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Renin Angiotensin

Godela M Brosnahan, Kaleab Z Abebe, Charity G Moore, Kyongtae T Bae, William E Braun, Arlene B Chapman, Michael F Flessner, Peter C Harris, Marie C Hogan, Ronald D Perrone, Frederic F Rahbari-Oskoui, Theodore I Steinman, Vicente E Torres, The Halt Pkd Investigators
BACKGROUND: The HALT PKD trial in early autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) showed that intensive control of systolic blood pressure to 95-110 mmHg was associated with a 14% slower rate of kidney volume growth compared to standard control. It is unclear whether this result was due to greater blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) by allowing the use of higher drug doses in the low blood pressure arm, or due to the lower blood pressure per se. METHODS: In this secondary analysis of HALT PKD Study A, we categorized participants into high and low dose groups based on the median daily equivalent dose of RAAS blocking drugs used after the initial dose titration period...
March 21, 2018: Current Hypertension Reviews
Maha Mohamed Sabry, Manal Moustafa Mahmoud, Heba Samy Shoukry, Laila Rashed, Samaa Samir Kamar, Mona Mohamed Ahmed
Apelin and its receptor (APJ) are involved in the regulation of a variety of pathophysiological processes. We studied the effect of apelin treatment on obesity-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and possible interaction between apelin/APJ system and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Forty eight male albino rats were divided into two groups: control group and diabetic group. Diabetic group was subdivided into: control diabetic, apelin-treated, apelin + losartan-treated, apelin + l-NAME-treated and losartan-treated diabetic subgroup...
March 22, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Fumihiro Sanada, Yoshiaki Taniyama, Jun Muratsu, Rei Otsu, Hideo Shimizu, Hiromi Rakugi, Ryuichi Morishita
Aging is a complex process that results from a combination of environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors. A chronic pro-inflammatory status is a pervasive feature of aging. This chronic low-grade inflammation occurring in the absence of overt infection has been defined as "inflammaging" and represents a significant risk factor for morbidity and mortality in the elderly. The low-grade inflammation persists even after reversing pro-inflammatory stimuli such as LDL cholesterol and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS)...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Stephanie A Segovia, Mark H Vickers, Claudia J Harrison, Rachna Patel, Clint Gray, Clare M Reynolds
Maternal high-fat or high-salt diets can independently program adverse cardiometabolic outcomes in offspring. However, there is a paucity of evidence examining their effects in combination on metabolic function in adult offspring. Female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either: control (CD; 10% kcal from fat, 1% NaCl), high-salt (SD; 10% kcal from fat, 4% NaCl), high-fat (HF; 45% kcal from fat, 1% NaCl) or high-fat and salt (HFSD; 45% kcal from fat, 4% NaCl) diets 21 days prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Sarah Zaheer, Kiara Taquechel, Jenifer M Brown, Gail K Adler, Jonathan S Williams, Anand Vaidya
BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggest that vitamin D therapy may decrease cardiovascular disease risk in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) by lowering renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity. However, randomized human intervention studies to evaluate the effect of vitamin D receptor (VDR) agonists on RAS activity are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to investigate the effect of direct VDR activation with calcitriol on circulating RAS activity and vascular hemodynamics in T2DM...
January 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Patrick Gavin Kehoe
There is wide recognition of a complex association between midlife hypertension and cardiovascular disease and later development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cognitive impairment. While significant progress has been made in reducing rates of mortality and morbidity due to cardiovascular disease over the last thirty years, progress towards effective treatments for AD has been slower. Despite the known association between hypertension and dementia, research into each disease has largely been undertaken in parallel and independently...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Z Y Zhang, L L Qian, J Zheng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 24, 2018: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
Zhenhua Miao, Linda S Ertl, Dale Newland, Bin Zhao, Yu Wang, Xiaoping Zang, James J Campbell, Xiaoli Liu, Ton Dang, Shichang Miao, Antoni Krasinski, Sreenivas Punna, Yibin Zeng, Jeffrey McMahon, Penglie Zhang, Israel F Charo, Thomas J Schall, Rajinder Singh
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) comprises a group of uncommon disorders that present with marked proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome, progressive renal failure and characteristic glomerular lesions on histopathology. The current standard of care for patients with FSGS include immunosuppressive drugs such as glucocorticoids followed by calcineurin inhibitors, if needed for intolerance or inadequate response to glucocorticoids. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) blockers are also used to control proteinuria, an important signature of FSGS...
2018: PloS One
Hao Chan, Hsuan-Shun Huang, Der-Shan Sun, Chung-Jen Lee, Te-Sheng Lien, Hsin-Hou Chang
Mechanisms underlying cold-induced immunosuppression remain unclear. Here we found that cold exposure leads to transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8)-dependent, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)-mediated hypertension, which subsequently induces small molecule and fluid extravasation, increases plasma Ig levels, and elicits immunosuppression. An effect is similar to the clinically-used immunosuppressive treatments of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) against various inflammatory diseases, such as immune thrombocytopenia (ITP)...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
Chung-I Lin, Chin-Hung Tsai, Yu-Ling Sun, Wen-Yeh Hsieh, Yi-Chang Lin, Cheng-Yi Chen, Chih-Sheng Lin
Inhaled particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5 ) can cause lung injury by inducing serious inflammation in lung tissue. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung diseases and regulates inflammatory response. Angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2), which is produced through the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/angiotensin II (Ang II) axis, protects against lung disease. However, few studies have focused on the relationships between PM2.5 and ACE2. Therefore, we aimed to explore the role of ACE2 in PM2...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Renata Świątkowska-Stodulska, Piotr Kmieć, Katarzyna Stefańska, Krzysztof Sworczak
Hypertension occurs in 7-10% of pregnant women. Despite the continuous development of medicine, it is still an important risk factor for perinatal mortality of both mothers and fetuses. Pregnant women with hypertension are at greater risk of complications such as: placental abruption, cerebral and cardiac incidents, multiorgan failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The aim of this review was to discuss multilevel disorders of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the etiopathogenesis of pregnancy-induced hypertension...
