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Renin Angiotensin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935537/predictors-of-residual-renal-function-decline-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients-the-balanz-trial
#1
Htay Htay, Yeoungjee Cho, Elaine M Pascoe, Darsy Darssan, Carmel M Hawley, David W Johnson
♦ Objective: Preservation of residual renal function (RRF) is associated with improved survival. The aim of the present study was to identify independent predictors of RRF and urine volume (UV) in incident peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. ♦ Methods: The study included incident PD patients who were balANZ trial participants. The primary and secondary outcomes were RRF and UV, respectively. Both outcomes were analyzed using mixed effects linear regression with demographic data in the first model and PD-related parameters included in a second model...
December 1, 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932705/possible-role-for-glomerular-derived-angiotensinogen-in-nephrotic-syndrome
#2
Mihoko Yamazaki, Yoshiyasu Fukusumi, Mutsumi Kayaba, Yukina Kitazawa, Sayuri Takamura, Ichiei Narita, Hiroshi Kawachi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors reduce glomerular injury and proteinuria, indicating that angiotensin II (Ang II) is involved in glomerular diseases. Although the local RAS is reported to play an essential role in maintaining local tissue functions, the role of the local RAS in regulating glomerular function is not well evaluated. In this study, we analyzed the glomerular expression of RAS components in nephrotic models and the effect of Ang II receptor blockers (ARB) on the expression of angiotensinogen (AGT)...
October 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932117/risk-factors-of-recurrence-of-diabetic-nephropathy-in-renal-transplants
#3
B Rodriguez Cubillo, B Rodriguez, M Calvo, V de la Manzanara, J Bautista, I Perez-Flores, N Calvo, A Moreno, A Shabaka, J Delgado, A I Sanchez-Fructuoso
BACKGROUND: Renal transplantation has been established as the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) due to diabetic nephropathy. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors for recurrence of diabetic nephropathy (RDN) in renal allografts. METHODS: We studied 1,011 renal transplant patients from 1986 to 2003, of which 95 had ESRD due to diabetic nephropathy. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics and outcomes of RDN after renal transplantation...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931559/role-of-cardiac-renin-angiotensin-system-in-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-and-preconditioning-of-heart
#4
REVIEW
Vimal Agrawal, Jeetendra Kumar Gupta, Shaiba Sana Qureshi, Vishal Kumar Vishwakarma
Cardio-vascular diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Ischemia is a state of oxygen deprivation in tissues, whereas reperfusion is restoration of blood flow in ischemic tissues. Myocardial damage of tissue during reperfusion after ischemic insult is known as myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. It induces damage to cardiac muscle via increasing expression of oxygen, sodium and calcium ions which are responsible in the activation of proteases and cell death. Heart renin angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in the myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury...
November 2016: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931556/non-physician-health-workers-for-improving-adherence-to-medications-and-healthy-lifestyle-following-acute-coronary-syndrome-24-month-follow-up-study
#5
Krishna Kumar Sharma, Rajeev Gupta, Mukul Mathur, Vishnu Natani, Sailesh Lodha, Sanjeeb Roy, Denis Xavier
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate usefulness of non-physician health workers (NPHW) to improve adherence to medications and lifestyles following acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: We randomized 100 patients at hospital discharge following ACS to NPHW intervention (n=50) or standard care (n=50) in an open label study. NPHW was trained for interventions to improve adherence to medicines - antiplatelets, β-blockers, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers and statins and healthy lifestyles...
