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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676623/nicotine-downregulates-the-compensatory-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-angiotensin-type-2-receptor-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system
#1
Xinping Yue, Tyler M Basting, Thomas W Flanagan, Jiaxi Xu, Thomas D Lobell, Nicholas W Gilpin, Jason D Gardner, Eric Lazartigues
RATIONALE: Smoking is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. The importance of the renin-angiotensin system in the development of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease is well established. Angiotensin-II, by means of its type 1 receptor (angiotensin type 1 receptor, AT1 R), promotes increased sympathetic activity, salt and water reabsorption, vasoconstriction, inflammation, and aldosterone and vasopressin release, contributing to tissue fibrosis, endothelium dysfunction, and hypertension...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674240/the-impact-of-antipsychotics-as-a-risk-factor-for-thromboembolism
#2
REVIEW
Ewa A Ogłodek, Marek J Just, Anna D Grzesińska, Aleksander Araszkiewicz, Adam R Szromek
Patients with schizophrenia are predisposed toward developing cardiovascular disease. Although neuroleptics affect the cardiovascular system, it is also important to consider the consequences of the disease itself such as lower physical activity due to living on disability pension, inadequate nutrition, and/or nicotine addiction, being more common among patients with schizophrenia versus the general population. All these factors combined lead to an increased risk of death caused by cardiovascular conditions in schizophrenic patients...
December 15, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671928/electronic-cigarette-use-among-cancer-patients-reasons-for-use-beliefs-and-patient-provider-communication
#3
John B Correa, Karen O Brandon, Lauren R Meltzer, Hannah J Hoehn, Bárbara Piñeiro, Thomas H Brandon, Vani N Simmons
OBJECTIVE: Smoking tobacco cigarettes after a cancer diagnosis increases risk for several serious adverse outcomes. Thus, patients can significantly benefit from quitting smoking. Electronic cigarettes are an increasingly popular cessation method. Providers routinely ask about combustible cigarette use, yet little is known about use and communication surrounding e-cigarettes among cancer patients. This study aims to describe cancer patient patterns, beliefs, and communication with oncology providers about e-cigarette use...
April 19, 2018: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669064/effects-of-e-cigarette-health-warnings-and-modified-risk-ad-claims-on-adolescent-e-cigarette-craving-and-susceptibility
#4
J Craig Andrews, Darren Mays, Richard G Netemeyer, Scot Burton, Jeremy Kees
Introduction: A between-subjects experiment examines the effects of different warning types and modified risk e-cigarette ad claims on adolescent e-cigarette craving and future e-cigarette susceptibility for two different themes. One theme focuses on nicotine and addiction, and the other on the effects of potentially harmful constituents (e.g., flavored chemicals and lung disease). Methods: The effects of warning type (control, text-only, graphic health warning (GHW) and text) and modified risk e-cigarette ad claims (control, exposure reduction, risk reduction) are tested experimentally with two different arms (themes) for a sample of 1,011 adolescents who had tried either e-cigarettes or cigarettes...
April 16, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667304/inhibition-of-alpha7-nicotinic-receptors-in-the-ventral-hippocampus-selectively-attenuates-reinstatement-of-morphine-conditioned-place-preference-and-associated-changes-in-ampa-receptor-binding
#5
Victoria L Wright, Polymnia Georgiou, Alexis Bailey, David J Heal, Christopher P Bailey, Susan Wonnacott
Recurrent relapse is a major problem in treating opiate addiction. Pavlovian conditioning plays a role in recurrent relapse whereby exposure to cues learned during drug intake can precipitate relapse to drug taking. α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been implicated in attentional aspects of cognition and mechanisms of learning and memory. In this study we have investigated the role of α7 nAChRs in morphine-conditioned place preference (morphine-CPP). CPP provides a model of associative learning that is pertinent to associative aspects of drug dependence...
April 17, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661748/virtual-reality-cue-refusal-video-game-for-alcohol-and-cigarette-recovery-support-summative-study
#6
Mary Metcalf, Karen Rossie, Katie Stokes, Christina Tallman, Bradley Tanner
BACKGROUND: New technologies such as virtual reality, augmented reality, and video games hold promise to support and enhance individuals in addiction treatment and recovery. Quitting or decreasing cigarette or alcohol use can lead to significant health improvements for individuals, decreasing heart disease risk and cancer risks (for both nicotine and alcohol use), among others. However, remaining in recovery from use is a significant challenge for most individuals. OBJECTIVE: We developed and assessed the Take Control game, a partially immersive Kinect for Windows platform game that allows users to counter substance cues through active movements (hitting, kicking, etc)...
