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Cognitive prognostication

Isabel Santana, Inês Baldeiras, Beatriz Santiago, Diana Duro, Sandra Freitas, Miguel Tábuas Pereira, Maria Rosário Almeida, Catarina Resende Oliveira
The amyloid cascade hypothesis proposes amyloid-β (Aβ) as the earliest and key pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but this mandatory "amyloid-first pathway" has been contested. Longitudinal studies of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients represent an opportunity to investigate the intensity of underlying biological processes (amyloidosis versus neurodegeneration) and their relevance for progression to AD. We re-examined our cohort of amnestic MCI, grouped according to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, aiming at establishing their prognostic value for Alzheimer-type dementia and testing the hypothetical model of biomarkers sequence, based on the amyloid cascade...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Nicholas I Bradfield, Kathryn A Ellis, Greg Savage, Paul Maruff, Samantha Burnham, David Darby, Nicola T Lautenschlager, Ralph N Martins, Colin L Masters, Stephanie R Rainey-Smith, Joanne Robertson, Christopher Rowe, Michael Woodward, David Ames
BACKGROUND: Given the long preclinical disease course of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology, novel treatments may be more efficacious if administered before the emergence of dementia. Thus, accurate prediction of who will develop AD dementia is of key importance in selecting individuals for trials of treatment and may become crucial for future selection of patients for therapy. METHODS: As part of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Flagship Study of Ageing, 901 individuals who did not have dementia were recruited...
March 20, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Brandon P Vasquez, Jennifer C Tomaszczyk, Bhanu Sharma, Brenda Colella, Robin E A Green
BACKGROUND: Executive control deficits are deleterious and enduring consequences of moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) that disrupt everyday functioning. Clinically, such impairments can manifest as behavioural inconsistency, measurable experimentally by the degree of variability across trials of a reaction time (RT) task (also known as intraindividual variability [IIV]). Growing research on cognition after TBI points to cognitive deterioration in the chronic stages postinjury...
March 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Geor Bakker, Claudia Vingerhoets, Daphne Boucherie, Matthan Caan, Oswald Bloemen, Jos Eersels, Jan Booij, Thérèse van Amelsvoort
Background: It is still unclear which underlying mechanisms are involved in cognitive deficits of psychotic disorders. Pro-cognitive effects of muscarinic M1 receptor agonists suggest alterations in M1 receptor functioning may modulate these symptoms. Post mortem studies in patients with schizophrenia have shown significantly reduced M1 receptor expression rates in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) compared to controls. To date no in-vivo examinations of M1 receptor binding in relation to cognitive impairments have been done...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Inês Baldeiras, Isabel Santana, Maria João Leitão, Helena Gens, Rui Pascoal, Miguel Tábuas-Pereira, José Beato-Coelho, Diana Duro, Maria Rosário Almeida, Catarina Resende Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers have been used to increase the evidence of underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, CSF biomarker-based classification often results in conflicting profiles with controversial prognostic value. Normalization of the CSF Aβ42 concentration to the level of total amyloid beta (Aβ), using the Aβ42/40 ratio, has been shown to improve the distinction between AD and non-AD dementia. Therefore, we evaluated whether the Aβ42/40 ratio would improve MCI categorization and more accurately predict progression to AD...
March 20, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
C Herrmann-Lingen
BACKGROUND: Depression is a frequent comorbidity in chronic heart failure. It can be triggered by the experience of suffering from heart disease, but it can also play a causal role in accelerated development and poor prognosis of heart failure. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the interrelationships between heart failure and depression and the psychophysiological and behavioral mechanisms involved in this association. The effects of comorbid depression on quality of life in patients with heart failure were also examined and therapeutic options reviewed...
March 20, 2018: Der Internist
Nelly Agrinier, Marie-Line Erpelding, Carlos Labat, Sylvie Gautier, Francis Guillemin, Athanase Benetos
The objectives were to identify trajectories of nutrition, cognitive function and autonomy over time in very old adults and to assess their impact on mortality. A cohort, including subjects aged≥80 years in 2007-2008, who were followed for 5 years, in 72 Italian and French nursing homes, was used for post-hoc analyses. Body mass index (BMI), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), and index of activities of daily living (ADL) were assessed at 4 time points. Vital status was collected during the follow-up. Latent trajectory and Cox models were used...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Virginia Quick, Jennifer Martin-Biggers, Gayle Alleman Povis, John Worobey, Nobuko Hongu, Carol Byrd-Bredbenner
This study examined long-term follow-up effects of participation in the HomeStyles RCT, using Social Cognitive Theory constructs, on physical activity cognitions, home environment, and lifestyle behavioral practices of families with preschool children (ages 2 to 5 years). Parents were systematically randomized to experimental or attention control group at baseline. Those completing all surveys that comprised of valid, reliable measures were the analytic sample (n = 61 experimental, n = 63 control; mean age 32...
