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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450253/drug-nicotine-and-alcohol-use-among-exercisers-does-substance-addiction-co-occur-with-exercise-addiction
#1
Attila Szabo, Mark D Griffiths, Rikke Aarhus Høglid, Zsolt Demetrovics
Background: Scholastic works suggest that those at risk for exercise addiction are also often addicted to illicit drugs, nicotine, and/or alcohol, but empirical evidence is lacking. Aims: The aim of the present work was to examine the co-occurrence of illicit drug, nicotine, and alcohol use frequency (prevalence of users) and severity (level of problem in users) among exercisers classified at three levels of risk for exercise addiction: (i) asymptomatic, (ii) symptomatic, and (iii) at-risk...
June 2018: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450252/alcohol-and-tobacco-use-among-methadone-maintenance-patients-in-vietnamese-rural-mountainside-areas
#2
Bach Xuan Tran, Huong Lan Thi Nguyen, Quynh Ngoc Hoang Le, Hue Thi Mai, Chau Ngo, Canh Dinh Hoang, Hai Hong Nguyen, Hai Quan Le, Hung Van Nguyen, Huong Thi Le, Tho Dinh Tran, Nabil Zary, Carl A Latkin, Thuc Minh Thi Vu, Roger C M Ho, Melvyn W B Zhang
Introduction: The expansion of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program requires more data about the factors affecting the effectiveness of treatment, especially behavioral data such as smoking and alcohol use among patients. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol consumption and identify related factors among MMT patients in the Vietnamese rural mountainside. Methods: We interviewed 241 MMT patients in two clinics in Tuyen Quang, a mountainous province in Vietnam...
June 2018: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445521/a-method-for-co-creation-of-an-evidence-based-patient-workbook-to-address-alcohol-use-when-quitting-smoking-in-primary-care-a-case-study
#3
Nadia Minian, Aliya Noormohamed, Laurie Zawertailo, Dolly Baliunas, Norman Giesbrecht, Bernard Le Foll, Jürgen Rehm, Andriy Samokhvalov, Peter L Selby
Plain English summary: The purpose of this paper is to describe a patient engagement event designed to create an educational workbook with smokers who drink alcohol at harmful levels. The goal was to create a workbook that combined scientific evidence with patients' values, preferences, and needs. Fourteen adult smokers who drink alcohol were invited to the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) to take part in a four-hour event to help design the workbook with the CAMH research team...
2018: Research involvement and engagement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440730/analyzing-the-genes-related-to-nicotine-addiction-or-schizophrenia-via-a-pathway-and-network-based-approach
#4
Ying Hu, Zhonghai Fang, Yichen Yang, Dekai Rohlsen-Neal, Feng Cheng, Ju Wang
The prevalence of tobacco use in people with schizophrenia is much higher than in general population, which indicates a close relationship between nicotine addiction and schizophrenia. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the high comorbidity of tobacco smoking and schizophrenia remains largely unclear. In this study, we conducted a pathway and network analysis on the genes potentially associated with nicotine addiction or schizophrenia to reveal the functional feature of these genes and their interactions...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423839/molecular-neuronal-and-behavioral-effects-of-ethanol-and-nicotine-interactions
#5
Paul M Klenowski, Andrew R Tapper
Ethanol and nicotine can modulate the activity of several neurotransmitter systems and signalling pathways. Interactions between ethanol and nicotine can also occur via common molecular targets including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). These effects can induce molecular and synaptic adaptations that over time, are consolidated in brain circuits that reinforce drug-seeking behavior, contribute to the development of withdrawal symptoms during abstinence and increase the susceptibility to relapse. This chapter will discuss the acute and chronic effects of ethanol and nicotine within the mesolimbic reward pathway and brain circuits involved in learning, memory, and withdrawal...
February 9, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407412/nicotine-enhanced-pavlovian-conditioned-approach-is-resistant-to-omission-of-expected-outcome
#6
Sierra J Stringfield, Charlotte A Boettiger, Donita L Robinson
Conditioned stimuli contribute to the resilience of nicotine addiction in that nicotine-associated cues can influence smokers and promote relapse. These stimuli are thought to acquire incentive motivational properties through a Pavlovian mechanism, and this phenomenon can be measured in animals by observing conditioned approach to the conditioned stimulus (sign-tracking) or to the location of unconditioned stimulus delivery (goal-tracking). Goal-tracking is thought to be more flexible than sign-tracking in response to changes in expected outcome...
January 29, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405451/nicotinic-activity-layer-specifically-modulates-synaptic-potentiation-in-the-mouse-insular-cortex
#7
Hiroki Toyoda
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the insular cortex play an important role in nicotine addiction, but its cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying nicotine addiction still remain unresolved. In layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the mouse insular cortex, activation of nAChRs suppresses synaptic potentiation through enhancing GABAergic synaptic transmission via activation of β2-containing nAChRs in non-fast-spiking (non-FS) interneurons. However, it has not been addressed whether and how activation of nAChRs modulates synaptic plasticity in layer 3 and 6 pyramidal neurons of the insular cortex...
