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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814527/effects-of-nicotine-on-homeostatic-and-hedonic-components-of-food-intake
#1
REVIEW
Andrea Stojakovic, Enma P Espinosa, Osman T Farhad, Kabirullah Lutfy
Chronic tobacco use leads to nicotine addiction that is characterized by exaggerated urges to use the drug despite the accompanying negative health and socioeconomic burdens. Interestingly, nicotine users are found to be leaner than the general population. Review of the existing literature revealed that nicotine affects energy homeostasis and food consumption via altering the activity of neurons containing orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides in the brain. Hypothalamus is one of the critical brain areas that regulates energy balance via the action of these neuropeptides...
October 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810158/a-typology-of-vaping-identifying-differing-beliefs-motivations-for-use-identity-and-political-interest-amongst-e-cigarette-users
#2
Hannah Farrimond
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify and differentiate socially shared accounts of e-cigarette use (vaping) using Q-methodology, combining factor analysis with qualitative comments. METHODS: Seventy statements on e-cigarettes, drawn from media, academic and online discussions, were sorted by participants along a continuum of agreement/disagreement, commenting on strongly ranked items. Each participant thus created their own 'account' of their vaping...
August 12, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808247/social-learning-promotes-nicotine-self-administration-by-facilitating-the-extinction-of-conditioned-aversion-in-isogenic-strains-of-rats
#3
Wenyan Han, Tengfei Wang, Hao Chen
Both social environment and genetic factors are critical for smoking initiation and nicotine addiction. We reported that rats developed conditioned flavor (i.e., taste and odor) aversion to intravenously self-administered (IVSA) nicotine, and that social learning promoted nicotine IVSA with flavor cues. We thus tested the hypothesis that socially acquired nicotine IVSA is a heritable trait by using female rats of six inbred strains and six F1 hybrids. Each strain was tested for 10 daily IVSA sessions. We found that the intake of nicotine (15 and 30 μg/kg/inf) varied among these strains by 33...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804788/pro-dopamine-regulator-kb220-to-balance-brain-reward-circuitry-in-reward-deficiency-syndrome-rds
#4
Kenneth Blum, Marcelo Febo, Lyle Fried, David Baron, Eric R Braverman, Kristina Dushaj, Mona Li, Zsolt Demetrovics, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
We are faced with a worldwide opiate/opioid epidemic that is devastating. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), at least 127 people, young and old, are dying every day in America due to narcotic overdose. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Medication-Assisted Treatments (MATs) for opiate/opioids as well as alcohol and nicotine. The mechanism of action of most MATS favors either blocking of dopaminergic function or a form of Opiate Substitution Therapy (OST). These treatment options are adequate for short-term treatment of the symptoms of addiction and harm reduction but fail long-term to deal with the cause or lead to recovery...
2017: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome and Addiction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797614/delayed-varenicline-administration-reduces-inflammation-and-improves-forelimb-use-following-experimental-stroke
#5
Siyi Chen, Laura Bennet, Ailsa L McGregor
BACKGROUND: Pharmacological activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP), specifically by activating α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, has been shown to confer short-term improvements in outcome. Most studies have investigated administration within 24 hours of stroke, and few have investigated drugs approved for use in human patients. We investigated whether delayed administration of varenicline, a high-affinity agonist at α7 nicotinic receptors and an established therapy for nicotine addiction, decreased brain inflammation and improved functional performance in a mouse model of experimental stroke...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780356/then-and-now-consumption-and-dependence-in-e-cigarette-users-who-formerly-smoked-cigarettes
#6
Matthew Browne, Daniel G Todd
Electronic cigarette use, or vaping, continues to be a focus for regulators and policy makers in public health, particularly since it can compete with or be a substitute for smoking. This study investigated characteristics of nicotine dependence and consumption in a sample of vapers who formerly smoked cigarettes. We recruited 436 (80% male) vapers from several internet discussion forums; 95% of whom previously smoked, but ceased after commencing vaping. These participants completed a retrospective version of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND-R), as well as a version modified to suit current vaping (FTND-V), along with measures of consumption...
July 28, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771779/population-pharmacokinetic-model-of-transdermal-nicotine-delivered-from-a-matrix-type-patch
#7
Matthew W Linakis, Joseph E Rower, Jessica K Roberts, Eleanor I Miller, Diana G Wilkins, Catherine M T Sherwin
AIM: Nicotine addiction is an issue faced by millions of individuals worldwide. As a result, nicotine replacement therapies, such as transdermal nicotine patches, have become widely distributed and used. While the pharmacokinetics of transdermal nicotine have been extensively described using non-compartmental methods, there is very little data available describing the between subject variability in transdermal nicotine pharmacokinetics. The aim of this investigation was to use population pharmacokinetic techniques to describe this variability, particularly as it pertains to the absorption of nicotine from the transdermal patch...