March 13, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Young Hak Roh, Young Do Koh, Jong Oh Kim, Kyu Ho Lee, Hyun Sik Gong, Goo Hyun Baek
BACKGROUND: Postoperative pillar pain (deep-seated wrist pain worsened by leaning on the heel of the hand) sometimes occurs after carpal tunnel release (CTR), leading to weakness in the hand and delayed return to work. Increased pain sensitivity has been found to be associated with worse symptoms and poorer treatment response in a number of chronic musculoskeletal conditions, but few studies have investigated the association of pain sensitization with pillar pain after CTR. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Is preoperative pain sensitization in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) associated with increased severity of pillar pain after open CTR? (2) What other demographic, electrophysiological, or preoperative clinical characteristics are associated with pillar pain after CTR? METHODS: Over a 35-month period, one surgeon performed 162 open carpal tunnel releases...
April 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Janette L Vardy, Haryana Mary Dhillon, Gregory R Pond, Corrinne Renton, Stephen J Clarke, Ian F Tannock
Background: Inflammation promotes the development of malignancy, while a variety of systemic markers of inflammation predict for worse cancer outcomes including recurrence and survival. Here, we evaluate the prognostic impact of cytokine concentrations, full blood count (FBC) differential ratios, cognitive function and fatigue on survival in patients with localised colorectal cancer (CRC). Patients and methods: Data are from a prospective longitudinal study comparing cognitive function and fatigue in patients with CRC who did (n=173) and did not (n=116) receive adjuvant/neoadjuvant chemotherapy...
2018: ESMO Open
Dominic B Dwyer, Carlos Cabral, Lana Kambeitz-Ilankovic, Rachele Sanfelici, Joseph Kambeitz, Vince Calhoun, Peter Falkai, Christos Pantelis, Eva Meisenzahl, Nikolaos Koutsouleris
Identifying distinctive subtypes of schizophrenia could ultimately enhance diagnostic and prognostic accuracy. We aimed to uncover neuroanatomical subtypes of chronic schizophrenia patients to test whether stratification can enhance computer-aided discrimination of patients from control subjects. Unsupervised, data-driven clustering of structural MRI (sMRI) data was used to identify 2 subtypes of schizophrenia patients drawn from a US-based open science repository (n = 71) and we quantified classification improvements compared to controls (n = 74) using supervised machine learning...
February 26, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
R L van den Brink, S Nieuwenhuis, G J M van Boxtel, G van Luijtelaar, H J Eilander, V J M Wijnen
For some patients, coma is followed by a state of unresponsiveness, while other patients develop signs of awareness. In practice, detecting signs of awareness may be hindered by possible impairments in the patient's motoric, sensory, or cognitive abilities, resulting in a substantial proportion of misdiagnosed disorders of consciousness. Task-free paradigms that are independent of the patient's sensorimotor and neurocognitive abilities may offer a solution to this challenge. A limitation of previous research is that the large majority of studies on the pathophysiological processes underlying disorders of consciousness have been conducted using cross-sectional designs...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Lorenzo Nanetti, Valeria Elisa Contarino, Anna Castaldo, Lidia Sarro, Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Levi, Maria Giavazzi, Serena Frittoli, Andrea Ciammola, Elena Rizzo, Cinzia Gellera, Maria Grazia Bruzzone, Franco Taroni, Marina Grisoli, Caterina Mariotti
BACKGROUND: Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder most commonly manifesting in adulthood. Identification of biomarkers tracking neurodegeneration before the onset of motor symptoms is important for future interventional studies. Our study aimed to contribute in the phenotypic characterization of the premanifest HD phase. METHODS: 28 premanifest subjects (preHD), 25 age-matched controls, and 12 manifest HD patients were enrolled for the study...
