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Renin Angiotensin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331653/gallic-acid-attenuates-type-i-diabetic-nephropathy-in-rats
#1
Mayuresh Sudamrao Garud, Yogesh Anant Kulkarni
Literatures suggest that TGF-β1 have a central role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy and its down regulation can improve the disease condition. Oxidative stress, generation of advanced glycation end products and activation of renin angiotensin system are the connecting links between hyperglycemia and TGF-β1 over expression. Gallic acid is a phytochemical having wide range of biological activities. Gallic acid is reported to have antioxidant and advanced glycation inhibitory activity. It has also shown inhibitory effects on angiotensin converting enzyme...
January 10, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331564/direct-renin-inhibition-is-not-enough-to-prevent-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-and-vascular-dysfunction-in-renovascular-hypertension
#2
Alisson Martins-Oliveira, Danielle A Guimaraes, Carla S Ceron, Elen Rizzi, Diogo M M Oliveira, Carlos R Tirapelli, Dulce E Casarini, Fernanda B Fernandes, Lucas C Pinheiro, Jose E Tanus-Santos
Renin-angiotensin system activation promotes oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. However, no previous study has examined the effects of the renin inhibitior aliskiren, either alone or combined with angiotensin II type 1 antagonists on alterations induced by two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) hypertension. We compared the vascular effects of aliskiren (50mg/kg/day), losartan (10mg/kg/day), or both by gavage for 4 weeks in 2K1C and control rats. Treatment with losartan, aliskiren, or both exerted similar antihypertensive effects...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331505/successful-treatment-of-anti-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-antibody-associated-rejection-in-kidney-transplantation-a-case-report
#3
P Wiwattanathum, A Ingsathit, D Thammanichanond, S Worawichawong
Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antibody, a non-HLA antibody, has been found to have a detrimental effect on kidney allografts. Similarly to HLA antibodies, recipients who have AT1R antibodies are at risk for allograft rejection and poor long-term graft outcome. Besides mediating allograft rejections via direct effects on endothelial and vascular smooth muscle without complement activation, AT1R antibodies may lead to accelerated hypertension via the renin-angiotensin pathway. There has been no definite level of AT1R antibody that predicts allograft rejection...
January 10, 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328025/the-peculiarities-of-the-state-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-estimated-by-the-method-of-heart-rate-variability-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-and-syntropic-damages-of-cardiovascular-system
#4
O Abrahamovych, M Abrahamovych, M Farmaha, S Tolopko
In the article the features of the autonomic nervous system state were estimated by the method of heart rate variability in patients with cirrhosis with syntropic damages of cardiovascular system - cardiomyopathy and arterial hypotension. As a result of an examination of 50 patients with liver cirrhosis and cardiomyopathy (investigational group A), 54 patients with liver cirrhosis and arterial hypotension (investigational group B), and 45 patients with liver cirrhosis also those who don't have the damages of cardiovascular system (group of comparison) it was established that: 1) they have the peculiarities of vegetative imbalance the characteristics of which are the low summarized activity of vegetative influence on heart rhythm and special dynamics of indexes of percentage structure of general spectral power; 2) they depend on the clinical variant of this damage - in patients with cirrhosis and syntropic cardiomyopathy the regulating of internal processes involve the humoral-metabolic influence, i...
December 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327797/potassium-and-the-use-of-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-inhibitors-in-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction-data-from-biostat-chf
#5
Joost C Beusekamp, Jasper Tromp, Haye H van der Wal, Stefan D Anker, John G Cleland, Kenneth Dickstein, Gerasimos Filippatos, Pim van der Harst, Hans L Hillege, Chim C Lang, Marco Metra, Leong L Ng, Piotr Ponikowski, Nilesh J Samani, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Aeilko H Zwinderman, Patrick Rossignol, Faiez Zannad, Adriaan A Voors, Peter van der Meer
BACKGROUND: Hyperkalaemia is a common co-morbidity in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Whether it affects the use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors and thereby negatively impacts outcome is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the association between potassium and uptitration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) and its association with outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Out of 2516 patients from the BIOSTAT-CHF study, potassium levels were available in 1666 patients with HFrEF...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326280/autoantibodies-against-angiotensin-and-adrenergic-receptors-more-than-a-biomarker
#6
Rugina Neuman, A H Jan Danser
Agonistic autoantibodies (AAs) directed against receptors of the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system have been suggested to contribute to cardiovascular and renal disease, in particular hypertension, preeclampsia, and graft failure in kidney transplantation patients. Consequently, they are now also being studied as biomarker for these conditions. This commentary summarizes our current understanding of these AAs, critically discussing whether they truly act as agonist, and focusing on the wide array of assays that are currently used for their quantification...
