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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667460/clinical-utility-of-remote-platelet-function-measurement-using-p-selectin-assessment-of-aspirin-clopidogrel-and-prasugrel-and-bleeding-disorders
#1
Philip M Bath, Jane May, Stan Heptinstall
Vascular diseases such as myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke are associated with increased platelet function whilst the risk of recurrence is reduced by antiplatelet agents such as aspirin, clopidogrel, and prasugrel. However, some patients exhibit high platelet reactivity, especially with clopidogrel. Existing platelet function tests may not be ideal in that they can be expensive, are often time consuming, and measurements must be made near to the patient and within a few hours of blood collection. Platelet activation leads to translocation of P-selectin from alpha-granules to the cell surface...
April 18, 2018: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666144/sporadic-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-sals-skeletal-muscle-response-to-cerebrospinal-fluid-from-sals-patients-in-a-rat-model
#2
Shruthi Shanmukha, Gayathri Narayanappa, Atchayaram Nalini, Phalguni Anand Alladi, Trichur R Raju
Skeletal muscle atrophy is the most prominent feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons. However, the contribution of skeletal muscle to disease progression remains elusive. Our previous studies have shown that intrathecal injection of cerebrospinal fluid from sporadic ALS patients (ALS-CSF) induces several degenerative changes in motor neurons and glia of neonatal rats. Here, we describe various pathologic events in the rat extensor digitorum longus muscle following intrathecal injection of ALS-CSF...
April 16, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665355/combination-therapy-with-polydeoxyribonucleotide-and-proton-pump-inhibitor-enhances-therapeutic-effectiveness-for-gastric-ulcer-in-rats
#3
Il-Gyu Ko, Sung-Eun Kim, Jun-Jang Jin, Lakkyong Hwang, Eun-Sang Ji, Chang-Ju Kim, Jin-Hee Han, In Taik Hong, Min Seop Kwak, Jin Young Yoon, Hyun Phil Shin, Jung Won Jeon
AIMS: The main action of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is to inhibit gastric acid secretion, and PPIs are widely used to treat gastric ulcer (GU). However, if the action of promoting gastric mucosal regeneration is added, the effectiveness of GU treatment can be enhanced. Thus, in order to improve the therapeutic effect on GU, we tried to develop combination therapy promoting regeneration in injured tissue besides suppressing gastric acid secretion. MAIN METHODS: Polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) was selected to evaluate tissue regeneration, and pantoprazole was chosen as one of the PPIs...
April 14, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663535/hypothyroidism-and-hyperthyroidism-change-ectoenzyme-activity-in-rat-platelets
#4
Jucimara Baldissarelli, Adriana Santi, Roberta Schmatz, Caroline C Martins, Daniela Zanini, Karine P Reichert, Gustavo R Thomé, Taís V Palma, Pauline da Costa, Vera M Morsch, Maria R C Schetinger
The purinergic system has an important role in the regulation of vascular functions. The interference of thyroid hormones in this system and in cardiovascular events has been studied in recent years. However, the mechanisms involved in vascular, purinergic, and oxidative changes in thyroid disorders are not completely understood. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess purinergic enzyme activity in platelets from rats with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism induced, respectively, by continuous exposure to methimazole (MMI) at 20 mg/100 mL or L-thyroxine at 1...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656339/role-of-ampk-in-atherosclerosis-via-autophagy-regulation
#5
REVIEW
Hanxiao Ou, Chuhao Liu, Wenjie Feng, Xinwen Xiao, Shengsong Tang, Zhongcheng Mo
Atherosclerosis is characterized by the accumulation of lipids and deposition of fibrous elements in the vascular wall, which is the primary cause of cardiovascular diseases. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic sensor of energy metabolism that regulates multiple physiological processes, including lipid and glucose metabolism and the normalization of energy imbalances. Overwhelming evidence indicates that AMPK activation markedly attenuates atherosclerosis development. Autophagy inhibits cell apoptosis and inflammation and promotes cholesterol efflux and efferocytosis...