April 16, 2018: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661189/origins-in-the-usa-in-the-1980s-of-the-warning-that-smokeless-tobacco-is-not-a-safe-alternative-to-cigarettes-a-historical-documents-based-assessment-with-implications-for-comparative-warnings-on-less-harmful-tobacco-nicotine-products
#7
Lynn T Kozlowski
BACKGROUND: Before the 1980s in the USA, smokeless tobacco carried no health warnings, was not judged to cause disease, and was a declining practice. In 1986, the federal government passed legislation requiring rotating warnings on "mouth cancer," "gum disease and tooth loss," and "This product is not a safe alternative to cigarettes." This paper explores the history of the establishment of these warnings with emphasis on the 'not a safe alternative' warning and the bases for claiming that smokeless was 'not safe' (absolute harm) versus 'not safer than cigarettes' (relative harm)...
April 16, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660237/multiplexed-isobaric-tag-based-profiling-of-seven-murine-tissues-following-in-vivo-nicotine-treatment-using-a-minimalistic-proteomics-strategy
#8
Joao A Paulo, Mark P Jedrychowski, Edward T Chouchani, Lawrence Kazak, Steven P Gygi
Nicotine is a major addictive compound in tobacco and a component of smoking-related products, such as e-cigarettes. Once internalized, nicotine can perturb many cellular pathways and can induce alterations in proteins across different cell types, however the mechanisms thereof remain undetermined. We hypothesize that both tissue-specific and global protein abundance alterations result from nicotine exposure. As such, we present the first proteome analysis of multiple tissues from nicotine-exposed mice. We treat mice via oral administration of nicotine at 200μg/mL in drinking water for 21 days...
April 16, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626557/response-to-reduced-nicotine-content-cigarettes-among-smokers-differing-in-tobacco-dependence-severity
#9
Stephen T Higgins, Cecilia L Bergeria, Danielle R Davis, Joanna M Streck, Andrea C Villanti, John R Hughes, Stacey C Sigmon, Jennifer W Tidey, Sarah H Heil, Diann E Gaalema, Maxine L Stitzer, Jeff S Priest, Joan M Skelly, Derek D Reed, Janice Y Bunn, Morgan A Tromblee, Christopher A Arger, Mollie E Miller
This study examines whether tobacco dependence severity moderates the acute effects of reducing nicotine content in cigarettes on the addiction potential of smoking, craving/withdrawal, or smoking topography. Participants (N = 169) were daily smokers with mild, moderate, or high tobacco-dependence severity using the Heaviness of Smoking Index. Following brief abstinence, participants smoked research cigarettes varying in nicotine content (0.4, 2.4, 5.2, 15.8 mg nicotine/g tobacco) in a within-subject design...
April 4, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626556/estimation-of-compliance-with-exclusive-smoking-of-very-low-nicotine-content-cigarettes-using-plasma-cotinine
#10
J Foulds, A Hobkirk, E Wasserman, J Richie, S Veldheer, N M Krebs, L Reinhart, J Muscat
Regulations requiring a reduction of the nicotine content in cigarettes to minimally addictive levels could significantly reduce the public health impact of cigarette smoking. Clinical trials evaluating this strategy are ongoing and methods have been developed to use nicotine biomarkers to estimate compliance with use of very low nicotine content cigarettes (VLNCs). To date, these methods have not considered the potential contribution of nicotine absorption from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) among research participants...
April 4, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625623/facilitators-and-barriers-to-the-delivery-of-school-based-smoking-prevention-interventions-for-children-and-young-people-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-studies
#11
Fiona Dobbie, Kathryn Angus, Hannah Littlecott, Karen Allum, Valerie Wells, Amanda Amos, Sally Haw, Linda Bauld
BACKGROUND: Despite a decline in child and adult smoking prevalence, young people who smoke (even occasionally) can rapidly become addicted to nicotine, with most adult smokers initiating smoking before they are 18. Schools have long been a popular setting to deliver youth smoking prevention interventions, but evidence of the effectiveness of school-based prevention programmes is mixed, and outcomes vary by the type of programme delivered. Existing systematic reviews that explore the factors contributing to the success or failure of school-based smoking prevention programmes often exclude qualitative studies, due to a focus on intervention effectiveness which qualitative research cannot answer...