January 16, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325636/left-atrial-appendage-closure-and-systemic-homeostasis-the-laa-homeostasis-study
#7
Dhanunjaya Lakkireddy, Mohit Turagam, Muhammad Rizwan Afzal, Johnson Rajasingh, Donita Atkins, Buddhadeb Dawn, Luigi Di Biase, Krzysztof Bartus, Saibal Kar, Andrea Natale, David J Holmes
BACKGROUND: The impact of left atrial appendage (LAA) exclusion, comparing an epicardial LAA or an endocardial LAA device, on systemic homeostasis remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study compared the effects of epicardial or endocardial LAA devices on the neurohormonal profiles of patients, emphasizing the roles of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the autonomic nervous system. METHODS: This is a prospective, single-center, observational study including 77 patients who underwent LAA closure by an epicardial (n = 38) or endocardial (n = 39) device...
January 16, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321380/renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-activation-in-long-standing-type-1-diabetes
#8
Julie A Lovshin, Geneviève Boulet, Yuliya Lytvyn, Leif E Lovblom, Petter Bjornstad, Mohammed A Farooqi, Vesta Lai, Leslie Cham, Josephine Tse, Andrej Orszag, Daniel Scarr, Alanna Weisman, Hillary A Keenan, Michael H Brent, Narinder Paul, Vera Bril, Bruce A Perkins, David Zi Cherney
BACKGROUND: In type 1 diabetes (T1D), adjuvant treatment with inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which dilate the efferent arteriole, is associated with prevention of progressive albuminuria and renal dysfunction. Uncertainty still exists as to why some individuals with long-standing T1D develop diabetic kidney disease (DKD) while others do not (DKD resistors). We hypothesized that those with DKD would be distinguished from DKD resistors by the presence of RAAS activation...
January 11, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321218/non-uniform-relationship-between-salt-status-and-aldosterone-activity-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#9
Alison H M Taylor, Alastair J Rankin, Emily P McQuarrie, E Marie Freel, Natalie Z M Homer, Ruth Andrew, Alan G Jardine, Patrick B Mark
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Studies suggest that reduction in dietary salt intake reduces blood pressure (BP). We studied relationships between salt intake, BP and renin angiotensin system regulation in order to establish if it is disordered in CKD. METHODS: Mechanistic crossover study of CKD patients versus non-CKD controls. Participants underwent modified saline suppression test prior to randomisation to either low or high salt diet for 5 days and then crossed over to the alternate diet...
January 10, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319008/cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-noise-exposed-workers-in-china-small-area-study
#10
Xiaoyuan Wu, Daya Yang, Wendong Fan, Chunyue Fan, Guifu Wu
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether there are changes in cardiovascular risk factors among noise-exposed workers and to explore the possible mechanisms of a long-term noise exposure leading to cardiovascular disease and the sex differences of cardiovascular risk factors in this population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred workers engaged in noise-related work, and a control group of 200 nonnoise-exposed workers hospitalized for occupational health examination were assigned into the study...