February 6, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399064/venom-based-neural-modulators
#8
Jiao Chen, Xiao-Ming Liu, Yuan Zhang
Different types of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expected to occur in vivo, most structure-activity relationship studies have been carried out for just a few neuronal subtypes. The present review enlightens current aspects of venom modulators of nAChRs. Important electronic databases such as PubMed or Google scholar were explored for the collection of latest studies in the field. Clinical and basic research has shown that cholinergic receptors play a role in several disorders of the nervous system such as chronic pain, Alzheimers disease and addiction to nicotine, alcohol and drugs...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397646/scientific-evidence-for-the-addictiveness-of-tobacco-and-smoking-cessation-in-tobacco-litigation
#9
Sungwon Roh
Smokers keep smoking despite knowing that tobacco claims many lives, including their own and others'. What makes it hard for them to quit smoking nonetheless? Tobacco companies insist that smokers choose to smoke, according to their right to self-determination. Moreover, they insist that with motivation and willpower to quit smoking, smokers can easily stop smoking. Against this backdrop, this paper aims to discuss the addictive disease called tobacco use disorder, with an assessment of the addictiveness of tobacco and the reasons why smoking cessation is challenging, based on neuroscientific research...
January 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391802/adhd-and-lifestyle-habits-in-czech-adults-a-national-sample
#10
Simon Weissenberger, Radek Ptacek, Martina Vnukova, Jiri Raboch, Martina Klicperova-Baker, Lucie Domkarova, Michal Goetz
Background: Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been added as a diagnosis to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders version 5 (DSM5) in 2013, thus making ADHD, which has been classically known as a childhood disorder, a life-long disorder. Those suffering from the condition show very specific behavioral traits, which manifest as lifestyle habits; they also show comorbidities that can be the symptoms and/or consequences of certain lifestyles. Materials and methods: The targeted population was adults aged 18-65 years...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388323/effects-of-repeated-long-term-psychosocial-stress-and-acute-cannabinoid-exposure-on-mouse-corticostriatal-circuitries-implications-for-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#11
Jordi Tomas-Roig, Fabiana Piscitelli, Vanesa Gil, Ester Quintana, Lluís L Ramió-Torrentà, Jose Antonio Del Río, Timothy Patrick Moore, Hope Agbemenyah, Gabriela Salinas, Claudia Pommerenke, Stephan Lorenzen, Tim Beißbarth, Sigrid Hoyer-Fender, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Ursula Havemann-Reinecke
INTRODUCTION: Vulnerability to psychiatric manifestations is achieved by the influence of genetic and environment including stress and cannabis consumption. Here, we used a psychosocial stress model based on resident-intruder confrontations to study the brain corticostriatal-function, since deregulation of corticostriatal circuitries has been reported in many psychiatric disorders. CB1 receptors are widely expressed in the central nervous system and particularly, in both cortex and striatum brain structures...
January 31, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383710/family-and-carer-smoking-control-programmes-for-reducing-children-s-exposure-to-environmental-tobacco-smoke
#12
REVIEW
Behrooz Behbod, Mohit Sharma, Ruchi Baxi, Robert Roseby, Premila Webster
BACKGROUND: Children's exposure to other people's tobacco smoke (environmental tobacco smoke, or ETS) is associated with a range of adverse health outcomes for children. Parental smoking is a common source of children's exposure to ETS. Older children in child care or educational settings are also at risk of exposure to ETS. Preventing exposure to ETS during infancy and childhood has significant potential to improve children's health worldwide. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce exposure of children to environmental tobacco smoke, or ETS...
January 31, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381352/design-and-mechanism-of-s-3-amino-4-difluoromethylenyl-cyclopent-1-ene-1-carboxylic-acid-a-highly-potent-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-aminotransferase-inactivator-for-the-treatment-of-addiction
#13
Jose I Juncosa, Kenji Takaya, Hoang V Le, Matthew J Moschitto, Pathum M Weerawarna, Romila Mascarenhas, Dali Liu, Stephen L Dewey, Richard B Silverman
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Inhibition of GABA aminotransferase (GABA-AT), a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that degrades GABA, has been established as a possible strategy for the treatment of substance abuse. The raised GABA levels that occur as a consequence of this inhibition have been found to antagonize the rapid release of dopamine in the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) that follows an acute challenge by an addictive substance...
