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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222992/inflammatory-chemokine-eotaxin-1-is-correlated-with-age-in-heroin-dependent-patients-under-methadone-maintenance-therapy
#1
Hsiang-Wei Kuo, Tung-Hsia Liu, Hsiao-Hui Tsou, Ya-Ting Hsu, Sheng-Chang Wang, Chiu-Ping Fang, Chia-Chen Liu, Andrew C H Chen, Yu-Li Liu
BACKGROUND: Degeneration of central neurons and fibers has been observed in postmortem brains of heroin dependent patients. However, there are no biomarkers to predict the severity of neurodegeneration related to heroin dependence. A correlation has been reported between inflammatory C-C motif chemokine ligand 11 (CCL11, or eotaxin-1) and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: Three-hundred-forty-four heroin dependent, Taiwanese patients under methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) were included with clinical assessment and genomics information...
November 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221752/chronic-nicotine-exposure-impairs-uncertainty-modulation-on-reinforcement-learning-in-anterior-cingulate-cortex-and-serotonin-system
#2
Zhengde Wei, Long Han, Xiuying Zhong, Ying Liu, Rujing Zha, Ying Wang, Li-Zhuang Yang, Junjie Bu, Hongwen Song, Wenjuan Wang, Yifeng Zhou, Ping Gao, Xiaochu Zhang
Deficits in the computational processes of reinforcement learning have been suggested to underlie addiction. Additionally, environmental uncertainty, which is encoded in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), modulates reward prediction errors (RPEs) during reinforcement learning and exacerbates addiction. The present study tested whether and how the ACC would have an essential role in drug addiction by failing to use uncertainty to modulate the RPEs during reinforcement learning. In Experiment I, we found that the ACC/medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) did not modulate RPE learning according to uncertainty in smokers...
December 5, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211192/tobacco-addiction-in-the-psychiatric-population-and-in-the-general-population
#3
Renata Marques de Oliveira, Jair Lício Ferreira Santos, Antonia Regina Ferreira Furegato
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the degree of tobacco addiction and identify independently associated factors by comparing the psychiatric population of secondary and tertiary care with the general population of the primary healthcare network. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study, conducted in a municipality of São Paulo, with 134 smokers of a Mental Health Outpatient Unit (MHOU), a Psychiatric Hospital (PH), and a Primary Healthcare Unit (PHU). Data were collected by means of individual interviews, recorded on a mobile device...
December 4, 2017: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209395/prevalence-and-psychiatric-comorbidities-of-internet-addiction-in-a-nationwide-sample-of-korean-adults
#4
Subin Park, Hong Jin Jeon, Jae Nam Bae, Su Jeong Seong, Jin Pyo Hong
The goal of the study was to examine the prevalence and psychiatric comorbidities of Internet addiction in a nationwide sample of Korean adults. Among a total of 6,022 participants involved in Korean Epidemiological Catchment Area study in 2011, 3,723 Internet users were assessed for their Internet addiction using Young's 8-item Diagnostic Questionnaire. The results showed that of the 3,723 Internet users, 39 (1.0%) had Internet addiction. Addicted Internet users were younger, more likely to be males and unemployed compared to non-addicted Internet users...
November 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206881/deletion-of-lynx1-reduces-the-function-of-%C3%AE-6-nicotinic-receptors
#5
Rell L Parker, Heidi C O'Neill, Beverley M Henley, Charles R Wageman, Ryan M Drenan, Michael J Marks, Julie M Miwa, Sharon R Grady, Henry A Lester
The α6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit is an attractive drug target for treating nicotine addiction because it is present at limited sites in the brain including the reward pathway. Lynx1 modulates several nAChR subtypes; lynx1-nAChR interaction sites could possibly provide drug targets. We found that dopaminergic cells from the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) express lynx1 mRNA transcripts and, as assessed by co-immunoprecipitation, α6 receptors form stable complexes with lynx1 protein, although co-transfection with lynx1 did not affect nicotine-induced currents from cell lines transfected with α6 and β2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203522/e-cigarettes-a-1-way-street-to-traditional-smoking-and-nicotine-addiction-for-youth
#6
Jonathan D Klein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200550/-vaping-emergence-of-a-new-paraphernalia
#7
REVIEW
Subrata Naskar, Praveen Kumar Jakati
As research, has progressed through ages, we have been able to uncover the true nature of nicotine addiction. Humankind is now aware of the various ailments that it brings with it. As the slogan for a smokeless world for a better world has been raised, a new practice called "vaping" has come to the forefront. The use of electronic cigarettes (EC) has been on the rise recently. Claims have been made over its role for nicotine deaddiction as well as reducing harmful use for chronic nicotine abusers. In the current review, we searched the PubMed database for available literatures on this practice...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200053/nicotine-addiction-and-e-cigarettes
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of Addictions Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199472/behavior-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-in-a-nicotine-gradient-modulated-by-food
#9
Robert Sobkowiak, Piotr Kaczmarek, Mateusz Kowalski, Rafał Kabaciński, Andrzej Lesicki
Nicotine decreases food intake, and smokers often report that they smoke to control their weight. To see whether similar phenomena could be observed in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, we challenged drug-naïve nematodes with a chronic low (0.01 mM) and high (1 mM) nicotine concentration for 55 h (from hatching to adulthood). After that, we recorded changes in their behavior in a nicotine gradient, where they could choose a desired nicotine concentration. By using a combination of behavioral and morphometric methods, we found that both nicotine and food modulate worm behavior...