November 2016: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927713/high-fibre-diet-and-acetate-supplementation-change-the-gut-microbiota-and-prevent-the-development-of-hypertension-and-heart-failure-in-doca-salt-hypertensive-mice
#6
Francine Z Marques, Erin M Nelson, Po-Yin Chu, Duncan Horlock, April Fiedler, Mark Ziemann, Jian K Tan, Sanjaya Kuruppu, Niwanthi W Rajapakse, Assam El-Osta, Charles R Mackay, David M Kaye
BACKGROUND: -Dietary intake of fruit and vegetables is associated with lower incidence of hypertension, but the mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. Here we evaluated the effect of a high fibre diet and supplementation with the short-chain fatty acid (SFCA) acetate on the gut microbiota and the prevention of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: -Gut microbiome, cardiorenal structure/function and blood pressure were examined in sham and mineralocorticoid-excess treated mice with a control diet, high fibre diet or acetate supplementation...
December 7, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927648/renin-angiotensin-system-transgenic-mouse-model-recapitulates-pathophysiology-similar-to-human-preeclampsia-with-renal-injury-that-may-be-mediated-through-vegf
#7
J Morgan Denney, Cynthia E Bird, Annette Gendron-Fitzpatrick, Emmanuel Sampene, Ian M Bird, Dinesh M Shah
Using a transgenic cross, we evaluated features of preeclampsia, renal injury and the sFlt1/VEGF changes. Transgenic hAGT and hREN, or wild type (WT) C57Bl/6 mice were cross-bred: ♀hAGT x ♂hREN for preeclampsia (PRE) model and ♀WT x ♂WT for pregnant controls (WTP). Samples were collected for plasma VEGF, sFlt1 and urine albumin. Blood pressures (BP) were monitored by telemetry. Vascular reactivity was investigated by wire myography. Kidneys and placenta were immunostained for sFlt1 and VEGF. Eleven PRE and 9 WTP mice were compared...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927602/acute-change-in-glomerular-filtration-rate-with%C3%A2-inhibition-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-does-not%C3%A2-predict-subsequent-renal-and-cardiovascular%C3%A2-outcomes
#8
Catherine M Clase, Joshua Barzilay, Peggy Gao, Andrew Smyth, Roland E Schmieder, Sheldon Tobe, Koon K Teo, Salim Yusuf, Johannes F E Mann
Initiation of blockade of the renin-angiotensin system may cause an acute decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR): the prognostic significance of this is unknown. We did a post hoc analysis of patients with, or at risk for, vascular disease, in two randomized controlled trials: Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) and the Telmisartan Randomized AssessmeNt Study in ACE iNtolerant participants with cardiovascular Disease (TRANSCEND), whose median follow-up was 56 months...
December 4, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927599/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-amplification-limited-to-the-circulation-does-not-protect-mice-from-development-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#9
Jan Wysocki, Minghao Ye, Ahmed M Khattab, Agnes Fogo, Aline Martin, Nicolae Valentin David, Yashpal Kanwar, Mark Osborn, Daniel Batlle
Blockers of the renin-angiotensin system are effective in the treatment of experimental and clinical diabetic nephropathy. An approach different from blocking the formation or action of angiotensin II (1-8) that could also be effective involves fostering its degradation. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a monocarboxypeptidase that cleaves angiotensin II (1-8) to form angiotensin (1-7). Therefore, we examined the renal effects of murine recombinant ACE2 in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy as well as that of amplification of circulating ACE2 using minicircle DNA delivery prior to induction of experimental diabetes...
December 4, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927187/the-importance-of-proteinuria-and-prior-cardiovascular-disease-in-all-major-clinical-outcomes-of-atherosclerotic-renovascular-disease-a-single-center-observational-study
#10
Diana Vassallo, James Ritchie, Darren Green, Constantina Chrysochou, Joseph Blunt, Philip A Kalra
BACKGROUND: Identification of patients at risk of developing adverse events would enable aggressive medical therapy and possibly targeted revascularization. The aim of this study is to characterize the determinants of long-term outcomes in atherosclerotic renovascular disease (ARVD). METHODS: Patients with a radiological diagnosis of ARVD were recruited into this single-center prospective cohort study between 1986 and 2014. Data collected included baseline co-morbid conditions, annualized prescribed medications and laboratory data (serum creatinine [υmol/L], proteinuria [g/24 h])...
