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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429068/nicotine-deprivation-elevates-neural-representation-of-smoking-related-cues-in-object-sensitive-visual-cortex-a-proof-of-concept-study
#1
Anne Havermans, Onno C P van Schayck, Eric F P M Vuurman, Wim J Riedel, Job van den Hurk
OBJECTIVE: In the current study, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to investigate whether tobacco addiction biases basic visual processing in favour of smoking-related images. We hypothesize that the neural representation of smoking-related stimuli in the lateral occipital complex (LOC) is elevated after a period of nicotine deprivation compared to a satiated state, but that this is not the case for object categories unrelated to smoking...
April 21, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428763/adhd-lifestyles-and-comorbidities-a-call-for-an-holistic-perspective-from-medical-to-societal-intervening-factors
#2
REVIEW
Simon Weissenberger, Radek Ptacek, Martina Klicperova-Baker, Andreja Erman, Katerina Schonova, Jiri Raboch, Michal Goetz
The review examines Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in its Child and Adult form) and its various presentations (Hyperactive Impulsive, Inattentive, and Combined) with a particular focus on environmental (incl. social factors), lifestyles and comorbidities. It is argued that ADHD is best understood in a holistic and interactive context and a vast empirical literature is presented to illustrate the point: Environmental factors include stress in general as well as exposure to toxins (phthalates, bisphenol A)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426355/income-levels-and-response-to-contingency-management-for-smoking-cessation
#3
Carla López-Núñez, Roberto Secades-Villa, Elsa Peña-Suárez, Sergio Fernández-Artamendi, Sara Weidberg
BACKGROUND: Contingency management (CM) has demonstrated its efficacy in treating many drug addictions, including nicotine. However, one of the most commonly perceived limitations with regard to its dissemination into community settings is whether this protocol could be equally effective for treating patients across different income levels. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine whether individuals' income levels affect treatment success in a cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) that included a voucher-based CM protocol for smoking cessation...
June 7, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422717/c3orf21-ablation-promotes-the-proliferation-of-lung-adenocarcinoma-and-its-mutation-at-the-rs2131877-locus-may-serve-as-a-susceptibility-marker
#4
Litao Yang, Ying Wang, Meiyu Fang, Douhou Deng, Yongjun Zhang
In this study, we investigated the role of C3orf21 gene polymorphism at the rs2131877 locus and its contribution to lung adenocarcinoma pathogenesis. Normal lung and tumor tissue sections were collected from fifteen patients with lung adenocarcinoma for chromosome 3 open reading frame 21 (C3orf21) genotype analysis. In addition, a retrospective analysis was performed to assess the association between C3orf21 genotype and tumor markers from patient samples used in our previously published study. In parallel, we also manipulated C3orf21 gene expression either by overexpressing or ablating it in a MSTO-211H human lung cancer cell line to further understand its contribution to cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration...
April 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422605/time-to-first-cigarette-physical-activity-and-pulmonary-function-in-middle-aged-to-older-adult-smokers
#5
Russell T Nye, Melissa Mercincavage, Steven A Branstette
BACKGROUND: How addiction severity relates to physical activity (PA), and if PA moderates the relation between PA and lung function among smokers is unknown. This study explored the independent and interactive associations of nicotine addiction severity and PA with lung function. METHODS: The study utilized cross-sectional data from 343 adult smokers aged 40-79 participating in the 2009-10 and 2011-12 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Assessed were the independent relations of nicotine addiction severity, as measured by the time to first cigarette (TTFC), and average daily minutes of moderate and vigorous PA with lung function ratio (FEV1/FVC)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416445/%C3%AE-o-conotoxin-gexiva-disulfide-bond-isomers-exhibit-differential-sensitivity-for-various-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-but-retain-potency-and-selectivity-for-the-human-%C3%AE-9%C3%AE-10-subtype
#6
REVIEW
Dongting Zhangsun, Xiaopeng Zhu, Quentin Kaas, Yong Wu, David J Craik, J Michael McIntosh, Sulan Luo
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes exhibit distinct neuropharmacological properties that are involved in a range of neuropathological conditions, including pain, addiction, epilepsy, autism, schizophrenia, Tourette's syndrome, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, as well as many types of cancer. The α9α10 nAChR is a potential target in chronic pain, wound healing, the pathophysiology of the auditory system, and breast and lung cancers. αO-conotoxin GeXIVA is a potent antagonist of rat α9α10 nAChRs, with the 'bead' disulfide bond isomer displaying the lowest IC50 of the three possible isomers...