December 4, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189190/role-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-in-treatment-of-addiction-and-related-disorders-a-systematic-review
#10
Ramkrishna Makani, Basant Pradhan, Umang Shah, Tapan Parikh
BACKGROUND: Addiction and related disorders are devastating with their tremendous social, psychological, and physical consequences for which development of optimally effective treatments are long overdue. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is relatively safe and is becoming an emerging therapeutic tool for these conditions. METHODS: This systematic review was conducted using PubMed, PsycINFO, PsychiatryOnline and Cochrane Library ranging from year 2001 to 2017...
November 29, 2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188772/enriched-environment-palliates-nicotine-induced-addiction-and-associated-neurobehavioral-deficits-in-rats
#11
Amber Nawaz, Zehra Batool, Saara Ahmed, Saiqa Tabassum, Saima Khaliq, Bushra Jabeen Mehdi, Irfan Sajid, Shoaib Ahmad, Sadia Saleem, Fizza Naqvi, Faizan Naqvi, Saida Haider
This study was designed to investigate the role of enriched environment in preventing and/or reducing the neurobehavioral deficits produced after nicotine administration in albino Wistar rats. Equal numbers of rat in two groups were either placed in social environment (control group) or social along with physically enriched environment for four weeks before the administration of nicotine. Exposure to different environmental conditions was followed by the intraperitoneal injection of nicotine at the dose of 0...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185837/effects-of-negative-affect-urge-to-smoke-and-working-memory-performance-n-back-on-nicotine-dependence
#12
William V Lechner, Rachel L Gunn, Alexia Minto, Noah S Philip, Richard A Brown, Lisa A Uebelacker, Lawrence H Price, Ana M Abrantes
BACKGROUND: Three key domains including negative emotionality, incentive salience, and executive function form the core functional elements of addictive behaviors. Variables related to these broader domains have been studied extensively in relation to one another; however, no studies to date, have examined models including variables from all three domains, in relation to nicotine dependence. METHOD: Smokers (N = 117), 65.8% female, 78% white, mean age of 44.4 (SD = 10...
November 29, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182761/sugar-and-aldehyde-content-in-flavored-electronic-cigarette-liquids
#13
Pebbles Fagan, Pallav Pokhrel, Thaddeus A Herzog, Eric T Moolchan, Kevin D Cassel, Adrian A Franke, Xingnan Li, Ian Pagano, Dennis R Trinidad, Kari-Lyn K Sakuma, Kymberle Sterling, Dorothy Jorgensen, Tania Lynch, Crissy Kawamoto, Mignonne C Guy, Ian Lagua, Sarah Hanes, Linda A Alexander, Mark S Clanton, Camonia Graham-Tutt, Thomas Eissenberg
Introduction: Sugars are major constituents and additives in traditional tobacco products, but little is known about their content or related toxins (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) liquids. This study quantified levels of sugars and aldehydes in e-cigarette liquids across brands, flavors, and nicotine concentrations (n = 66). Methods: Unheated e-cigarette liquids were analyzed using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and enzymatic test kits...
November 22, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181552/-nephrotic-syndrome-and-microhematuria-in-a-patient-with-nutcracker-syndrome-report-of-a-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
N Schöffel, R-M Liehr, C Bünger, K Krüger, D Rubin
We report about a 43-year-old woman with polyvalent drug addiction (i.e. alcohol, nicotine, methadone maintenance program with parallel consumption of heroin) who presented to the emergency department with peripheral edema, generalized weakness, and arthralgia. Laboratory findings revealed, among others, proteinuria, hyperlipoproteinemia and hypoproteinemia defining nephrotic syndrome. Computed tomography of the abdomen and iliocavography further revealed compression of left renal vein between aorta and superior mesenteric artery with distention of left ovarian vein as a possible cause of nephrotic syndrome (i...