April 12, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656185/exogenous-serp1-attenuates-restenosis-by-restoring-glp-1-receptor-activity-in-diabetic-rats-following-vascular-injury
#6
Lishuai Feng, Jianbo Wang, Xu Ma
The activity of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1R) is essential for preventing restenosis following vascular injury; however, the mechanism of dysfunctional GLP-1R glycosylation and ways to enhance the activity of GLP-1R on vascular surfaces in diabetic patients are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the N-glycosylation level and role of stress-associated endoplasmic reticulum protein 1 (SERP1) in preventing restenosis following carotid injury in diabetic rats. Our results showed that N-glycosylation levels in both rat aortic endothelial cells (RAOECs) and rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) decreased gradually following glucose treatment in a concentration dependant manner...
April 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616116/lenalidomide-improvement-of-cisplatin-antitumor-efficacy-on-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells-in-vitro
#7
Lin-Lin Yin, Xin-Mian Wen, Qing-Hua Lai, Jing Li, Xiu-Wen Wang
Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug and possesses anti-angiogenic and immunomodulatory activities against multiple myeloma. The present study assessed the in vitro effect of lenalidomide combined with cisplatin on MDA-MB-231, a triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line and explored the underlying molecular mechanism of this combination. Cell viability, apoptosis and the protein expression of phosphorylated (p) and total extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), caspase-3, cleaved poly-adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase (cPARP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were measured in MDA-MB-231 cells treated with different concentrations of lenalidomide, cisplatin and their combination using different biochemical assays...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615922/sensory-processing-and-integration-at-the-carotid-body-tripartite-synapse-neurotransmitter-functions-and-effects-of-chronic-hypoxia
#8
REVIEW
Erin M Leonard, Shaima Salman, Colin A Nurse
Maintenance of homeostasis in the respiratory and cardiovascular systems depends on reflexes that are initiated at specialized peripheral chemoreceptors that sense changes in the chemical composition of arterial blood. In mammals, the bilaterally-paired carotid bodies (CBs) are the main peripheral chemoreceptor organs that are richly vascularized and are strategically located at the carotid bifurcation. The CBs contribute to the maintenance of O2 , CO2 /H+ , and glucose homeostasis and have attracted much clinical interest because hyperactivity in these organs is associated with several pathophysiological conditions including sleep apnea, obstructive lung disease, heart failure, hypertension, and diabetes...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603903/photobiomodulation-of-freshly-isolated-human-adipose-tissue-derived-stromal-vascular-fraction-cells-by-pulsed-light-emitting-diodes-for-direct-clinical-application
#9
E Priglinger, J Maier, S Chaudary, C Lindner, C Wurzer, S Rieger, H Redl, S Wolbank, P Dungel
A highly interesting source for adult stem cells is adipose tissue, from which the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) - a heterogeneous cell population including the adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASC) - can be obtained. To enhance the regenerative potential of freshly isolated SVF cells low level light therapy (LLLT), was used. The effects of pulsed blue (475 nm), green (516 nm) and red light (635 nm) from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) applied on freshly isolated SVF were analyzed regarding cell phenotype, cell number, viability, adenosine triphosphate content, cytotoxicity and proliferation, but also osteogenic, adipogenic and pro-angiogenic differentiation potential...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593847/the-crosstalk-between-autonomic-nervous-system-and-blood-vessels
#10
REVIEW
Yulan Sheng, Li Zhu
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), comprised of two primary branches, sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system, plays an essential role in the regulation of vascular wall contractility and tension. The sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves work together to balance the functions of autonomic effector organs. The neurotransmitters released from the varicosities in the ANS can regulate the vascular tone. Norepinephrine (NE), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) function as vasoconstrictors, whereas acetylcholine (Ach) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) can mediate vasodilation...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577955/adrenomedullin-continuing-to-explore-cardioprotection
#11
Toshihiro Tsuruda, Johji Kato, Kenji Kuwasako, Kazuo Kitamura
Adrenomedullin (AM), a peptide isolated from an extract of human pheochromocytoma, comprises 52 amino acids with an intramolecular disulfide bond and amidation at the carboxy-terminus. AM is present in various tissues and organs in rodents and humans, including the heart. The peptide concentration increases with cardiac hypertrophy, acute myocardial infarction, and overt heart failure in the plasma and the myocardium. The principal function of AM in the cardiovascular system is the regulation of the vascular tone by vasodilation and natriuresis via cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent or -independent mechanism...