November 2017: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317587/-progress-in-the-study-on-roles-of-cathepsin-in-hypertension
#11
Zhouyangfan Peng, Yapei Li, Pingyu Zeng, Xiaohui Li
Cardiovascular remodeling or dysfunction-induced abnormal cardiac output, blood volume and peripheral vascular resistance is an important pathophysiological mechanism for the occurrence and development of hypertension. Cathepsins are widely expressed in human various tissue and cells and they are involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension through activation of renin - angiotensin system, degradation of cytoplasmic matrix, proliferation of smooth muscle cell and hypertrophy of myocyte. The clinical studies have found that cathepsins can be used as a biomarker for hypertension...
December 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310997/neurohormonal-imbalance-a-neglected-problem-and-potential-therapeutic-target-in-acute-heart-failure
#12
Steven R Goldsmith, Bradley A Bart, Ileana L Piña
Decompensated or acute heart failure (AHF) is characterized by increased ventricular and atrial pressures which may lead to and be caused by circulatory congestion. Unless due to a primary decrease in cardiac function, congestion arises from volume expansion or vasoconstriction. In turn, volume expansion and vasoconstriction are due to neurohormonal imbalance since both result from activation of the sympathetic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis and excess secretion of arginine vasopressin...
December 16, 2017: Current Problems in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310811/effect-of-renin-angiotensin-system-inhibitors-on-survival-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Ya-Mei Jiang, Tu-Run Song, Yang Qiu, Jin-Peng Liu, Xian-Ding Wang, Zhong-Li Huang, Tao Lin
Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, specifically angiotensin II converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), have confirmed renoprotective benefits in patients with proteinuria and hypertension. However, it remains controversial whether these agents are beneficial to kidney recipients. We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of ACEI/ARB treatment on patient and allograft survival after kidney transplant. The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were searched for eligible articles from before May 2016, and we included 24 articles (9 randomised controlled trials [RCTs] and 15 cohort studies with 54,096 patients), in which patient or graft survival was compared between an ACEI/ARB treatment arm and a control arm...
January 2018: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305157/enhanced-angiotensin-ii-induced-sodium-appetite-in-renovascular-hypertensive-rats
#14
Camila F Roncari, Rafaela M Barbosa, Regina C Vendramini, Laurival A De Luca, José V Menani, Eduardo Colombari, Débora S A Colombari
Renovascular hypertensive 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K1C) rats have an increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system and an initial transitory increase in daily water and NaCl intake. However, the dipsogenic and natriorexigenic responses to angiotensin II (ANG II) have not been tested yet in 2K1C rats. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated water and 0.3 M NaCl intake induced by water deprivation (WD)-partial rehydration (PR) or intracerebroventricular (icv) ANG II in 2K1C rats. In addition, the cardiovascular changes to these treatments were also evaluated...
January 2, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305116/urine-albumin-is-a-superior-predictor-of-preeclampsia-compared-to-urine-plasminogen-in-type-i-diabetes-patients
#15
Lise Hald Nielsen, Boye L Jensen, Jens Fuglsang, Lise Lotte Torvin Andersen, Dorte Møller Jensen, Jan Stener Jørgensen, Gitte Kitlen, Per Ovesen
Pregnant women with type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are at increased risk of developing preeclampsia (PE). Plasminogen is aberrantly filtrated from plasma into tubular fluid in PE patients and activated to plasmin. Plasmin activates the epithelial sodium channel in the collecting ducts potentially causing impaired sodium excretion, suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and hypertension in PE. The objective of the study was to test whether urinary total plasmin(ogen)/creatinine ratio and plasma concentration of aldosterone were better predictors of PE in pregnant women with T1DM compared with urine albumin and haemoglobin A1C...
December 13, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303601/the-effect-of-adrenalectomy-on-exercise-response-of-the-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-and-exercise-tolerance-in-primary-aldosteronism
#16
V Tuka, M Matoulek, J Rosa, O Petrák, O Mikeš, Z Krátká, B Štrauch, R Holaj, T Zelinka, J Widimský
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is associated with objectively measured lower physical fitness and blunted response of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system to exercise. The purpose of this pilot study was to objectively measure exercise response of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and cardiopulmonary fitness changes after laparoscopic adrenalectomy (ADE) in patients with unilateral PA. We examined a total of 14 patients with confirmed PA before and after ADE, by means of spiroergometry and hormonal evaluation...