March 20, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Se Hee Min, Se Hong Kim, In Kyung Jeong, Ho Chan Cho, Jin Ok Jeong, Ju Hee Lee, Hyun Jae Kang, Hyo Soo Kim, Kyong Soo Park, Soo Lim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A relationship between renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components and metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been suggested, but not elucidated clearly. We examined the levels of RAS components in patients with and without MetS and their association with MetS in Korean population. METHODS: This study was approved by the review boards of the participating institutions and endorsed by the Korean Society of Lipid and Atherosclerosis. We screened 892 Koreans aged ≥20 years who underwent evaluation of hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia at 6 tertiary hospitals in 2015-2016...
March 2018: Korean Circulation Journal
Ewa Szczepanska-Sadowska, Katarzyna Czarzasta, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In many instances, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the vasopressinergic system (VPS) are jointly activated by the same stimuli and engaged in the regulation of the same processes. RECENT FINDINGS: Angiotensin II (Ang II) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), which are the main active compounds of the RAS and the VPS, interact at several levels. Firstly, Ang II, acting on AT1 receptors (AT1R), plays a significant role in the release of AVP from vasopressinergic neurons and AVP, stimulating V1a receptors (V1aR), regulates the release of renin in the kidney...
March 19, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Tejas K Patel, Parvati B Patel
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of mortality among patients due to adverse drug reactions that lead to hospitalisation (fatal ADRAd ), to explore the heterogeneity in its estimation through subgroup analysis of study characteristics, and to identify system-organ classes involved and causative drugs for fatal ADRAd . METHODS: We identified prospective ADRAd -related studies via screening of the PubMed and Google Scholar databases with appropriate key terms...
March 19, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Mitsuru Ohishi
Elevated blood pressure is closely related to increased circulatory fluid volume and peripheral vascular resistance. Patients with diabetes mellitus experience increased peripheral artery resistance caused by vascular remodeling and increased body fluid volume associated with insulin resistance-induced hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. Both of these mechanisms elevate systemic blood pressure. Thus, fully understanding the pathophysiology of hypertension in diabetes mellitus requires knowing the natural history of type 2 diabetes...
March 19, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Csaba P Kovesdy, Kunihiro Matsushita, Yingying Sang, Nigel J Brunskill, Juan J Carrero, Gabriel Chodick, Takeshi Hasegawa, Hiddo L Heerspink, Atsushi Hirayama, Gijs W D Landman, Adeera Levin, Dorothea Nitsch, David C Wheeler, Josef Coresh, Stein I Hallan, Varda Shalev, Morgan E Grams
Aims: Both hypo- and hyperkalaemia can have immediate deleterious physiological effects, and less is known about long-term risks. The objective was to determine the risks of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and end-stage renal disease associated with potassium levels across the range of kidney function and evaluate for consistency across cohorts in a global consortium. Methods and results: We performed an individual-level data meta-analysis of 27 international cohorts [10 general population, 7 high cardiovascular risk, and 10 chronic kidney disease (CKD)] in the CKD Prognosis Consortium...
March 14, 2018: European Heart Journal
Suolin Zhang, Yayan Wang
Expression of angiotensin II (Ang II), a key biological peptide in the renin-angiotensin system, is closely associated with the occurrence and development of cancer. Ang II binds two receptor subtypes, the Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and the AT2R, to mediate a series of biological effects. Telmisartan, a specific AT1R blocker, has been reported to have potential as an anticancer drug for treating renal cancer. In the present study, whether telmisartan had an effect on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell proliferation and migration was investigated...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Cassiano R A F Diniz, Plinio C Casarotto, Senem M Fred, Caroline Biojone, Eero Castrén, Sâmia R L Joca
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is associated with peripheral fluid homeostasis and cardiovascular function, but recent evidence also suggests a functional role in the brain. RAS regulates physiological and behavioral parameters related to the stress response, including depressive symptoms. Apparently, RAS can modulate levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and TRKB, which are important in the neurobiology of depression and antidepressant action. However, the interaction between the BDNF/TRKB system and RAS in depression has not been investigated before...
March 14, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Yanan Zhu, Na Zuo, Bin Li, Ying Xiong, Haiyun Chen, Hangyuan He, Zhaoxia Sun, Shuangshuang Hu, Hui Cheng, Ying Ao, Hui Wang
This study aimed to prove that prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) can induce nephrotic syndrome in male rat offspring and to explore the underlying intrauterine programming mechanisms. Pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered ethanol (4 g/kg d) from gestational day (GD) 9 to GD 20, and the male fetuses were delivered by cesarean section at GD20 and the male adult offspring were euthanized at postnatal week (PW) 24. In vitro, the primary metanephric mesenchyme cells were treated with ethanol at concentrations of 15-60 mM...
March 13, 2018: Toxicology
Marieke A Hillaert, Hester M den Ruijter, Imo E Hoefer, Eef G Lentjes, Gert J de Borst, Jean-Paul P M de Vries, Pieter A Doevendans, Gerard Pasterkamp, Leo Timmers
BACKGROUND: The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is increasingly being recognized to play an important role in the development and clinical course of cardiovascular diseases. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation is associated with clinical outcome in various populations of cardiovascular patients, such as patients with coronary artery, peripheral artery, and cerebrovascular disease. In this study, we investigated the associations between plasma renin and aldosterone concentrations and atherosclerotic plaque characteristics and secondary vascular events in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
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