive development of deaf children. Currently, the development of Theory of Mind represents an important research field in deafness studies. These international studies highlighted a significant alteration in the development of Theory of Mind in deaf children compared to normal hearing children, especially in cases of congenital or preverbal hearing loss. In particular, the research focuses on the skills of deaf children in recognising emotions and desires, through both perceptive and cognitive methods, by evaluation of psycho-cognitive skills of children with severe hearing loss using a set of questions to be administered to hearing loss patients...
June 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514188/the-invisibility-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-impaired-cognitive-performance-as-a-silent-symptom
#3
Leore R Heim, Miaad Badar, Shahaf Edut, Lital Rachmany, Renana Baratz, Ran Lin, Aviya Elpaz, Doaa Qubty, Lior Bikovski, Vardit Rubovitch, Shaul Schreiber, Chaim G Pick
The present study was designed to tackle two notorious features of mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) - heterogeneity and invisibility - by characterizing the full scope of mTBI symptoms. Mice were exposed to brain injuries of different intensities utilizing a weight-drop model (10, 30, 50, and 70g), and subsequently subjected to a comprehensive battery of behavioral tests at different time points, and immunohistochemical examination of cortical slices. While the physiological, neurological, emotional, and motor function of mTBI mice, i...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513343/the-impact-of-social-exclusion-on-reading-the-mind-in-the-eyes-performance-in-relation-to-borderline-personality-disorder-features
#4
Megan Savage, Mark F Lenzenweger
In this study we used the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) to explore facial emotion recognition in borderline personality disorder (BPD). We also used Cyberball, a computerized task designed to mimic social ostracism, to examine the response of BPD-feature participants to social exclusion. Seventeen individuals with BPD features were compared to 16 healthy controls on RMET performance pre- and post-exclusion via Cyber-ball. Our results revealed a significant interaction between BPD-feature status and RMET performance in relation to neutral stimuli following a social exclusion experience...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510577/are-horses-capable-of-mirror-self-recognition-a-pilot-study
#5
Paolo Baragli, Elisa Demuru, Chiara Scopa, Elisabetta Palagi
Mirror Self-Recognition (MSR) unveils complex cognitive, social and emotional skills and it has been found only in humans and few other species, such as great apes, dolphins, elephants and magpies. In this pilot study, we tested if horses show the capacity of MSR. Four subjects living socially under naturalistic conditions were selected for the experiment. We adopted the classical mark test, which consists in placing a coloured mark on an out-of-view body part, visible only through mirror inspection. If the animal considers the image as its own, it will use its reflection to detect the mark and will try to explore it...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509565/a-qualitative-meta-summary-using-sandelowski-and-barroso-s-method-for-integrating-qualitative-research-to-explore-barriers-and-facilitators-to-self-care-in-heart-failure-patients
#6
Oliver Rudolf Herber, Bettina Bücker, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Julie Barroso
BACKGROUND: Individual qualitative studies provide varied reasons for why heart failure patients do not engage in self-care, yet articles that aggregated primary studies on the subject have methodological weaknesses that justified the execution of a qualitative meta-summary. AIM: The aim of this study is to integrate the findings of qualitative studies pertaining to barriers and facilitators to self-care using meta-summary techniques. METHODS: Qualitative meta-summary techniques by Sandelowski and Barroso were used to combine the findings of qualitative studies...
May 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503108/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-cyclothymia-the-primacy-of-temperament
#7
REVIEW
Giulio Perugi, Elie Hantouche, Giulia Vannucchi
BACKGROUND: Contrary to DSM-5 definition based on recurrence of low grade hypomanic and depressive symptoms, cyclothymia is better defined in a neurodevelopmental perspective as an exaggeration of cyclothymic temperament. Emotional dysregulation with extreme mood instability and reactivity is the core features of the complex symptomatology. METHOD: In the present article, we critically reviewed the literature on the diagnosis and treatment of cyclothymia, focusing on the temperamental and neurodevelopmental perspectives...