February 23, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Kristi G Bache, Maren Ranhoff Hov, Karianne Larsen, Volker Moræus Solyga, Christian G Lund
BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a medical emergency. The outcome is closely linked to the time elapsing from symptom onset to treatment, and seemingly small delays can mean the difference between full recovery and physical and cognitive dysfunction. Recanalization to allow blood to reenter the affected area is most efficient immediately after symptoms occur, and intravenous thrombolysis must be initiated no later than 4.5 hours after the symptom onset. A liable diagnosis is mandatory to administer the appropriate treatment...
February 28, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Yang Liu, Yan-Hong Dong, Pei-Yuan Lyu, Wei-Hong Chen, Rui Li
Objective: Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia are responsible for more than 80% of dementia cases. These two conditions share common risk factors including hypertension. Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is strongly associated with both hypertension and cognitive impairment. In this review, we identify the pathophysiological changes in CSVD that are caused by hypertension and further explore the relationship between CSVD and cognitive impairment. Data Sources: We searched and scanned the PubMed database for recently published literatures up to December 2017...
March 5, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Qiushan Tao, Haihao Zhu, Xi Chen, Robert A Stern, Neil Kowall, Rhoda Au, Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn, Wei Qiao Qiu
Studies suggest that a single injection of pramlintide, an amylin analog, induces changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers in the blood of AD mouse models and AD patients. The aim of this study was to examine whether a pramlintide challenge combined with a phosphatidylcholine (PC) profile diagnoses of AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) better than PC alone. Non-diabetic subjects with cognitive status were administered a single subcutaneous injection of 60 mcg of pramlintide under fasting condition...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Ana Laura Calderon-Garcidueñas, Bertrand Mathon, Pierre Lévy, Anne Bertrand, Karima Mokhtari, Séverine Samson, Valérie Thuriès, Virginie Lambrecq, Vi-Huong Nguyen-Michel, Sophie Dupont, Claude Adam, Michel Baulac, Stéphane Clémenceau, Charles Duyckaerts, Vincent Navarro, Franck Bielle
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) is a heterogeneous syndrome. Surgery results in seizure freedom for most pharmacoresistant patients, but the epileptic and cognitive prognosis remains variable. The 2013 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) histopathological classification of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) has fostered research to understand MTLE-HS heterogeneity. We investigated the associations between histopathological features (ILAE types, hypertrophic CA4 neurons, granule cell layer alterations, CD34 immunopositive cells) and clinical features (presurgical history, postsurgical outcome) in a monocentric series of 247 MTLE-HS patients treated by surgery...
February 24, 2018: Brain Pathology
Arianna Morano, Agnese Ravera, Luca Agosta, Matteo Sappa, Yolanda Falcone, Gianfranco Fonte, Gianluca Isaia, Giovanni Carlo Isaia, Mario Bo
BACKGROUND: Blood pressure variability (BPV) may have prognostic implications for cardiovascular risk and cognitive decline; however, BPV has yet to be studied in old and very old people. AIMS: Aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent of BPV and to identify variables associated with BPV among older subjects. METHODS: A retrospective study of patients aged ≥ 65 years who underwent 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was carried out...
February 23, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Thomas A Pollak, Jonathan P Rogers, Robert G Nagele, Mark Peakman, James M Stone, Anthony S David, Philip McGuire
Blood-based biomarker discovery for psychotic disorders has yet to impact upon routine clinical practice. In physical disorders antibodies have established roles as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive (theranostic) biomarkers, particularly in disorders thought to have a substantial autoimmune or infective aetiology. Two approaches to antibody biomarker identification are distinguished: a "top-down" approach, in which antibodies to specific antigens are sought based on the known function of the antigen and its putative role in the disorder, and emerging "bottom-up" or "omics" approaches that are agnostic as to the significance of any one antigen, using high-throughput arrays to identify distinctive components of the antibody repertoire...
February 21, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Antoinette Depoorter, Julia Früh, Katharina Herrmann, Davide Zanchi, Peter Weber
Prematurity is a known risk factor for later cognitive deficits. At present there are neither behavioral nor neurological tests available to detect those preterm infants who would benefit most from early interventions. Neurophysiologic methods, and more specifically, auditory event-related potentials (AERPs) are convenient tools to investigate early cognitive functioning. However, the capability of AERPs as a prognostic factor for mental development in preterm infants remains unclear. The present systematic search of the literature yielded 1016 articles, out of which 13 were included...
February 17, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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