August 3, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762314/insights-into-nicotinic-receptor-signaling-in-nicotine-addiction-implications-for-prevention-and-treatment
#8
Wuyi Liu, Ming D Li
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) belong to the Cys-loop ligand-gated ion-channel (LGIC) superfamily, which also includes the GABA, glycine, and serotonin receptors. Many nAChR subunits have been identified and shown to be involved in signal transduction on binding to them of either the neurotransmitter acetylcholine or exogenous ligands such as nicotine. The nAChRs are pentameric assemblies of homologous subunits surrounding a central pore that gates cation flux, and they are expressed at neuromuscular junctions throughout the nervous system...
August 1, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762223/-factors-associated-with-successful-smoking-cessation-in-male-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-at-3-months-after-hospital-discharge
#9
Huey-Ling Wang, Peng-Chih Wang, Yen-Wen Wu, Kou-Gi Shyu
BACKGROUND: The promising effects of smoking cessation for coronary artery disease (CAD) patients include decreased risks of subsequent clinical events and mortality. However, most CAD patients continue to smoke after being hospitalized for a cardiac event. PURPOSE: To explore the factors that are associated with successful smoking cessation in CAD male patients at 3 months after hospital discharge. METHODS: A correlational design was applied...
August 2017: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760180/tobacco-marketing-e-cigarette-susceptibility-and-perceptions-among-adults
#10
Nicole E Nicksic, L Morgan Snell, Alyssa K Rudy, Caroline O Cobb, Andrew J Barnes
OBJECTIVE: Understanding the impact of tobacco marketing on e-cigarette (EC) susceptibility and perceptions is essential to inform efforts to mitigate tobacco product burden on public health. METHODS: Data were collected online in 2016 from 634 conventional cigarette (CC) smokers and 393 non-smokers using a convenience sample from Amazon Mechanical Turk. Logistic regression models, stratified by smoking status and adjusted for socio-demographics, examined the relationship among tobacco advertisements and coupons, EC and CC susceptibility, and EC perceptions...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759616/altered-nicotine-reward-associated-behavior-following-%C3%AE-4-nachr-subunit-deletion-in-ventral-midbrain
#11
Can Peng, Staci E Engle, Yijin Yan, Marcus M Weera, Jennifer N Berry, Matthew C Arvin, Guiqing Zhao, J Michael McIntosh, Julia A Chester, Ryan M Drenan
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α4 subunits (α4β2* nAChRs) are critical for nicotinic cholinergic transmission and the addictive action of nicotine. To identify specific activities of these receptors in the adult mouse brain, we coupled targeted deletion of α4 nAChR subunits with behavioral and and electrophysiological measures of nicotine sensitivity. A viral-mediated Cre/lox approach allowed us to delete α4 from ventral midbrain (vMB) neurons. We used two behavioral assays commonly used to assess the motivational effects of drugs of abuse: home-cage oral self-administration, and place conditioning...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756728/innovative-approaches-to-support-smoking-cessation-for-individuals-with-mental-illness-and-co-occurring-substance-use-disorders
#12
Smita Das, Judith J Prochaska
Tobacco remains the leading preventable cause of death in the US, accounting for over 520,000 deaths annually. While the smoking prevalence has declined over the past 50 years, those with mental illness and addictive disorders continue to smoke at high levels and with significant tobacco-related health problems. Areas Covered: This review highlights the epidemiology, contributing factors, and evidence-base for intervening upon tobacco use in those with mental illness and addictive disorders. Historically underprioritized, a growing body of literature supports treating tobacco within mental health and addiction treatment settings...
July 31, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756109/altered-coupling-of-default-mode-executive-control-and-salience-networks-in-internet-gaming-disorder
#13
J T Zhang, S-S Ma, C-G Yan, S Zhang, L Liu, L-J Wang, B Liu, Y-W Yao, Y-H Yang, X-Y Fang
BACKGROUND: Recently, a triple-network model suggested the abnormal interactions between the executive-control network (ECN), default-mode network (DMN) and salience network (SN) are important characteristics of addiction, in which the SN plays a critical role in allocating attentional resources toward the ECN and DMN. Although increasing studies have reported dysfunctions in these brain networks in Internet gaming disorder (IGD), interactions between these networks, particularly in the context of the triple-network model, have not been investigated in IGD...