April 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503096/affect-recognition-among-adolescents-in-therapeutic-schools-relationships-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-conduct-disorder-symptoms
#8
Shabnam Javdani, Naomi Sadeh, Geri R Donenberg, Erin Emerson, Christopher Houck, Larry K Brown
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms often co-occur in adolescence, but little is known about whether they show common or distinct emotional processing deficits. METHOD: We examined the effects of PTSD and CD symptoms on facial affect processing in youth with emotional and behavior problems. Teens enrolled in therapeutic day schools (N = 371; ages 13-19) completed a structured diagnostic assessment and the Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy-2 facial affect recognition task...
February 2017: Child and Adolescent Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499409/in-your-face-the-biased-judgement-of-fear-anger-expressions-in-violent-offenders
#9
Martin Wegrzyn, Sina Westphal, Johanna Kissler
BACKGROUND: Why is it that certain violent criminals repeatedly find themselves engaged in brawls? Many inmates report having felt provoked or threatened by their victims, which might be due to a tendency to ascribe malicious intentions when faced with ambiguous social signals, termed hostile attribution bias. METHODS: The present study presented morphed fear-anger faces to prison inmates with a history of violent crimes, a history of child sexual abuse, and to matched controls form the general population...
May 12, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498919/chemicogenetic-restoration-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-to-amygdala-pathway-ameliorates-stress-induced-deficits
#10
Jing Wei, Ping Zhong, Luye Qin, Tao Tan, Zhen Yan
Corticosteroid stress hormones exert a profound impact on cognitive and emotional processes. Understanding the neuronal circuits that are altered by chronic stress is important for counteracting the detrimental effects of stress in a brain region- and cell type-specific manner. Using the chemogenetic tool, Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs), which enables the remote, noninvasive and long-lasting modulation of cellular activity and signal transduction in discrete neuronal populations in vivo, we sought to identify the specific pathways that play an essential role in stress responses...
May 11, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497246/neural-correlates-of-explicit-versus-implicit-facial-emotion-processing-in-asd
#11
Christina Luckhardt, Anne Kröger, Hannah Cholemkery, Stephan Bender, Christine M Freitag
The underlying neural mechanisms of implicit and explicit facial emotion recognition (FER) were studied in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to matched typically developing controls (TDC). EEG was obtained from N = 21 ASD and N = 16 TDC. Task performance, visual (P100, N170) and cognitive (late positive potential) event-related-potentials, as well as coherence were compared across groups. TDC showed a task-dependent increase and a stronger lateralization of P100 amplitude during the explicit task and task-dependent modulation of intra-hemispheric coherence in the beta band...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493921/mapping-the-emotional-face-how-individual-face-parts-contribute-to-successful-emotion-recognition
#12
Martin Wegrzyn, Maria Vogt, Berna Kireclioglu, Julia Schneider, Johanna Kissler
Which facial features allow human observers to successfully recognize expressions of emotion? While the eyes and mouth have been frequently shown to be of high importance, research on facial action units has made more precise predictions about the areas involved in displaying each emotion. The present research investigated on a fine-grained level, which physical features are most relied on when decoding facial expressions. In the experiment, individual faces expressing the basic emotions according to Ekman were hidden behind a mask of 48 tiles, which was sequentially uncovered...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493748/the-face-of-fear-and-anger-facial-width-to-height-ratio-biases-recognition-of-angry-and-fearful-expressions
#13
Jason C Deska, E Paige Lloyd, Kurt Hugenberg
The ability to rapidly and accurately decode facial expressions is adaptive for human sociality. Although judgments of emotion are primarily determined by musculature, static face structure can also impact emotion judgments. The current work investigates how facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR), a stable feature of all faces, influences perceivers' judgments of expressive displays of anger and fear (Studies 1a, 1b, & 2), and anger and happiness (Study 3). Across 4 studies, we provide evidence consistent with the hypothesis that perceivers more readily see anger on faces with high fWHR compared with those with low fWHR, which instead facilitates the recognition of fear and happiness...