January 5, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301853/-pro-renin-receptor-inhibition-reprograms-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-and-protects-mice-from-diet-induced-obesity-and-hepatosteatosis
#17
Liwei Ren, Yuan Sun, Hong Lu, Dien Ye, Lijuan Han, Na Wang, Alan Daugherty, Furong Li, Miaomiao Wang, Fengting Su, Wenjun Tao, Jie Sun, Noam Zelcer, Adam E Mullick, Ah J Danser, Yizhou Jiang, Yongcheng He, Xiongzhong Ruan, Xifeng Lu
Rationale: An elevated level of plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Recently, we reported that the (pro)renin receptor ([P]RR) regulates LDL metabolism in vitro via the LDL receptor (LDLR) and SORT1, independently of the renin-angiotensin system. Objective: To investigate the physiological role of [P]RR in lipid metabolism in vivo. Methods and Results: We used N-Acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) modified antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) to specifically inhibit hepatic [P]RR expression in C57BL/6J mice, and studied the consequences this has on lipid metabolism...
January 4, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301757/prior-medications-and-the-cardiovascular-benefits-from-combination-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibition-plus-calcium-channel-blockade-among-high-risk-hypertensive-patients
#18
Robert D Brook, Niko Kaciroti, George Bakris, Björn Dahlöf, Bertram Pitt, Eric Velazquez, Michael Weber, Dion H Zappe, Tsushung Hau, Kenneth A Jamerson
BACKGROUND: The ACCOMPLISH (Avoiding Cardiovascular Events Through Combination Therapy in Patients Living with Systolic Hypertension) trial demonstrated that combination therapy using amlodipine, rather than hydrochlorothiazide, in conjunction with benazepril provided greater cardiovascular risk reduction among high-risk hypertensive patients. Few trials have evaluated the effect of prior antihypertensive therapy used among participants on the study outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a post hoc observational analysis, we examined the characteristics of the drug regimens taken before trial enrollment in the context of the primary composite outcome (death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, hospitalization for angina, resuscitation after sudden cardiac death, and coronary revascularization)...
January 4, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300219/the-effect-of-a-non-peptide-angiotensin-ii-type-2-receptor-agonist-compound-21-on-aortic-aneurysm-growth-in-a-mouse-model-of-marfan-syndrome
#19
Peter Verbrugghe, Jelle Verhoeven, Marnick Clijsters, Dominique Vervoort, Jarne Schepens, Bart Meuris, Paul Herijgers
IntroductionAvailable evidence suggests that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system is a good target for medical intervention on aortic root dilatation in Marfan syndrome (MFS). The effect of Compound 21 (C21), a non-peptide angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) agonist on aneurysm progression is was tested.MethodsMice with a mutation in fibrillin-1 (Fbn1C1039G/+) and wild-type (WT) mice were treated with vehicle, losartan, C21, enalapril or a combination. Blood pressure, aortic root diameter, and histological slides were evaluated...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296205/angiotensin-ii-receptor-type-1-a1166c-modifies-the-association-between-angiotensinogen-m235t-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
Sui-Lung Su, Wei-Teing Chen, Po-Jen Hsiao, Kuo-Cheng Lu, Yuh-Feng Lin, Chin Lin, Wen Su, Shih-Jen Yeh, Hung Chang, Fu-Huang Lin
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in renin-angiotensin system (RAS) genes are associated with RAS imbalance and chronic kidney disease (CKD). We performed a case-control study and meta-analysis to investigate the association between angiotensinogen (AGT) M235T polymorphism and CKD. A total of 634 patients with end-stage renal disease and 739 healthy controls were studied. We also searched PubMed and the Cochrane Library to identify prospective observational studies published before December 2015. We found that the TT and MT genotypes were associated with a higher risk of CKD than the MM genotype (odds ratio [OR]: 3...
December 8, 2017: Oncotarget
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