January 30, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374305/effects-of-nicotine-self-administration-on-incentive-salience-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#14
Paula F Overby, Carter W Daniels, Armani Del Franco, Julianna Goenaga, Gregory L Powell, Cassandra D Gipson, Federico Sanabria
RATIONALE: Prolonged use of nicotine appears to enhance incentive salience, a motivational-cognitive process that transforms an otherwise neutral stimulus into a "wanted" stimulus. It has been suggested that nicotinic enhancement of incentive salience contributes to the potential of relapse in individuals with tobacco addiction. However, there are two main limitations of prior research that caution this claim: (a) the use of passive experimentally delivered nicotine and (b) the use of sign-tracking as an index of incentive salience, without acknowledging the competing nature of goal- and sign-tracking responses...
January 26, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365191/vape-and-aviate-electronic-cigarette-use-and-misuse-in-naval-aviation
#15
Matthew T Hall, Ryan P Austin, Tai A Do, Andrea McGlynn
Electronic cigarettes (EC) are an emerging form of nicotine replacement that has had a discernible increase in prevalence in the general population. Little is known regarding EC use among different military demographic groups or the extent of influence that social determinants of health may have on the behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of EC use in a select population of active duty U.S. Naval personnel. This study is unique in that it allows for EC behavior comparison between a traditionally healthy demographic (aviators, a subset of aircrew) and a representative general military population sample...
January 20, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364128/investigating-the-effect-of-perinatal-nicotine-exposure-on-dopaminergic-neurons-in-the-vta-using-mirna-expression-profiles
#16
Renee F Keller, Pinar Kanlikilicer, Andrei Dragomir, Yantao Fan, Yasemin M Akay, Metin Akay
Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with developmental, cognitive, and behavioral disorders, including low birth weight, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, learning disabilities, and drug abuse later in life. Nicotine activates the reward-driven behavior characteristic of drug abuse. Dopaminergic (DA) neurons originating from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the brain, which are stimulated by nicotine and other stimuli, are widely implicated in the natural reward pathway that is known to contribute to addiction...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363609/flavour-capsule-cigarette-use-among-us-adult-cigarette-smokers
#17
Jennifer A Emond, Samir Soneji, Mary F Brunette, James D Sargent
INTRODUCTION: Flavour capsule cigarettes are a recent product worldwide, and little is known about the epidemiology of their use. We used data from a nationally representative survey to understand the sociodemographic characteristics of flavour capsule cigarette smokers and reasons for flavour capsule use. METHODS: Data were from the nationally representative, U.S. Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health survey (2013-2014). Analyses included 7181 adults, aged 18-44 years, who were current or former established (≥100 lifetime cigarettes) cigarette smokers...
January 23, 2018: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363042/potential-role-of-extracellular-vesicles-in-the-pathophysiology-of-drug-addiction
#18
REVIEW
P S S Rao, Kelly O'Connell, Thomas Kyle Finnerty
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small vesicles secreted by cells and are known to carry sub-cellular components including microRNA, proteins, and lipids. Due to their ability to transport cargo between cells, EVs have been identified as important regulators of various pathophysiological conditions and can therefore influence treatment outcomes. In particular, the significance of microRNAs in EV-mediated cell-cell communication is well-documented. While the influence of EVs and the cargo delivered by EVs has been extensively reviewed in other neurological disorders, the available literature on the potential role of EVs in the pathophysiology of drug addiction has not been reviewed...
January 23, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355641/the-nicotinic-receptor-drug-sazetidine-a-reduces-alcohol-consumption-in-mice-without-affecting-concurrent-nicotine-consumption
#19
Jillienne C Touchette, Jamie J Maertens, Margaret M Mason, Kyu Y O'Rourke, Anna M Lee
Alcohol and nicotine addiction are frequently co-morbid. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are critical for both alcohol and nicotine addiction mechanisms, since nAChR drugs that reduce nicotine consumption have been shown to also reduce alcohol consumption. Sazetidine-A, a pre-clinical nAChR drug with agonist and desensitizing effects at α4β2 and α7 nAChRs, has been reported to reduce alcohol consumption and nicotine self-administration in rats when administered at high doses. However, this effect has not been replicated in mice...
January 17, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350320/ethical-implications-in-vaccine-pharmacotherapy-for-treatment-and-prevention-of-drug-of-abuse-dependence
#20
Anna Carfora, Paola Cassandro, Alessandro Feola, Francesco La Sala, Raffaella Petrella, Renata Borriello
Different immunotherapeutic approaches are in the pipeline for the treatment of drug dependence. "Drug vaccines" aim to induce the immune system to produce antibodies that bind to drugs and prevent them from inducing rewarding effects in the brain. Drugs of abuse currently being tested using these new approaches are opioids, nicotine, cocaine, and methamphetamine. In human clinical trials, "cocaine and nicotine vaccines" have been shown to induce sufficient antibody levels while producing few side effects. Studies in humans, determining how these vaccines interact in combination with their target drug, are underway...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
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