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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087586/using-e-cigarettes-in-the-home-to-reduce-smoking-and-secondhand-smoke-disadvantaged-parents-accounts
#1
Neneh Rowa-Dewar, Catriona Rooke, Amanda Amos
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are subject to considerable public health debate. Most public health experts agree that for smokers who find it particularly challenging to quit, e-cigarettes may reduce harm. E-cigarette use in the home may also reduce children's secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, although e-cigarette vapour may pose risks. This is the first qualitative study to explore disadvantaged parents' views and experiences of e-cigarettes in relation to reducing SHS exposure in the home. Interviews with 25 disadvantaged parents from Edinburgh who smoked and had children aged 1-3 were conducted in 2013, with 17 re-interviewed in 2014...
January 13, 2017: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087221/varenicline-provokes-impulsive-action-by-stimulating-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-the-infralimbic-cortex-in-a-nicotine-exposure-status-dependent-manner
#2
Yu Ohmura, Hitomi Sasamori, Iku Tsutsui-Kimura, Takeshi Izumi, Takayuki Yoshida, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka
Higher impulsivity is a risk factor for criminal involvement and drug addiction. Because nicotine administration enhances impulsivity, the effects of stop-smoking aids stimulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on impulsivity must be determined in different conditions. Our goals were 1) to confirm the relationship between varenicline, a stop-smoking aid and α4β2 nAChR partial agonist, and impulsivity, 2) to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effects of varenicline, 3) to examine whether a low dose of varenicline that does not evoke impulsive action could block the stimulating effects of nicotine on impulsive action, 4) to determine whether the route of administration could modulate the effects of varenicline on impulsive action, and 5) to determine whether the effects of varenicline on impulsivity could be altered by smoking status...
January 10, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081226/regional-homogeneity-changes-in-nicotine-addicts-by-resting-state-fmri
#3
Hongbo Chen, Shaofeng Mo
OBJECTIVE: To reveal the brain functional changes of nicotine addicts compared with those of non-smokers and explore the objective biomarker for nicotine dependence evaluation. METHODS: A total of 14 smokers and 11 non-smoking controls were recruited for this study. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and regional homogeneity (ReHo) were applied in the neural activity analysis. Two-sample t-test was performed to examine the voxel-wise difference between the smokers and the controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081206/identifying-pleiotropic-genes-in-genome-wide-association-studies-for-multivariate-phenotypes-with-mixed-measurement-scales
#4
James J Yang, L Keoki Williams, Anne Buu
We propose a multivariate genome-wide association test for mixed continuous, binary, and ordinal phenotypes. A latent response model is used to estimate the correlation between phenotypes with different measurement scales so that the empirical distribution of the Fisher's combination statistic under the null hypothesis is estimated efficiently. The simulation study shows that our proposed correlation estimation methods have high levels of accuracy. More importantly, our approach conservatively estimates the variance of the test statistic so that the type I error rate is controlled...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069410/tobacco-control-and-treatment-for-the-pediatric-clinician-practice-policy-and-research-updates
#5
REVIEW
Brian P Jenssen, Karen M Wilson
Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, and exposure to tobacco smoke harms children from conception forward. There is no safe level of tobacco exposure. While overall smoking rates have declined, the advent of new products, such as electronic cigarettes, threatens to perpetuate nicotine addiction without clear health benefits. In addition to reviewing traditional and new tobacco products, we discuss the unique role that pediatricians should play in tobacco treatment and control efforts...
January 6, 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059903/tobacco-e-cigarettes-and-child-health
#6
Lisa A Peterson, Stephen S Hecht
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The availability of the Children's Health Exposure Assessment Resource funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences provides new opportunities for exploring the role of tobacco smoke exposure in causing harm to children. RECENT FINDINGS: Children of smokers are exposed to nicotine and other harmful tobacco smoke chemicals in utero as well as in their environment. This passive exposure to tobacco smoke has a variety of negative effects on children...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048167/su-f-i-66-the-effects-of-nicotinic-agonists-on-rat-hippocampal-glutamatergic-fluctuation-by-using-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-at-9-4t
#7
S-I Lim, K-H Song, C-H Yoo, D-C Woo, B-Y Choe
PURPOSE: Nicotine exerts its effects through the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Varenicline, a smoking cessation aid, is a partial agonist acting at the α4β2 nAChRs. Although nicotine and varenicline contribute to the reward system at the same time, the influence of the substances on hippocampal neurochemical changes has not been investigated yet. We therefore studied the effects of repeated nicotine exposure and varenicline administration on hippocampus of rats by using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) at 9...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041641/time-to-first-cigarette-and-serum-cholesterol-levels
#8
Arielle S Selya, Naa Dede Hesse
RATIONALE: Cigarette smoking is a primary cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, prior research has rarely distinguished smoking behavior from nicotine dependence. OBJECTIVE: The current study presents a novel investigation into whether time to first cigarette (TTFC), a reliable proxy for nicotine dependence, is associated with lipid cholesterol, a biomarker for CVD, after controlling for smoking behavior and other risk factors. METHODS: In total, 3903 current adult smokers were drawn from four consecutive cross-sectional waves (2005-06, 2007-08, 2009-10, and 2011-12) of the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES)...