July 12, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750889/reciprocal-activation-of-%C3%AE-5-nachr-and-stat3-in-nicotine-induced-human-lung-cancer-cell-proliferation
#14
Yao Zhang, Yanfei Jia, Ping Li, Huanjie Li, Dongjie Xiao, Yunshan Wang, Xiaoli Ma
Cigarette smoking is the top environmental risk factor for lung cancer. Nicotine, the addictive component of cigarettes, induces lung cancer cell proliferation, invasion and migration via the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) show that CHRNA5 gene encoding α5-nAChR is especially relevant to lung cancer. However, the mechanism of this subunit in lung cancer is not clear. In the present study, we demonstrate that the expression of α5-nAChR is correlated with phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) expression, smoking history and lower survival of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747877/combining-multiple-resting-state-fmri-features-during-classification-optimized-frameworks-and-their-application-to-nicotine-addiction
#15
Xiaoyu Ding, Yihong Yang, Elliot A Stein, Thomas J Ross
Machine learning techniques have been applied to resting-state fMRI data to predict neurological or neuropsychiatric disease states. Existing studies have used either a single type of resting-state feature or a few feature types (<4) in the prediction model. However, resting-state data can be processed in many different ways, yielding different feature types containing complementary and/or novel information, leaving uncertain the most informative features to provide to the classifier. In this study, multiple resting-state features were calculated from two main analytical categories: local measures and network measures...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747086/menthol-enhances-nicotine-induced-locomotor-sensitization-and-in-vivo-functional-connectivity-in-adolescence
#16
Matthew F Thompson, Guillaume L Poirier, Martha I Dávila-García, Wei Huang, Kelly Tam, Maxwell Robidoux, Michelle L Dubuke, Scott A Shaffer, Luis Colon-Perez, Marcelo Febo, Joseph R DiFranza, Jean A King
Mentholated cigarettes capture a quarter of the US market, and are disproportionately smoked by adolescents. Menthol allosterically modulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptor function, but its effects on the brain and nicotine addiction are unclear. To determine if menthol is psychoactive, we assessed locomotor sensitization and brain functional connectivity. Adolescent male Sprague Dawley rats were administered nicotine (0.4 mg/kg) daily with or without menthol (0.05 mg/kg or 5.38 mg/kg) for nine days. Following each injection, distance traveled in an open field was recorded...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743602/menthol-disrupts-nicotine-s-psychostimulant-properties-in-an-age-and-sex-dependent-manner-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#17
Benjamin W Fait, David C Thompson, Tenna N Mose, Peter Jatlow, Sven E Jordt, Marina R Picciotto, Yann S Mineur
Menthol is a commonly used flavorant in tobacco and e-cigarettes, and could contribute to nicotine sensitivity. To understand how menthol could contribute to nicotine intake and addiction, it is important to determine whether specific mechanisms related to sex and age could underlie behavioral changes induced by menthol-laced nicotinic products. Using a validated paradigm of nicotine-dependent locomotor stimulation, adolescent and adult C57BL/6J mice of both sexes were exposed to nicotine, or nicotine laced with menthol, as their sole source of fluid, and psychostimulant effects were evaluated by recording home cage locomotor activity for ten days...
July 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741144/tobacco-use-and-smoke-exposure-in-children-new-trends-harm-and-strategies-to-improve-health-outcomes
#18
REVIEW
Luv D Makadia, P Jervey Roper, Jeannette O Andrews, Martha S Tingen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Every day in the USA, approximately 4000 adolescents begin smoking and the adolescent brain is particularly susceptible to nicotine addiction. We present current pediatric trends on tobacco use and exposures, various new products used by adolescents, the adverse biological and behavioral effects of tobacco use and exposures, and tobacco control strategies to eliminate tobacco-related illnesses and deaths in the pediatric population. RECENT FINDINGS: Twelve-20% of women continue to smoke during pregnancy...
August 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735078/revisiting-the-role-of-the-insula-and-smoking-cue-reactivity-in-relapse-a-replication-and-extension-of-neuroimaging-findings
#19
A C Janes, J M Gilman, M Radoman, G Pachas, M Fava, A E Evins
INTRODUCTION: The ability to direct smoking cessation treatment based on neuroscientific findings holds incredible promise. However, there is a strong need for consistency across studies to confirm neurobiological targets. While our prior work implicated enhanced insula reactivity to smoking cues in tobacco smoking relapse vulnerability, this finding has not been confirmed. METHOD: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we evaluated the pre-cessation brain reactivity to smoking vs...
July 12, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734893/genetic-polymorphisms-in-cyp2a6-are-associated-with-a-risk-of-cigarette-smoking-and-predispose-to-smoking-at-younger-ages
#20
Gloria Pérez-Rubio, Luis Alberto López-Flores, Alejandra Ramírez-Venegas, Valeri Noé-Díaz, Leonor García-Gómez, Enrique Ambrocio-Ortiz, Candelaria Sánchez-Romero, Rafael De Jesús Hernández-Zenteno, Raúl Humberto Sansores, Ramcés Falfán-Valencia
Nicotine is the main component of cigarettes that causes addiction, which is considered a complex disease, and genetic factors have been proposed to be involved in the development of addiction. The CYP2A6 gene encodes the main enzyme responsible for nicotine metabolism. Depending on the study population, different genetic variants of CYP2A6 associated with cigarette smoking have been described. Therefore, we evaluated the possible association between SNPs in CYP2A6 with cigarette smoking and nicotine addiction-related variables in Mexican mestizo smokers...
July 19, 2017: Gene
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