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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315314/nicotine-promotes-cholangiocarcinoma-growth-in-xenograft-mice
#1
Allyson K Martínez, Kendal Jensen, Chad Hall, April O'Brien, Laurent Ehrlich, Tori White, Fanyin Meng, Tianhao Zhou, John Greene, Francesca Bernuzzi, Pietro Invernizzi, David E Dostal, Terry Lairmore, Gianfranco Alpini, Shannon Glaser
Nicotine, the main addictive substance in tobacco, is known to play a role in the development and/or progression of a number of malignant tumors. However, nicotine's involvement in the pathogenesis of cholangiocarcinoma is controversial. Therefore, we studied the effects of nicotine on the growth of cholangiocarcinoma cells in vitro and the progression of cholangiocarcinoma in a mouse xenograft model. The predominant subunit responsible for nicotine-mediated proliferation in normal and cancer cells, the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR), was more highly expressed in human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines compared with normal human cholangiocytes...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302035/translational-multimodality-neuroimaging
#2
Sushil K Sharma
Recently high-resolution, noninvasive, multimodality in-vivo molecular imaging with PET, SPECT, CT and MRI, employing fusion algorithms has revolutionized personalized medicine. However, specific radiopharmaceuticals (RPs) for the accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, drug addiction, and other cognitive impairments still remain in developmental phase. Currently, multimodality fusion neuroimaging is utilized for the determination of: pharmacokinetics and pre-clinical development of radiopharmaceuticals (RPs); in-vivo monitoring of stem cell transplantation therapy; nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) investigations; and regional cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in cognitively-impaired subjects employing noninvasive microPET and nano-SPECT imaging...
March 15, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298165/high-throughput-patch-clamp-screening-in-human-%C3%AE-6-containing-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#3
Lucas C Armstrong, Glenn E Kirsch, Nikolai B Fedorov, Caiyun Wu, Yuri A Kuryshev, Abby L Sewell, Zhiqi Liu, Arianne L Motter, Carmine S Leggett, Michael S Orr
Nicotine, the addictive component of tobacco products, is an agonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the brain. The subtypes of nAChR are defined by their α- and β-subunit composition. The α6β2β3 nAChR subtype is expressed in terminals of dopaminergic neurons that project to the nucleus accumbens and striatum and modulate dopamine release in brain regions involved in nicotine addiction. Although subtype-dependent selectivity of nicotine is well documented, subtype-selective profiles of other tobacco product constituents are largely unknown and could be essential for understanding the addiction-related neurological effects of tobacco products...
March 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296947/the-dual-orexin-receptor-antagonist-tcs1102-does-not-affect-reinstatement-of-nicotine-seeking
#4
Shaun Yon-Seng Khoo, Gavan P McNally, Kelly J Clemens
The orexin/hypocretin system is important for appetitive motivation towards multiple drugs of abuse, including nicotine. Both OX1 and OX2 receptors individually have been shown to influence nicotine self-administration and reinstatement. Due to the increasing clinical use of dual orexin receptor antagonists in the treatment of disorders such as insomnia, we examined whether a dual orexin receptor antagonist may also be effective in reducing nicotine seeking. We tested the effect of intracerebroventricular (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289369/associations-of-attitudes-towards-electronic-cigarettes-with-advertisement-exposure-and-social-determinants-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Benjamin Reinhold, Rebecca Fischbein, Surya Sruthi Bhamidipalli, Jennifer Bryant, Deric R Kenne
BACKGROUND: The exposure of young adults to electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) advertisements has risen rapidly. E-cigarette ads have been shown to increase short term perceived acceptability of using e-cigarettes in places where traditional cigarettes are banned. We set out to investigate if advertising exposure was related to perceptions of harm, addictiveness, and acceptability of use of e-cigarettes in places where traditional cigarettes are banned. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, 6037 students at a large Midwestern university between the ages of 18-24 were surveyed about e-cigarette use and smoking status...
2017: Tobacco Induced Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285326/endogenous-opioid-system-a-promising-target-for-future-smoking-cessation-medications
#6
REVIEW
Haval Norman, Manoranjan S D'Souza
BACKGROUND: Nicotine addiction continues to be a health challenge across the world. Despite several approved medications, smokers continue to relapse. Several human and animal studies have evaluated the role of the endogenous opioid system as a potential target for smoking cessation medications. METHODS: In this review, studies that have elucidated the role of the mu (MORs), delta (DORs), and kappa (KORs) opioid receptors in nicotine reward, nicotine withdrawal, and reinstatement of nicotine seeking will be discussed...
