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Renin Angiotensin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916557/study-of-fall-risk-increasing-drugs-in-elderly-patients-before-and-after-a-bone-fracture
#1
Mónica Beunza-Sola, Ángel M Hidalgo-Ovejero, Jon Martí-Ayerdi, José Germán Sánchez-Hernández, Miguel Menéndez-García, Serafín García-Mata
BACKGROUND: Accidental falls have a significant economic and human impact. The use of certain drugs is one of the modifiable risk factors associated with these events. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of use and to explore changes in treatment with fall-related drugs in patients over 65 years of age admitted as a result of a fall-related fracture. METHODS: Observational and prospective study performed in a tertiary level hospital...
September 15, 2017: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915321/regulation-and-functions-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-in-white-and-brown-adipose-tissue
#2
Mandana Pahlavani, Nishan S Kalupahana, Latha Ramalingam, Naima Moustaid-Moussa
The renin angiotensin system (RAS) is a major regulator of blood pressure, fluid, and electrolyte homeostasis. RAS precursor angiotensinogen (Agt) is cleaved into angiotensin I (Ang I) and II (Ang II) by renin and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), respectively. Major effects of Ang II, the main bioactive peptide of this system, is mediated by G protein coupled receptors, Angiotensin Type 1 (AGTR1, AT1R) and Type 2 (AGTR2, AT2R) receptors. Further, the discovery of additional RAS peptides such as Ang 1-7 generated by the action of another enzyme ACE2 identified novel functions of this complex system...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914638/long-term-risk-and-predictors-of-cardiovascular-death-in-stable-coronary-artery-disease-the-coronor-study
#3
Christophe Bauters, Olivier Tricot, Thibaud Meurice, Nicolas Lamblin
BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge on the residual risk of cardiovascular death (CVD) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) who receive modern secondary prevention. Our aim was to analyze the causes of death and to determine predictors of CVD in the 5-year CORONOR registry. METHODS: We studied 4184 consecutive CAD outpatients who were free from any myocardial infarction (MI) or coronary revascularization for more than 1 year at inclusion. Antithrombotics were prescribed in 99%, statins in 92%, inhibitors of renin-angiotensin system in 82%, and β-blockers in 79%; 86% had prior coronary revascularization...
September 13, 2017: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914276/appropriate-reconciliation-of-cardiovascular-medications-after-elective-surgery-and-postdischarge-acute-hospital-and-ambulatory-visits
#4
Jonathan S Lee, Ralph Gonzales, Eric Vittinghoff, Kitty K Corbett, Kirsten E Fleischmann, Neil Sehgal, Andrew D Auerbach
OBJECTIVE: To describe appropriate discharge reconciliation of cardiovascular medications and assess associations with postdischarge healthcare utilization in surgical patients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study from January 2007 to December 2011. SETTING: An academic medical center. PATIENTS: Seven hundred and fifty-two adults undergoing elective noncardiac surgery and taking antiplatelet agents, beta-blockers, renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, or statin lipid-lowering agents before surgery...
September 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913500/neuroendocrine-stress-response-implications-for-cardiac-surgery-associated-acute-kidney-injury
#5
REVIEW
J Mauricio Del Rio, Alina Nicoara, Madhav Swaminathan
Surgical stress causes biochemical and physiologic perturbations of every homeostatic axis. These alterations include volume/baroreceptor regulation, sympathetic activation, parasympathetic suppression, neuroendocrine activation, acute phase response protein synthesis and secretion, immune response modulation and long-term behavioral adaptation. The kidney is central to the stress response because of its main role in the maintenance of water, electrolyte balance and hence, intracellular and extracellular compartments, including the intravascular volume...
April 2017: Rom J Anaesth Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912723/increased-hemodynamic-load-in-early-embryonic-stages-alters-myofibril-and-mitochondrial-organization-in-the-myocardium
#6
Madeline Midgett, Claudia S López, Larry David, Alina Maloyan, Sandra Rugonyi
Normal blood flow is essential for proper heart formation during embryonic development, as abnormal hemodynamic load (blood pressure and shear stress) results in cardiac defects seen in congenital heart disease (CHD). However, the detrimental remodeling processes that relate altered blood flow to cardiac malformation and defects remain unclear. Heart development is a finely orchestrated process with rapid transformations that occur at the tissue, cell, and subcellular levels. Myocardial cells play an essential role in cardiac tissue maturation by aligning in the direction of stretch and increasing the number of contractile units as hemodynamic load increases throughout development...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910547/diurnal-opposite-variation-between-angiotensinase-activities-in-photo-neuro-endocrine-tissues-of-rats
#7
Germán Domínguez-Vías, Garbiñe Aretxaga-Maza, Isabel Prieto, Juan de Dios Luna, Marc De Gasparo, Manuel Ramírez-Sánchez
Central and peripheral renin-angiotensin systems (RASs) act in a coordinated manner for the physiologic functions regulated by neuroendocrine events. However, whereas the diurnal rhythm of peripheral circulatory and tissue RASs is well known, the circadian behaviour of their components in central photo-neuro-endocrine structures, key elements for the control of circadian rhythms, has been barely studied. In the present study, we analysed the aspartyl- (AspAP) and glutamyl-aminopeptidase (GluAP) (aminopeptidase A) activities, the angiotensinases responsible for the metabolism of Ang I to Ang 2-10 and Ang II to Ang III, respectively, in the retina, anterior hypothalamus and pituitary at different light and dark time-points of a 12:12 h light:dark cycle (7-19 h light), using arylamide derivatives as substrates...