November 27, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179227/-on-the-risk-of-dependence-on-gabapentinoids
#15
Udo Bonnet, Norbert Scherbaum
In the last ten years, the prescriptions of the gabapentinoids gabapentin and pregabalin increased largely also in Germany. Since several national and international pharmacovigilance-databases have warned for abuse liabilities and overdose fatalities in association with both gabapentinoids, which moreover, became to be sold on internet and black-markets, their addictive power has been subject to an ongoing clinical debate. As pre- and post-approval clinical trials did not reveal significant signs of dependence on gabapentin or pregabalin, we systematically searched in PubMed and Scopus for clinical studies and case reports being associated with abuse of and dependence on these drugs...
November 27, 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179132/rational-incorporation-of-molecular-adjuvants-into-a-hybrid-nanoparticle-based-nicotine-vaccine-for-immunotherapy-against-nicotine-addiction
#16
Zongmin Zhao, Brian Harris, Yun Hu, Theresa Harmon, Paul R Pentel, Marion Ehrich, Chenming Zhang
Current clinically-tested nicotine vaccines have yet shown enhanced smoking cessation efficacy due to their low immunogenicity. Achieving a sufficiently high immunogenicity is a necessity for establishing a clinically-viable nicotine vaccine. This study aims to facilitate the immunogenicity of a hybrid nanoparticle-based nicotine vaccine by rationally incorporating toll-like receptor (TLR)-based adjuvants, including monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), Resiquimod (R848), CpG oligodeoxynucleotide 1826 (CpG ODN 1826), and their combinations...
November 20, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179064/a-simple-and-highly-sensitive-uplc-esi-ms-ms-method-for-the-simultaneous-quantification-of-nicotine-cotinine-and-the-tobacco-specific-carcinogens-n-nitrosonornicotine-and-4-methylnitrosamino-1-3-pyridyl-1-butanone-in-serum-samples
#17
Lucie Loukotková, Linda S VonTungeln, Michelle Vanlandingham, Gonçalo Gamboa da Costa
According to the World Health Organization, the consumption of tobacco products is the single largest cause of preventable deaths in the world, exceeding the total aggregated number of deaths caused by diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. An important element in the evaluation of the health risks associated with the consumption of tobacco products is the assessment of the internal exposure to the tobacco constituents responsible for their addictive (e.g. nicotine) and carcinogenic (e.g. N-nitrosamines such as NNN and NNK) properties...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178785/highly-selective-and-potent-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-nachr-antagonist-inhibits-nicotine-self-administration-and-reinstatement-in-rats
#18
Jinhua Wu, Andrea Cippitelli, Yaohong Zhang, Ginamarie Debevec, Jennifer Schoch, Akihiko Ozawa, Yongping Yu, Huan Liu, Wenteng Chen, Richard A Houghten, Gregory S Welmaker, Marc A Giulianotti, Lawrence Toll
The α4β2 nAChR is the most predominant subtype in the brain and is a well-known culprit for nicotine addiction. Previously we presented a series of α4β2 nAChR selective compounds that were discovered from a mixture-based positional-scanning combinatorial library. Here we report further optimization identified highly potent and selective α4β2 nAChR antagonists 5 (AP-202) and 13 (AP-211). Both compounds are devoid of in vitro agonist activity and are potent inhibitors of epibatidine-induced changes in membrane potential in cells containing α4β2 nAChR, with IC50s of approximate 10 nM, but are weak agonists in cells containing α3β4 nAChR...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155800/nicotinic-receptors-mediate-stress-nicotine-detrimental-interplay-via-dopamine-cells-activity
#19
C Morel, S P Fernandez, F Pantouli, F J Meye, F Marti, S Tolu, S Parnaudeau, H Marie, F Tronche, U Maskos, M Moretti, C Gotti, M-H Han, A Bailey, M Mameli, J Barik, P Faure
Epidemiological studies report strong association between mood disorders and tobacco addiction. This high comorbidity requires adequate treatment but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We demonstrate that nicotine exposure, independent of drug withdrawal effects, increases stress sensitivity, a major risk factor in mood disorders. Nicotine and stress concur to induce long-lasting cellular adaptations within the dopamine (DA) system. This interplay is underpinned by marked remodeling of nicotinic systems, causing increased ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons' activity and stress-related behaviors, such as social aversion...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148565/tobacco-cessation-interventions-for-young-people
#20
REVIEW
Thomas R Fanshawe, William Halliwell, Nicola Lindson, Paul Aveyard, Jonathan Livingstone-Banks, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce
BACKGROUND: Most tobacco control programmes for adolescents are based around prevention of uptake, but teenage smoking is still common. It is unclear if interventions that are effective for adults can also help adolescents to quit. This is the update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of strategies that help young people to stop smoking tobacco. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialized Register in June 2017...
November 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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