March 11, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283465/design-considerations-for-mhealth-programs-targeting-smokers-not-yet-ready-to-quit-results-of-a-sequential-mixed-methods-study
#7
Jennifer B McClure, Jaimee Heffner, Sarah Hohl, Predrag Klasnja, Sheryl L Catz
BACKGROUND: Mobile health (mHealth) smoking cessation programs are typically designed for smokers who are ready to quit smoking. In contrast, most smokers want to quit someday but are not yet ready to quit. If mHealth apps were designed for these smokers, they could potentially encourage and assist more people to quit smoking. No prior studies have specifically examined the design considerations of mHealth apps targeting smokers who are not yet ready to quit. OBJECTIVE: To inform the user-centered design of mHealth apps for smokers who were not yet ready to quit by assessing (1) whether these smokers were interested in using mHealth tools to change their smoking behavior; (2) their preferred features, functionality, and content of mHealth programs addressing smoking; and (3) considerations for marketing or distributing these programs to promote their uptake...
March 10, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281329/addiction-an-underestimated-problem-in-psoriasis-healthcare
#8
A Zink, M Herrmann, T Fischer, F Lauffer, N Garzorz-Stark, A Böhner, C D Spinner, T Biedermann, K Eyerich
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a disease of enormous socio-economic impact. Despite approval of numerous highly efficient and costly therapies, a minor proportion of severely affected patients actually receives sufficient treatment. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether addictions are associated with psoriasis and to develop evidence-based recommendations for dermatologists in their daily clinical practice in order to improve medical assessment of psoriasis and patients' quality of life...
March 9, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279662/in%C3%A2-vivo-interactions-between-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-and-nuclear-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-implication-for-nicotine-dependence
#9
Asti Jackson, Deniz Bagdas, Pretal P Muldoon, Aron H Lichtman, F Ivy Carroll, Mark Greenwald, Michael F Miles, M Imad Damaj
Chronic tobacco use dramatically increases health burdens and financial costs. Limitations of current smoking cessation therapies indicate the need for improved molecular targets. The main addictive component of tobacco, nicotine, exerts its dependency effects via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Activation of the homomeric α7 nAChR reduces nicotine's rewarding properties in conditioned place preference (CPP) test and i.v. self-administration models, but the mechanism underlying these effects is unknown...
March 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272095/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-substance-use-disorders-a-systematic-review-of-scientific-literature
#10
Matteo Lupi, Giovanni Martinotti, Rita Santacroce, Eduardo Cinosi, Maria Carlucci, Stefano Marini, Tiziano Acciavatti, Massimo di Giannantonio
INTRODUCTION: New treatment options such as noninvasive brain stimulation have been recently explored in the field of substance use disorders (SUDs), including transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). OBJECTIVES: In light of this, we have performed a review of the scientific literature to assess efficacy and technical and methodological issues resulting from applying tDCS to the field of SUDs. METHODS: Our analysis highlighted the following selection criteria: clinical studies on tDCS and SUDs (alcohol, caffeine, cannabis, cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, and nicotine)...
March 8, 2017: Journal of ECT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266897/the-relationship-between-emotional-intelligence-and-nicotine-dependence-in-lebanese-adults
#11
R Bou Khalil, A Chaar, I Bou Orm, Z Aoun-Bacha, S Richa
Emotional intelligence (EI) is known to be a risk factor for several types of addiction. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a cross-sectional design, the presence of a relationship between the level of EI and nicotine dependence in a sample of Lebanese adults. A self-administered questionnaire was used to determine the sociodemographic characteristics, the level of nicotine dependence, and the level of EI in a sample of 142 Lebanese participants from the community. The sample was 51.4% women, with a mean age of 33...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265714/a-short-history-of-the-5-ht2c-receptor-from-the-choroid-plexus-to-depression-obesity-and-addiction-treatment
#12
REVIEW
Jose M Palacios, Angel Pazos, Daniel Hoyer
This paper is a personal account on the discovery and characterization of the 5-HT2C receptor (first known as the 5-HT1C receptor) over 30 years ago and how it translated into a number of unsuspected features for a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and a diversity of clinical applications. The 5-HT2C receptor is one of the most intriguing members of the GPCR superfamily. Initially referred to as 5-HT1CR, the 5-HT2CR was discovered while studying the pharmacological features and the distribution of [(3)H]mesulergine-labelled sites, primarily in the brain using radioligand binding and slice autoradiography...
March 7, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262143/prevalence-of-dual-diagnosis-among-clinic-attending-patients-in-a-de-addiction-centre-of-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#13
Bhagyalakshmi Nanjayya Subodh, Nandita Hazari, Deeksha Elwadhi, Debasish Basu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Indian research on dual diagnosis is mostly on prevalence of co-morbidity in a particular type of substance use disorder or psychiatric disorder. They were not on overall prevalence of dual diagnosis in a clinical sample. The study aims to assess prevalence of dual diagnosis among first time visitors to a tertiary care deaddiction centre. METHODOLOGY: The study participants were recruited using computer-generated random number table from 10th Apr 2013 to 28 June 2013 from a deaddiction centre in North India...