March 22, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559698/dual-role-of-creb-in-the-regulation-of-vsmc-proliferation-mode-of-activation-determines-pro-or-anti-mitogenic-function
#12
Claire Hudson, Tomomi E Kimura, Aparna Duggirala, Graciela B Sala-Newby, Andrew C Newby, Mark Bond
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation has been implicated in the development of restenosis after angioplasty, vein graft intimal thickening and atherogenesis. We investigated the mechanisms underlying positive and negative regulation of VSMC proliferation by the transcription factor cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB). Incubation with the cAMP elevating stimuli, adenosine, prostacyclin mimetics or low levels of forksolin activated CREB without changing CREB phosphorylation on serine-133 but induced nuclear translocation of the CREB co-factors CRTC-2 and CRTC-3...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545171/estrous-cycle-dependent-modulation-of-in-vivo-microvascular-dysfunction-after-nanomaterial-inhalation
#13
P A Stapleton, C R McBride, J Yi, A B Abukabda, T R Nurkiewicz
Preconceptive health encompasses male and female reproductive capability. In females, this takes into account each of the stages of the estrous cycle. Microvascular reactivity varies throughout the estrous cycle in response to hormonal changes and in preparation for pregnancy. Microvascular alterations in response to engineered nanomaterial (ENM) exposure have been described within 24-hours of inhalation; however, the impact upon the uterine vasculature at differing estrous stages and at late-stage pregnancy is unclear...
March 12, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534400/-changes-of-platelet-aggregability-in-patients-with-subcortical-ischemic-vascular-disease
#14
X X Zhao, C Z Shen, X X Xie, Q Q Xu, X Zhou, Z W Sun
Objective: To explore the change and value of platelet aggregability(PA)in patients with subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD). Methods: A total of 108 patients with SIVD hospitalized in the Department of Neurology of the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University from October 2015 to July 2017 were enrolled as SIVD group and 30 healthy cases were also in cluded as normal controlgroup (NC). According to magnetic resonance imaging(MRI), the SIVD group was further divided into two subtypes: lacunar infarction(LI) ( n =31)and leukoaraiosis(LA) ( n =77)...
March 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530637/colonic-metabolites-from-flavanols-stimulate-nitric-oxide-production-in-human-endothelial-cells-and-protect-against-oxidative-stress-induced-toxicity-and-endothelial-dysfunction
#15
David Álvarez-Cilleros, Sonia Ramos, Luis Goya, María Ángeles Martín
Oxidative stress is involved in endothelial dysfunction, the key player in the development of vascular events. Flavanols, the major antioxidants in cocoa have been related to vascular protection and lower cardiovascular risk. However, the bioavailability of cocoa flavanols is very low and their bioactivity in vivo seems to be greatly mediated by the derived phenolic metabolites formed by intestinal microbiota. Hence, we investigated whether microbial-derived flavanol metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DHPAA), 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (HPPA) and a mix of them could influence endothelial function and prevent oxidative stress in human endothelial cells (Ea...
March 9, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526759/adenosine-a-2a-receptor-inhibition-restores-the-normal-transport-of-endothelial-glutamate-transporters-in-the-brain
#16
Wei Bai, Ping Li, Ya-Lei Ning, Yan Peng, Ren-Ping Xiong, Nan Yang, Xing Chen, Yuan-Guo Zhou
Glutamate transporters (EAATs) on cerebral vascular endothelial cells play an important role in maintaining glutamate homeostasis in the brain. The dysfunction of endothelial EAATs is an important reason for the dramatically elevated brain glutamate levels after brain injury, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI). The adenosine A2A receptor (A2A R) plays an important role in regulating the brain glutamate level after brain injury; however, researchers have not clearly determined whether this role was related to its ability to regulate endothelial EAATs...