September 14, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905546/-hypertension-in-people-of-african-descent
#8
Fabien Cane, Sofia Zisimopoulou, Antoinette Pechère-Bertschi
Hypertension in people of African descent presents an increased prevalence, an earlier and more severe target organ damage and is harder to control compared to other ethnicities. Preeclampsia and gestational hypertension are more frequent in black women. The physiological phenomenon of night time blood pressure dipping is often blunted. The low renin hypertension phenotype seems to be caused by an increase in sodium retention at renal level. The treatment of choice is calcium channel blockers and thiazide diuretics along with a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blocker for kidney protection...
September 13, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905359/guideline-recommended-medications-and-physical-function-in-older-adults-with-multiple-chronic-conditions
#9
Gail McAvay, Heather G Allore, Andrew B Cohen, Danijela Gnjidic, Terrence E Murphy, Mary E Tinetti
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The benefit or harm of a single medication recommended for one specific condition can be difficult to determine in individuals with multiple chronic conditions and polypharmacy. There is limited information on the associations between guideline-recommended medications and physical function in older adults with multiple chronic conditions. The objective of this study was to estimate the beneficial or harmful associations between guideline-recommended medications and decline in physical function in older adults with multiple chronic conditions...
September 14, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904363/calcitriol-reduces-kidney-development-disorders-in-rats-provoked-by-losartan-administration-during-lactation
#10
Lucas Ferreira de Almeida, Heloísa Della Coletta Francescato, Cleonice Giovanini Alves da Silva, Roberto Silva Costa, Terezila Machado Coimbra
Calcitriol has important effects on cellular differentiation and proliferation, as well as on the regulation of the renin gene. Disturbances in renal development can be observed in rats exposed to angiotensin II (AngII) antagonists during lactation period. The lack of tubular differentiation in losartan-treated rats can affect calcitriol uptake. This study evaluated the effect of calcitriol administration in renal development disturbances in rats provoked by losartan (AngII type 1 receptor antagonist) administration during lactation...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903918/-pro-renin-receptor-mediates-albumin-induced-cellular-responses-role-of-site-1-protease-derived-soluble-pro-renin-receptor-in-renal-epithelial-cells
#11
Hui Fang, Chuanming Xu, Aihua Lu, Chang-Jiang Zou, Shiying Xie, Yanting Chen, Li Zhou, Mi Liu, Lei Wang, Weidong Wang, Tianxin Yang
Proteinuria is a characteristic of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and also a causative factor that promotes the disease progression in part via activation of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS). (Pro) renin receptor (PRR), a newly discovered component of the RAS, binds renin and (pro) renin to promote angiotensin I generation. The present study was performed to test the role of soluble PRR (sPRR) in albumin overload-induced responses in cultured human renal proximal tubular cell line HK-2 cells. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) treatment for 24 h at 20 mg/ml induced renin activity and inflammation, both of which were attenuated by a PRR decoy inhibitor PRO20...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903744/renin-angiotensin-system-gene-polymorphisms-and-high-blood-pressure-in-lithuanian-children-and-adolescents
#12
Sandrita Simonyte, Renata Kuciene, Jurate Medzioniene, Virginija Dulskiene, Vaiva Lesauskaite
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the influence of environmental factors on HBP in the population of Lithuanian children, although the role of genetic factors in hypertension has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of AGTR1, AGT, and ACE genotypes in the Lithuanian child population and to determine whether these genotypes have an impact on HBP in childhood. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 709 participants aged 12-15 years...
September 13, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902380/-organ-interactions-heart-and-kidney
#13
Daniel Salleck, Stefan John
The interactions between heart and kidney are various and of clinical relevance. Worsening of one organ often influences the function of the other. With NYHA and KDIGO we have classification systems for heart and kidney failure and those should be used for cardiorenal systems as well. Furthermore there is a useful classification system for cardiorenal syndromes itself. Cardiorenal syndrome is a complex illness which should be treated by interdisciplinary medical teams. A key roll in pathophysiology is the renin-angiotensin-aldosteron-system (RAAS)...
September 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901725/alamandine-reverses-hyperhomocysteinemia-induced-vascular-dysfunction-via-pka-dependent-mechanisms
#14
Tawar Qaradakhi, Minos Timotheos Matsoukas, Alan Hayes, Emma Rybalka, Martin Caprnda, Kvetoslava Rimarova, Milan Sepsi, Dietrich Büsselberg, Peter Kruzliak, John Matsoukas, Vasso Apostolopoulos, Anthony Zulli
INTRODUCTION: Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) impairs nitric oxide endothelium-dependent vasodilation, consequently leading to atherosclerosis, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Novel treatments for HHcy are necessary. AIM: We tested the hypothesis that alamandine, a vasoactive peptide of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), could reverse HHcy-induced vascular dysfunction through the MrgD receptor, and that this is mediated by the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway...