December 7, 2016: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925380/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-polymorphisms-and-postexercise-hypotension-in-hypertensive-medicated-individuals
#11
Karla F Goessler, Marcos D Polito, Gloria de F Mota, Edilamar M de Oliveira, Véronique A Cornelissen
The renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) is associated with diverse physiological responses and adaptations to exercise. The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) 2 has vasodilatory effects, which might be associated with the blood pressure (BP) responses to acute exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ACE2 polymorphisms in postexercise hypotension (PEH). Thirty-four medicated hypertensive (61·3 ± 1·7 years, 76·1 ± 2·7 kg, 160 ± 1·6 cm) men (n = 12) and women (n = 22), participated in a control and a moderate intensity exercise session in a randomized order...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923785/genetic-determination-of-the-vascular-reactions-in-humans-in-response-to-the-diving-reflex
#12
Tatiana I Baranova, Dmitrii N Berlov, Oleg S Glotov, Ekaterina A Korf, Alexey D Minigalin, Alla V Mitrofanova, Ildus I Ahmetov, Andrey S Glotov
The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic mechanisms of the defense vascular reactions in response to the diving reflex in humans with polymorphisms in the genes ADBR2, ACE, AGTR1, BDKRB2, and REN. We hypothesized that protective vascular reactions, in response to the diving reflex, are genetically determined and are distinguished in humans with gene polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin and kinin-bradykinin system. A total of 80 subjects (19±1.4 years) participated in the study. The intensity of the vascular response was estimated using photopletismogram...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919443/importance-of-endogenous-compensatory-vasoactive-peptides-in-broadening-the-effects-of-inhibitors-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-for-the-treatment-of-heart-failure
#13
REVIEW
Milton Packer, John J V McMurray
The magnitude of the clinical benefits produced by inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system in heart failure has been modest, possibly because of the ability of renin-angiotensin activity to escape from suppression during long-term treatment. Efforts to intensify pharmacological blockade by use of dual inhibitors that interfere with the renin-angiotensin system at multiple sites have not yielded consistent incremental clinical benefits, but have been associated with serious adverse reactions. By contrast, potentiation of endogenous compensatory vasoactive peptides can act to enhance the survival effects of inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system, as evidenced by trials that have compared angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors with drugs that inhibit both the renin-angiotensin system and neprilysin...
December 2, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917469/association-of-dysfunctional-synapse-defective-1-syde1-with-restricted-fetal-growth-syde1-regulates-placental-cell-migration-and-invasion
#14
Hsiao-Fan Lo, Ching-Yen Tsai, Chie-Pein Chen, Liang-Jie Wang, Yun-Shien Lee, Chia-Yu Chen, Chung-Tiang Liang, Mei-Leng Cheong, Hungwen Chen
The transcription factor glial cells missing 1 (GCM1) regulates trophoblast differentiation and function during placentation. Decreased GCM1 expression is associated with preeclampsia, suggesting that abnormal expression of GCM1 target genes may contribute to the pathogenesis of pregnancy complications. Here we identified a novel GCM1 target gene, synapse defective 1 (SYDE1), which encodes a RhoGAP that is highly expressed in human placenta, and demonstrated that SYDE1 promotes cytoskeletal remodelling and cell migration and invasion...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916218/fenofibrate-attenuates-malignant-hypertension-by-suppression-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-a-study-in-cyp1a1-ren-2-transgenic-rats
#15
Šárka Jíchová, Šárka Doleželová, Libor Kopkan, Elzbieta Kompanowska-Jezierska, Janusz Sadowski, Luděk Červenka
BACKGROUND: Malignant hypertension is a life-threatening condition, and its pathophysiology is still poorly understood. The present study was designed to evaluate the role of interaction of the renin-angiotensin system with 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), a product of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent ω-hydroxylase pathway, in the pathophysiology of angiotensin II (ANG II)-dependent malignant hypertension in Cyp1a1-Ren-2 transgenic rats. METHODS: Malignant hypertension was induced by 12 days׳ dietary administration of 0...