December 14, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038309/diazepam-inhibits-electrically-evoked-and-tonic-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-reverses-the-effect-of-amphetamine
#9
Alexander Gomez-A, Amanda Maino Fiorenza, Suelen Lucio Boschen, Adam H Sugi, Danielle Beckman, Sergio T Ferreira, Kendall H Lee, Charles D Blaha, Claudio Da Cunha
Diazepam is a benzodiazepine receptor agonist with anxiolytic and addictive properties. Although most drugs of abuse increase dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, here we show that not only it causes the opposite effect but also prevents amphetamine action on increasing dopamine release. We used 20 min sampling in vivo microdialysis and subsecond fast-scan cyclic voltammetry recordings at carbon-fiber microelectrodes to show that diazepam caused a dose-dependent decrease in tonic and electrically-evoked dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens of urethane anesthetized adult male Swiss mice...
December 30, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034733/u-s-adults-addiction-and-harm-beliefs-about-nicotine-and-low-nicotine-cigarettes
#10
Erin Keely O'Brien, Anh B Nguyen, Alexander Persoskie, Allison C Hoffman
This research described U.S. adults' beliefs about nicotine and low nicotine cigarettes (LNCs) using the nationally-representative Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS-FDA 2015; N=3738). About three quarters of people either were unsure of the relationship between nicotine and cancer or incorrectly believed that nicotine causes cancer. People who were non-White, less educated, age 65+, and never established smokers were most likely to be unaware that nicotine is not a cause of cancer. More than a quarter of people held the potentially inaccurate beliefs that LNCs would be less harmful and addictive than typical cigarettes...
December 27, 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028605/neuropeptide-systems-and-new-treatments-for-nicotine-addiction
#11
REVIEW
Adriaan W Bruijnzeel
RATIONALE: The mildly euphoric and cognitive enhancing effects of nicotine play a role in the initiation of smoking, while dysphoria and anxiety associated with smoking cessation contribute to relapse. After the acute withdrawal phase, smoking cues, a few cigarettes (i.e., lapse), and stressors can cause relapse. Human and animal studies have shown that neuropeptides play a critical role in nicotine addiction. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this paper is to describe the role of neuropeptide systems in the initiation of nicotine intake, nicotine withdrawal, and the reinstatement of extinguished nicotine seeking...
December 28, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028128/association-between-school-level-prevalence-of-electronic-cigarette-use-and-student-level-use-behaviors-pre-use-intentions-and-risk-perceptions-evidence-from-the-2014-u-s-national-youth-tobacco-survey
#12
Adam M Lippert
BACKGROUND: Adolescent electronic cigarette ("e-cigarette") use tripled in recent years, yet little is known about the school-level correlates of teenage e-cigarette use, harm and risk perceptions, or pre-use intentions to use. METHODS: Multilevel regression and 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey data were used to assess school-level e-cigarette prevalence and person-level e-cigarette use as well as age at initiation and frequency of use (among initiates), expectations for future use (among abstainers); and perceived e-cigarette addictivity and harm...
December 27, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025590/nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-as-targets-for-tobacco-cessation-therapeutics-cutting-edge-methodologies-to-understand-receptor-assembly-and-trafficking
#13
Ashley M Fox-Loe, Linda P Dwoskin, Christopher I Richards
Tobacco dependence is a chronic relapsing disorder and nicotine, the primary alkaloid in tobacco, acts at nicotinic receptors to stimulate dopamine release in brain, which is responsible for the reinforcing properties of nicotine, leading to addiction. Although the majority of tobacco users express the desire to quit, only a small percentage of those attempting to quit are successful using the currently available pharmacotherapies. Nicotine upregulates the number of specific nicotinic receptors on the neuronal cell surface...