April 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401822/herziene-richtlijn-%C3%A2-behandeling-van-tabaksverslaving-en-stoppen-met-roken-ondersteuning%C3%A2
#7
N H Chavannes, E Meijer, L Wind, R C van der Graaf, C Rietbergen, E A Croes
- The revised guideline 'Treatment of tobacco addiction and smoking cessation support' offers health professionals a framework to provide evidence-based care to patients who smoke, which should aid in reducing smoking prevalence and smoke-related morbidity and mortality.- Four topics of the guideline have been revised: behavioural interventions, pharmacotherapy, e-health interventions and e-cigarettes. For the other topics, the recommendations from the 2009 version remain unaltered.- It is important that health professionals offer a made-to-measure smoking cessation advice and apply a fit-for-purpose smoking cessation intervention...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393086/nicotine-delivery-and-vaping-behavior-during-ad-libitum-e-cigarette-access
#8
Gideon St Helen, Kathryn C Ross, Delia A Dempsey, Christopher M Havel, Peyton Jacob, Neal L Benowitz
OBJECTIVE: To characterize vaping behavior and nicotine intake during ad libitum e-cigarette access. METHODS: Thirteen adult e-cigarette users had 90 minutes of videotaped ad libitum access to their usual e-cigarette. Plasma nicotine was measured before and every 15 minutes after the first puff; subjective effects were measured before and after the session. RESULTS: Average puff duration and interpuff interval were 3.5±1.4 seconds (±SD) and 118±141 seconds, respectively...
October 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389330/a-comparison-of-nicotine-dependence-among-exclusive-e-cigarette-and-cigarette-users-in-the-path-study
#9
Guodong Liu, Emily Wasserman, Lan Kong, Jonathan Foulds
Electronic cigarettes ("e-cigs") have recently gained in popularity, but their health risks, including dependence potential are unclear. This study analyzed the adult database from the Wave 1 Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, a nationally representative survey of tobacco use in the United States, to assess the relative level of dependence among adult, exclusive everyday users of e-cigarettes and cigarettes. Of the total 32,320 observations from the Wave 1 PATH adult database, 3586 (5...
April 4, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387427/love-conquers-all-but-nicotine-spousal-peer-effects-on-the-decision-to-quit-smoking
#10
Ali Palali, Jan C Van Ours
If two partners smoke, their quit behavior may be related through correlation in unobserved individual characteristics and through common shocks. However, there may also be a causal effect whereby the quit behavior of one partner is affected by the quit decision of the other partner. If so, there is a spousal peer effect on the decision to quit smoking. We use data containing retrospective information of Dutch partnered individuals about their age of onset of smoking and their age of quitting smoking. We estimate mixed proportional hazard models of starting rates and quit rates of smoking in which we allow unobserved heterogeneity to be correlated across partners...
April 7, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384607/latent-class-analysis-of-gambling-subtypes-and-impulsive-compulsive-associations-time-to-rethink-diagnostic-boundaries-for-gambling-disorder
#11
Samuel R Chamberlain, Jan Stochl, Sarah A Redden, Brian L Odlaug, Jon E Grant
BACKGROUND: Gambling disorder has been associated with cognitive dysfunction and impaired quality of life. The current definition of non-pathological, problem, and pathological types of gambling is based on total symptom scores, which may overlook nuanced underlying presentations of gambling symptoms. The aims of the current study were (i) to identify subtypes of gambling in young adults, using latent class analysis, based on individual responses from the Structured Clinical Interview for Gambling Disorder (SCI-GD); and (ii) to explore relationships between these gambling subtypes, and clinical/cognitive measures...
March 28, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382542/kk-92a-a-novel-gabab-receptor-positive-allosteric-modulator-attenuates-nicotine-self-administration-and-cue-induced-nicotine-seeking-in-rats
#12
Xia Li, Emmanuel Sturchler, Katarzyna Kaczanowska, Michael Cameron, M G Finn, Patrick Griffin, Patricia McDonald, Athina Markou
RATIONALE: GABAB receptors (GABABR) play a critical role in GABAergic neurotransmission in the brain and are thought to be one of the most promising targets for the treatment of drug addiction. GABABR positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have shown promise as potential anti-addictive therapies, as they lack the sedative and muscle relaxant properties of full GABAB receptor agonists such as baclofen. OBJECTIVES: The present study was aimed at developing novel, selective, and potent GABABR PAMs with efficacy on abuse-related effects of nicotine...
April 5, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373890/restructuring-reward-mechanisms-in-nicotine-addiction-a-pilot-fmri-study-of-mindfulness-oriented-recovery-enhancement-for-cigarette-smokers
#13
B Froeliger, A R Mathew, P A McConnell, C Eichberg, M E Saladin, M J Carpenter, E L Garland
The primary goal of this pilot feasibility study was to examine the effects of Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE), a behavioral treatment grounded in dual-process models derived from cognitive science, on frontostriatal reward processes among cigarette smokers. Healthy adult (N = 13; mean (SD) age 49 ± 12.2) smokers provided informed consent to participate in a 10-week study testing MORE versus a comparison group (CG). All participants underwent two fMRI scans: pre-tx and after 8-weeks of MORE...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369244/targeted-sequencing-of-chromosome-15q25-identified-novel-variants-associated-with-risk-of-lung-cancer-and-smoking-behavior-in-chinese
#14
Yang Cheng, Cheng Wang, Meng Zhu, Juncheng Dai, Yuzhuo Wang, Liguo Geng, Zhihua Li, Jiahui Zhang, Hongxia Ma, Guangfu Jin, Dongxin Lin, Zhibin Hu, Hongbing Shen
Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in populations of European descent identified a lung cancer susceptibility locus at 15q25 that was biologically associated with nicotine addiction. However, the allele frequency of susceptibility variants identified in this region varied dramatically across European and Asian populations, suggesting that additional risk SNPs in Asians need to be identified. Thus, we conducted a fine-mapping study of chromosome 15q25 using targeted resequencing of 200 lung cancer cases and 300 controls of Chinese descent...