May 11, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493346/no-effect-of-targeted-memory-reactivation-during-slow-wave-sleep-on-emotional-recognition-memory
#14
Jennifer E Ashton, Scott A Cairney, M Gareth Gaskell
Recent work has suggested that the benefits of sleep for memory consolidation are enhanced for highly salient (versus non-salient) memories. Using a technique known as targeted memory reactivation, it is possible to selectively strengthen newly learned memories by re-exposing the sleeping brain to auditory cues. The aim of the current study was to examine whether emotionally salient memories are also more responsive to targeted memory reactivation in slow-wave sleep than neutral memories. In an initial training phase, participants memorised emotionally negative and neutral pictures, which were each paired with a semantically related sound...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484415/adult-attachment-styles-associated-with-brain-activity-in-response-to-infant-faces-in-nulliparous-women-an-event-related-potentials-study
#15
Yuanxiao Ma, Guangming Ran, Xu Chen, Haijing Ma, Na Hu
Adult attachment style is a key for understanding emotion regulation and feelings of security in human interactions as well as for the construction of the caregiving system. The caregiving system is a group of representations about affiliative behaviors, which is guided by the caregiver's sensitivity and empathy, and is mature in young adulthood. Appropriate perception and interpretation of infant emotions is a crucial component of the formation of a secure attachment relationship between infant and caregiver...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483084/development-of-a-tool-to-assess-facial-emotion-recognition-deficits-in-mothers-with-schizophrenia-a-preliminary-report
#16
Sonia Shenoy, Geetha Desai, Prabha S Chandra, Ganesan Venkatsubramanian
There is dearth of studies which have assessed Facial Emotion Recognition Deficits (FERD) in parents and its impact on parenting. To assess FERD in mothers with severe mental illness, a modification of TRENDS (A Tool for Recognition of Emotions in Neuropsychiatric DisorderS) using images of children was developed. Two children emoted six basic emotions,namely happy, sad, fear, anger, surprise and disgust at two different intensities along with neutral facial expressions. These images were then validated by 20 subjects which included 15 healthy controls and 5 qualified psychiatrists...
April 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479973/social-cognition-in-schizophrenia
#17
Thammanard Charernboon, Jayanton Patumanond
Impairments in social cognitions in schizophrenia are increasingly reported in the last decade but only a few studies have come from Asia. The objective of the study was to evaluated emotion perception, theory of mind and social knowledge in people with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. Participants were 36 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia and 36 normal controls with comparable age and level of education. We administered general neurocognition test (the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination), emotion perception (the Faces Test), theory of mind (the Eyes Test) and social knowledge (the Situational Features Recognition Test; SFRT)...
March 22, 2017: Mental Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478728/variation-in-the-oxytocin-receptor-gene-is-associated-with-social-cognition-and-adhd
#18
Tuğba Kalyoncu, Burcu Özbaran, Sezen Köse, Hüseyin Onay
OBJECTIVE: Children with ADHD show substantial deficits in social cognitive abilities. Oxytocin, mediated through its specific receptor (OXTR), is involved in the regulation of social behavior and social cognition. METHOD: The entire coding sequence of the human OXT and OXTR genes were sequenced to identify mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 151 children with ADHD (ADHD-combined, n = 51; inattentive subtype, n = 50; ADHD-C plus conduct disorder [CD], n = 50; 11-18 years) and 100 healthy controls...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476571/identification-and-intensity-of-disgust-distinguishing-visual-linguistic-and-facial-expressions-processing-in-parkinson-disease
#19
Anna Sedda, Sara Petito, Maria Guarino, Andrea Stracciari
OBJECTIVES & METHODS: Most of the studies since now show an impairment for facial displays of disgust recognition in Parkinson disease. A general impairment in disgust processing in patients with Parkinson disease might adversely affect their social interactions, given the relevance of this emotion for human relations. However, despite the importance of faces, disgust is also expressed through other format of visual stimuli such as sentences and visual images. The aim of our study was to explore disgust processing in a sample of patients affected by Parkinson disease, by means of various tests tackling not only facial recognition but also other format of visual stimuli through which disgust can be recognized...
May 2, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467893/meta-analysis-of-the-effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-on-interpretation-and-expression-of-emotions
#20
REVIEW
Jenni Leppanen, Kah Wee Ng, Kate Tchanturia, Janet Treasure
Accurate interpretation and appropriate expression of emotions are key aspects of social-cognition. Several mental disorders are characterised by transdiagnostic difficulties in these areas and, recently, there has been increasing interest in exploring the effects of oxytocin on social-emotional functioning. This review consists of 33 studies. Fifteen of the studies included people with autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, frontotemporal dementia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and opioid and alcohol dependence...
April 30, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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