September 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900121/dominance-of-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis-over-the-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-is-a-risk-factor-for-decreased-insulin-secretion
#15
Makoto Daimon, Aya Kamba, Hiroshi Murakami, Satoru Mizushiri, Sho Osonoi, Kota Matsuki, Eri Sato, Jutaro Tanabe, Shinobu Takayasu, Yuki Matsuhashi, Miyuki Yanagimachi, Ken Terui, Kazunori Kageyama, Itoyo Tokuda, Shizuka Kurauchi, Shigeyuki Nakaji
How the association between the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) affects glucose metabolism were not well examined in a general population. Participants of the population-based 2015 Iwaki study were enrolled (n: 1,016; age: 54.4 ± 15.1 years). Principal component (PC) analysis identified two PCs: PC1 represented levels of the HPA axis (serum cortisol) and the RAAS (plasma aldosterone) as a whole, and PC2 represented the HPA axis relative to the RAAS (HPA axis dominance)...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893641/high-intensity-interval-training-has-beneficial-effects-on-cardiac-remodeling-through-local-renin-angiotensin-system-modulation-in-mice-fed-high-fat-or-high-fructose-diets
#16
Guilherme de Oliveira Sá, Vívian Dos Santos Neves, Shyrlei R de Oliveira Fraga, Vanessa Souza-Mello, Sandra Barbosa-da-Silva
AIMS: HIIT (high-intensity interval training) has the potential to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors, but the effects on cardiac remodeling and local RAS (renin-angiotensin system) in mice fed high-fat or high-fructose diets still need to be fully addressed. MAIN METHODS: Sixty male C57BL/6 mice (12weeks old) were randomly divided into three groups, control (C), High-fat (HF), or High-fructose diet (HRU) and were monitored for eight weeks before being submitted to the HIIT...
September 8, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890661/association-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-gene-polymorphisms-and-nephropathy-in-diabetic-patients-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-south-india
#17
Mukta Wyawahare, Revathy Neelamegam, Saranya Vilvanathan, R Soundravally, A K Das, C Adithan
BACKGROUND: Genetic polymorphisms of the angiotensin-renin pathway have been thought to influence the development of diabetic nephropathy. However, there are conflicting results regarding this association in previous studies on populations with varying ethnicity. AIMS: Primary aim was to compare the frequency of distribution of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene (insertion/deletion [I/D]) polymorphism in Tamilian Indian type 2 diabetic individuals with and without microalbuminuria...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Endocrinology and Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890045/the-renin-angiotensin-system-and-the-brain-new-developments
#18
REVIEW
Ehab Farag, Daniel I Sessler, Zeyd Ebrahim, Andrea Kurz, Joseph Morgan, Sanchit Ahuja, Kamal Maheshwari, D John Doyle
The traditional renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is indispensable system in adjusting sodium homeostasis, body fluid volume, and controlling arterial blood pressure. The key elements are renin splitting inactive angiotensinogen to yield angiotensin (Ang-I). Ang-1 is then changed by angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE) into angiotensin II (Ang-II). Using PubMed, Google Scholar, and other means, we searched the peer-reviewed literature from 1990 to 2013 for articles on newly discovered findings related to the RAS, especially focusing on how the system influences the central nervous system (CNS)...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889964/hypotensive-effect-induced-by-microinjection-of-alamandine-a-derivative-of-angiotensin-1-7-into-caudal-ventrolateral-medulla-of-2k1c-hypertensive-rats
#19
E R Soares, C M Barbosa, M J Campagnole-Santos, R A S Santos, A C Alzamora
In the present study we evaluated the cardiovascular effects produced by microinjection of the new component of the renin-angiotensin system, alamandine, into caudal ventrolateral medulla of urethane-anesthetized normotensive and hypertensive 2K1C rats. The participation of different angiotensin receptors in the effects of alamandine was also evaluated. Microinjection of angiotensin-(1-7) was used for comparison. The microinjection of 4, 40 and 140pmol of alamandine or angiotensin-(1-7) into caudal ventrolateral medulla induced similar hypotensive effects in Sham-operated rats...
September 7, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887369/genetic-mechanisms-of-human-hypertension-and-their-implications-for-blood-pressure-physiology
#20
Eric Seidel, Ute I Scholl
Hypertension, or elevated blood pressure, constitutes a major public health burden that affects more than 1 billion people worldwide and contributes to about 9 million deaths annually. Hereditary factors are thought to contribute to up to 50% of interindividual blood pressure variability. Blood pressure in the general population approximately shows a normal distribution and is thought to be a polygenic trait. In rare cases, early-onset hypertension or hypotension are inherited as Mendelian traits. The identification of the underlying Mendelian genes and variants has contributed to our understanding of the physiology of blood pressure regulation, emphasizing renal salt handling and the renin angiotensin aldosterone system as players in the determination of blood pressure...
September 8, 2017: Physiological Genomics
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