December 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914612/dexamethasone-induced-diuresis-is-associated-with-inhibition-of-the-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-in-rats
#16
Chao Liu, Ning Ge, Jian-Long Zhai, Jian-Xin Zhang
In heart failure (HF) patients, diuretics remain the cornerstone of therapy to relieve fluid retention. However, the resulting volume loss activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which blunts the decline in volume depletion and blood pressure. RAAS activation, in turn, compromises the diuretic decongesting effect. Although corticosteroids can induce potent diuresis in HF patients, the effects of corticosteroids on RAAS activation remain unclear. Therefore, we assessed the effects of dexamethasone (Dex) on urine output and plasma angiotensin II and aldosterone levels in rats following water deprivation-induced dehydration, following induction of chronic HF (CHF), and following induction of CHF and volume expansion therapy...
December 2016: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913661/effects-of-exendin-4-on-the-intrarenal-renin-angiotensin-system-and-interstitial-fibrosis-in-unilateral-ureteral-obstruction-mice-exendin-4-and-unilateral-ureteral-obstruction
#17
Ying Le, Zongji Zheng, Junyu Xue, Mengling Cheng, Meiping Guan, Yaoming Xue
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to investigate the renoprotecive effects of exendin-4 in a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and explore the putative mechanisms. METHODS: Male Balbc mice underwent sham operation or UUO surgery, and then received intraperitoneal injection of vehicle or exendin-4, respectively. After 14 days, mice were sacrificed and the left kidneys were collected and analyzed by histology, immunohistochemistry, Western blot, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
October 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910864/renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-gene-polymorphisms-in-gestational-hypertension-and-preeclampsia-a-case-control-gene-association-study
#18
Xun Li, Hongzhuan Tan, Shujin Zhou, Shimin Hu, Tianyi Zhang, Yangfen Li, Qianru Dou, Zhiwei Lai, Fenglei Chen
Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH, including preeclampsia [PE] and gestational hypertension [GH]) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have some metabolic changes and risk factors in common. Many studies have reported associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) genes and CVDs (particularly hypertension), and their findings have provided candidate SNPs for research on genetic correlates of PIH. We explored the association between hypertension-related RAAS SNPs and PIH in a Chinese population...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909476/atrial-fibrillation-and-risk-of-dementia-cognitive-decline
#19
REVIEW
Anand D Shah Md, Faisal M Merchant Md, David B Delurgio Md
Emerging evidence suggests a link between atrial fibrillation and subsequent development of dementia. While a majority of risk can be attributed to cardioembolic stroke secondary to atrial fibrillation, additional risk is apparent, and may be driven by vascular inflammation and changes in cerebral perfusion. Medical therapies including anticoagulation, statin therapy, and angiotensin-renin-aldosterone axis antagonists may reduce dementia risk. Procedural therapies such as atrial fibrillation catheter ablation and left atrial appendage closure may also prove to be important mediators of acute and long-term risk...
February 2016: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906842/spironolactone-and-the-risk-of-urinary-tract-cancer-in-patients-with-hypertension-a-nationwide-population-based-retrospective-case-control-study
#20
Ya-Wen Chuang, Mei-Ching Yu, Shih-Ting Huang, Cheng-Kuang Yang, Cheng-Hsu Chen, Ying-Chih Lo, Cheng-Li Lin, Kuo-Hsiung Shu, Tung-Min Yu, Chia-Hung Kao
AIM: This was a nationwide study by National Health Insurance Research Database to investigate the risk of urinary tract cancers (UTCs) for renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors including spironolactone. METHODS: A total of 32 167 UTC patients with hypertension were enrolled in the National Health Insurance program between 2005 and 2011. RESULTS: Among different subclasses of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for UTC risk was 1...
January 2017: Journal of Hypertension
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