March 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520238/erythrocytes-and-vascular-function-oxygen-and-nitric-oxide
#17
REVIEW
Christine C Helms, Mark T Gladwin, Daniel B Kim-Shapiro
Erythrocytes regulate vascular function through the modulation of oxygen delivery and the scavenging and generation of nitric oxide (NO). First, hemoglobin inside the red blood cell binds oxygen in the lungs and delivers it to tissues throughout the body in an allosterically regulated process, modulated by oxygen, carbon dioxide and proton concentrations. The vasculature responds to low oxygen tensions through vasodilation, further recruiting blood flow and oxygen carrying erythrocytes. Research has shown multiple mechanisms are at play in this classical hypoxic vasodilatory response, with a potential role of red cell derived vasodilatory molecules, such as nitrite derived nitric oxide and red blood cell ATP, considered in the last 20 years...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514048/endothelial-cells-cope-with-hypoxia-induced-depletion-of-atp-via-activation-of-cellular-purine-turnover-and-phosphotransfer-networks
#18
Karolina Losenkova, Mariachiara Zuccarini, Mikko Helenius, Guillaume Jacquemet, Evgenia Gerasimovskaya, Camilla Tallgren, Sirpa Jalkanen, Gennady G Yegutkin
Intravascular ATP and adenosine have emerged as important regulators of endothelial barrier function, vascular remodeling and neovascularization at various pathological states, including hypoxia, inflammation and oxidative stress. By using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and bovine vasa vasorum endothelial cells (VVEC) as representatives of macro- and microvessel phenotypes, this study was undertaken to evaluate cellular mechanisms contributing to physiological adaptation of vascular endothelium to hypoxia, with a particular emphasis on ectoenzymatic purine-converting activities and their link to intracellular ATP homeostasis and signaling pathways...
March 4, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509796/rna-activating-double-stranded-rna-targeting-flt-1-promoter-inhibits-endothelial-cell-proliferation-through-soluble-flt-1-upregulation
#19
Susie Choi, Hironori Uehara, Yuanyuan Wu, Subrata Das, Xiaohui Zhang, Bonnie Archer, Lara Carroll, Balamurali Krishna Ambati
Short-activating RNA (saRNA), which targets gene promoters, has been shown to increase the target gene expression. In this study, we describe the use of an saRNA (Flt a-1) to target the flt-1 promoter, leading to upregulation of the soluble isoform of Flt-1 and inhibition of angiogenesis. We demonstrate that Flt a-1 increased sFlt-1 mRNA and protein levels, while reducing VEGF expression. This was associated with suppression of human umbilical vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509167/impact-of-cyp2c19-polymorphisms-on-clinical-outcomes-and-antiplatelet-potency-of-clopidogrel-in-caucasian-poststroke-survivors
#20
Aleš Tomek, Václav Matʼoška, Alena Frýdmanová, Hana Magerová, Martin Šrámek, Jaroslava Paulasova-Schwabová, Tereza Růžičková, Petr Janský, Ivana Šarbochová, Ivana Hadačová, Vojtěch Kaplan, Zuzana Lacinová, Luděk Táborský, Victor Serebruany
BACKGROUND: Variable response after clopidogrel is well documented and may affect major adverse clinical events after stroke. Impact of CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms is an established marker linked to variable response after clopidogrel. However, the association of certain genetic polymorphisms with prediction of major adverse clinical events following stroke still remains controversial, especially in Caucasians. STUDY QUESTION: The primary aim was to evaluate the impact of CYP2C19 allele *2 in heterozygote form on major adverse clinical events in Caucasian poststroke survivors treated with clopidogrel...
March 2018: American Journal of Therapeutics
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