February 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258047/mobile-phone-apps-for-smoking-cessation-quality-and-usability-among-smokers-with-psychosis
#14
Joelle C Ferron, Mary F Brunette, Pamela Geiger, Lisa A Marsch, Anna M Adachi-Mejia, Stephen J Bartels
BACKGROUND: Smoking is one of the top preventable causes of mortality in people with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Cessation treatment improves abstinence outcomes, but access is a barrier. Mobile phone apps are one way to increase access to cessation treatment; however, whether they are usable by people with psychotic disorders, who often have special learning needs, is not known. OBJECTIVE: Researchers reviewed 100 randomly selected apps for smoking cessation to rate them based on US guidelines for nicotine addiction treatment and to categorize them based on app functions...
March 3, 2017: JMIR Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231610/polygenic-risk-scores-for-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-associate-with-addiction
#15
Gunnar W Reginsson, Andres Ingason, Jack Euesden, Gyda Bjornsdottir, Sigurgeir Olafsson, Engilbert Sigurdsson, Hogni Oskarsson, Thorarinn Tyrfingsson, Valgerdur Runarsdottir, Ingunn Hansdottir, Stacy Steinberg, Hreinn Stefansson, Daniel F Gudbjartsson, Thorgeir E Thorgeirsson, Kari Stefansson
We use polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD) to predict smoking, and addiction to nicotine, alcohol or drugs in individuals not diagnosed with psychotic disorders. Using PRSs for 144 609 subjects, including 10 036 individuals admitted for in-patient addiction treatment and 35 754 smokers, we find that diagnoses of various substance use disorders and smoking associate strongly with PRSs for SCZ (P = 5.3 × 10(-50) -1.4 × 10(-6) ) and BPD (P = 1.7 × 10(-9) -1...
February 23, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216497/-visual-evoked-functional-connectivity-before-and-after-smoking-cessation-based-on-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#16
Shaofeng Mo, Xiaokai Zhang, Hongbo Chen, Jingtian Tang
To explore differences in visual information processing for smoking addicts between before and after smoking cessation based on functional magnetic resonance imaging technology.
 Methods: Seventeen volunteers, with heavy dependence on nicotine, agreed to give up smoking and to complete the test. The primary visual network and secondary visual network were extracted by independent component analysis technology. The region of interest was defined as the region with significant difference between before and after smoking cessation...
January 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210782/toll-like-receptor-signaling-and-stages-of-addiction
#17
REVIEW
Fulton T Crews, T Jordan Walter, Leon G Coleman, Ryan P Vetreno
BACKGROUND: Athina Markou and her colleagues discovered persistent changes in adult behavior following adolescent exposure to ethanol or nicotine consistent with increased risk for developing addiction. Building on Dr. Markou's important work and that of others in the field, researchers at the Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies have found that persistent changes in behavior following adolescent stress or alcohol exposure may be linked to induction of immune signaling in brain. AIM: This study aims to illuminate the critical interrelationship of the innate immune system (e...
February 17, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198992/a-debate-can-we-recommend-electronic-cigarettes-to-our-patients-opinion-1
#18
Tadeusz M Zielonka
A discussion about disadvantages of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has recently broken out. There are even opinions that they are as harmful as regular cigarettes. However, this has not been proved, and theoretical premises suggest that e-cigarettes should be definitely less harmful as while using them, tobacco is not burned and harmful substances, in particular carcinogens are not produced. Certain premises assume that e-cigarettes may be used as a new form of nicotine replacement therapy, but this has not been confirmed yet...
2017: Adv Respir Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198988/e-smoking-among-students-of-medicine-frequency-pattern-and-motivations
#19
Grzegorz Brożek, Mateusz Jankowski, Jan Zejda, Agnieszka Jarosińska, Agnieszka Idzik, Piotr Bańka
INTRODUCTION: E-smoking has become a public health problem. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette use; to compare the patterns of smoking; to assess the attitudes and motivations for e-cigarette use. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All 1,700 students from Faculty of Medicine (Medical University of Silesia) were invited to questionnaire based cross-sectional study about the frequency and attitudes towards the use of traditional and electronic cigarettes...
2017: Adv Respir Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191914/relative-contribution-of-genetic-individual-and-self-efficacy-factors-to-smoking-cessation-in-a-chinese-rural-population
#20
Qiang Wang, Suyun Li, Huijie Li, Xiaorong Yang, Fan Jiang, Nan Zhang, Mingkui Han, Chongqi Jia
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nicotine dependence is influenced by genetic, individual, and psychological factors. We aimed to examine whether nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes (CHRN) were associated with smoking cessation (SC) using genetic risk score and compare the relative contribution of genetic, individual and self-efficacy factors to SC. METHODS: Eight hundred and nineteen male smokers (mean age: 59.62) were recruited from 17 villages of three counties in Shandong province, China...
February 13, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
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