2016: Neuromethods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025516/motivations-and-limitations-associated-with-vaping-among-people-with-mental-illness-a-qualitative-analysis-of-reddit-discussions
#14
Ratika Sharma, Britta Wigginton, Carla Meurk, Pauline Ford, Coral E Gartner
This study aims to understand the nature and significance of online lay discussions about e-cigarettes and mental illness. We systematically searched the website Reddit.com using keywords related to e-cigarettes and mental illness. We coded relevant posts into themes under the framework of motivations for and limitations of vaping for people with mental illness. The thematic analysis included 3263 comments from 133 discussion threads. Six themes were classified as motivations to vape for people with mental illness: Self-medication; Quitting smoking; Freedom and control; Hobby; Social connectedness; and Motivation from caregivers and online communities...
December 22, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017304/e-cigarettes-what-a-practicing-cardiologist-needs-to-know
#15
EDITORIAL
Joshua Liberman, Samuel Wann
Cardiologists and other physicians caring for patients who either smoke tobacco or are potential or active users of E-cigarettes have many questions about this increasingly popular method for delivering nicotine to the brain: (1) What are E-cigarettes? (2) What harm do E-cigarettes pose to users and bystanders? (3) Can E-cigarettes help tobacco smokers quit? (4) Are E-cigarettes a gateway to tobacco smoking, addicting new users, particularly the young, to nicotine? and (5) Should E-cigarettes be tolerated, or even favored over tobacco, as a less harmful substitute for those unable to stop smoking tobacco? This editorial summarizes evidence and expert opinion, preparing the physician for informed discussion of this controversial subject with their patients and colleagues...
November 19, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005086/-evaluation-of-color-perception-in-individuals-addicted-to-narcotic-substances-in-the-farnsworth-munsell-100-hue-test
#16
Krystyna Nadolska, Roman Goś
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to assess color perception in the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test in individuals addicted to narcotic substances, and to analyze the acquired color vision disorders, depending on the duration of addiction and abstinence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety-five persons were qualified for the study. All the subjects were divided into 3 groups. Group I (drug addicts) comprised 45 individuals addicted to narcotic substances and nicotine...
December 22, 2016: Medycyna Pracy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003512/characteristics-of-american-snus-and-swedish-snus-products-for-sale-in-massachusetts-usa
#17
Andrew B Seidenberg, Olalekan A Ayo-Yusuf, Vaughan W Rees
INTRODUCTION: Snus may present lower health risks than cigarettes, but its harm reduction potential may be undermined if used dually with cigarettes. The likelihood of exclusive snus use compared with dual use may depend in part on the capacity of snus to deliver nicotine in doses that are satisfactory to smokers. We examined characteristics of "American snus" products, including nicotine levels, and compared to snus products that are more typical of Sweden. METHODS: Tobacco industry reports for snus products submitted to the Massachusetts Department of Public Health for the year 2014 were used to assess moisture (%), pH, total nicotine, and un-ionized (free) nicotine (both mg/g and percent of total)...
December 21, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997237/lost-in-e-cigarette-clouds-a-culture-on-the-rise
#18
Stephanie Jarmul, Angela Aherrera, Ana M Rule, Pablo Olmedo, Rui Chen, Ana Navas-Acien
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995279/from-bench-to-bedside-mglur2-positive-allosteric-modulators-as-medications-to-treat-substance-use-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Jane B Acri, Alan J Cross, Phil Skolnick
OBJECTIVE: This paper provides an overview of the role of type 2 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2) in addiction and behaviors reflecting addictive processes. RESULTS: AZD8529, an mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM), failed to separate from placebo in a phase II schizophrenia trial. The demonstration by Athina Markou's laboratory that AZD8529 attenuated both nicotine self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement was a key factor in the decision to move this compound into a smoking cessation study...
December 20, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994179/association-between-smoking-behaviour-and-genetic-variants-of-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#20
Eszter Kotyuk, Nora Nemeth, Zsolt Ronai, Zsolt Demetrovics, Maria Sasvari-Szekely, Anna Szekely
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes development and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons, thus it has an important role in dopamine-related neuropsychiatric disorders. Since the role of dopamine system in smoking is well established, we hypothesized that GDNF gene variants may affect smoking behaviour. Self-reported data on smoking behaviour (never smoked, quit, occasional, or regular smokers) and level of nicotine addiction (Hooked on Nicotine Checklist and Fagerstrom Nicotine Addiction Scale), anxiety, as well as buccal samples were obtained from 930 Hungarian young adults (18-35 years)...
December 2016: Journal of Genetics
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