March 27, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365525/radiosynthesis-of-s-18-f-t1-the-first-pet-radioligand-for-molecular-imaging-of-%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-4-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#15
Jiradanai Sarasamkan, Steffen Fischer, Winnie Deuther-Conrad, Friedrich-Alexander Ludwig, Matthias Scheunemann, Kuntarat Arunrungvichian, Opa Vajragupta, Peter Brust
Recent pharmacologic data revealed the implication of α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in nicotine and drug addiction. To image α3β4 nAChRs in vivo, we aimed to establish the synthesis of a [(18)F]-labelled analog of the highly affine and selective α3β4 ligand (S)-3-(4-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)quinuclidine ((S)-T1). (S)-[(18)F]T1 was synthesized from ethynyl-4-[(18)F]fluorobenzene ([(18)F]5) and (S)-azidoquinuclidine by click reaction. After a synthesis time of 130min (S)-[(18)F]T1 was obtained with a radiochemical yield (non-decay corrected) of 4...
March 18, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364687/comorbidity-family-history-and-personality-traits-in-pathological-gamblers-compared-with-healthy-controls
#16
K Mann, T Lemenager, E Zois, S Hoffmann, H Nakovics, M Beutel, M Vogelgesang, K Wölfling, F Kiefer, M Fauth-Bühler
BACKGROUND: While DSM-5 classified pathological gambling as an addictive disorder, there is debate as to whether ICD-11 should follow suit. The debate hinges on scientific evidence such as neurobiological findings, family history of psychiatric disorders, psychiatric comorbidity, and personality variables. METHODS: In the "Baden-Württemberg Study of Pathological Gambling", we compared a group of 515 male pathological gamblers receiving treatment with 269 matched healthy controls...
December 23, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361878/structural-mechanisms-for-%C3%AE-conotoxin-activity-at-the-human-%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-4-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor
#17
Nikita Abraham, Michael Healy, Lotten Ragnarsson, Andreas Brust, Paul F Alewood, Richard J Lewis
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are therapeutic targets for a range of human diseases. α-Conotoxins are naturally occurring peptide antagonists of nAChRs that have been used as pharmacological probes and investigated as drug leads for nAChR related disorders. However, α-conotoxin interactions have been mostly characterised at the α7 and α3β2 nAChRs, with interactions at other subtypes poorly understood. This study provides novel structural insights into the molecular basis for α-conotoxin activity at α3β4 nAChR, a therapeutic target where subtype specific antagonists have potential to treat nicotine addiction and lung cancer...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361496/individual-behavioural-counselling-for-smoking-cessation
#18
REVIEW
Tim Lancaster, Lindsay F Stead
BACKGROUND: Individual counselling from a smoking cessation specialist may help smokers to make a successful attempt to stop smoking. OBJECTIVES: The review addresses the following hypotheses:1. Individual counselling is more effective than no treatment or brief advice in promoting smoking cessation.2. Individual counselling is more effective than self-help materials in promoting smoking cessation.3. A more intensive counselling intervention is more effective than a less intensive intervention...
March 31, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359756/itraq-proteomic-analysis-of-the-hippocampus-in-a-rat-model-of-nicotine-induced-conditioned-place-preference
#19
Beibei Zhu, Xiangyu Li, Huan Chen, Hongjuan Wang, Xinchao Zhu, Hongwei Hou, Qingyuan Hu
Repeated exposures to nicotine are known to result in persistent changes in proteins expression in addiction-related brain regions, such as the striatum, nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex, but the changes induced in the protein content of the hippocampus remain poorly studied. This study established a rat model of nicotine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), and screened for proteins that were differentially expressed in the hippocampus of these rats using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation labeling (iTRAQ) coupled with 2D-LC MS/MS...
March 28, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357120/gabab-receptor-allosteric-modulators-exhibit-pathway-dependent-and-species-selective-activity
#20
Emmanuel Sturchler, Xia Li, Maria de Lourdes Ladino, Kasia Kaczanowska, Michael Cameron, Patrick R Griffin, M G Finn, Athina Markou, Patricia McDonald
Positive modulation of the GABAB receptor (GABABR) represents a potentially useful therapeutic approach for the treatment of nicotine addiction. The positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of GABABR GS39783 and BHF177 enhance GABA-stimulated [(35)S]GTP γS-binding, and have shown efficacy in a rodent nicotine self-administration procedure reflecting aspects of nicotine dependence. Interestingly, the structural related analog, NVP998, had no effect on nicotine self-administration in rats despite demonstrating similar pharmacokinetic properties...
April 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
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