April 6, 2018: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618352/government-and-public-health-responses-to-e-cigarettes-in-new-zealand-vapers-perspectives
#12
Trish Fraser, Marewa Glover, Penelope Truman
BACKGROUND: The New Zealand (NZ) government is to lift the ban on the sale of nicotine for use in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). METHODS: Using a naturalistic approach, we sought to understand how the current law was experienced by e-cigarette users (vapers). Twenty-nine vapers were interviewed by telephone, between May and September 2016, using a semi-structured interview schedule. Open-ended questions covered: initiating vaping, the experience of stopping smoking, technical problems encountered, reasons for vaping, acceptability of vaping, addiction to vaping and advice given to smokers about vaping...
April 5, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617909/maternal-nicotine-exposure-mne-leads-to-augmented-expression-of-the-anti-oxidant-adipose-tissue-triglyceride-lipase-atgl-long-term-in-the-white-adipose-of-female-rat-offspring
#13
Nicole G Barra, Taylor VanDuzer, Alison C Holloway, Daniel B Hardy
Globally, approximately 10-25% of women smoke during pregnancy. Since nicotine is highly addictive, women may use nicotine containing products like nicotine replacement therapies for smoking cessation, but the long-term consequences of early life exposure to nicotine remain poorly defined. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that maternal nicotine exposed (MNE) rat offspring exhibit hypertriglyceridemia due to increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis. Hypertriglyceridemia may also be attributed to impaired white adipose tissue (WAT) lipid storage; however, the effects of MNE on WAT are not completely understood...
March 30, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610348/activation-of-ampk-by-metformin-improves-withdrawal-signs-precipitated-by-nicotine-withdrawal
#14
Julia K Brynildsen, Bridgin G Lee, Isaac J Perron, Sunghee Jin, Sangwon F Kim, Julie A Blendy
Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, with more persons dying from nicotine addiction than any other preventable cause of death. Even though smoking cessation incurs multiple health benefits, the abstinence rate remains low with current medications. Here we show that the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway in the hippocampus is activated following chronic nicotine use, an effect that is rapidly reversed by nicotine withdrawal. Increasing pAMPK levels and, consequently, downstream AMPK signaling pharmacologically attenuate anxiety-like behavior following nicotine withdrawal...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604326/whether-to-push-or-pull-nicotine-reduction-and-non-combusted-alternatives-two-strategies-for-reducing-smoking-and-improving-public-health
#15
Tracy T Smith, Dorothy K Hatsukami, Neal L Benowitz, Suzanne M Colby, F Joseph McClernon, Andrew A Strasser, Jennifer W Tidey, Cassidy M White, Eric C Donny
Combustible cigarettes remain the most harmful and addictive tobacco product, and reducing the prevalence of smoking continues to be a critical public health goal. While nicotine is the constituent primarily responsible for addiction to cigarettes, most of the harm associated with smoking comes from byproducts of tobacco combustion. Recently, two different approaches for reducing the harms of smoking have emerged, both of which focus on breaking the link between the addiction to nicotine and the harms caused by smoking...
March 28, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600517/the-impact-of-length-of-stay-on-recovery-measures-in-faith-based-addiction-treatment
#16
Mary Lashley
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of length of stay among homeless men in faith-based residential addictions recovery on physical activity, depression, self-esteem, and nicotine dependence. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: A time series design was utilized to measure changes in the four quality measures at program entry and at 3, 6, and 9 months following admission. The sample consisted of 175 homeless residents enrolled in a faith-based residential recovery program. MEASURES: Paired t tests were used to determine the change in average instrument response from admission to each follow-up period...
March 30, 2018: Public Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593541/a-preliminary-investigation-on-smokeless-tobacco-use-and-its-cognitive-effects-among-athletes
#17
Thomas Zandonai, Cristiano Chiamulera, Alberto Mancabelli, Danilo Falconieri, Marco Diana
Introduction: Among athletes, an increasing use of nicotine via smokeless tobacco has been reported. However, there are currently unanswered questions about whether the use by athletes is due to nicotine's addictive properties and/or to benefits in physical and cognitive performance (e.g., decision-making). In this original article we reported about, (i) snus-induced reinforcing effects among snus-user athletes (Survey) and (ii) the effects of snus on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) in snus-user skiers (Experimental study)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587564/mirtazapine-attenuates-nicotine-seeking-behavior-in-rats
#18
Susana Barbosa-Méndez, Alberto Salazar-Juárez
BACKGROUND: Nicotine is the major psychoactive component of tobacco. A number of pharmacological therapies have been evaluated, with poor results. Given the lack of success of these therapies, several authors have proposed alternative therapeutic strategies. One of these is the use of antidepressant drugs that may have a specific effect on the neural pathways or receptors underlying nicotine addiction. Mirtazapine is an antagonist of α2 NE receptors (noradrenergic receptor), 5-HT2A/C and 5-HT3 receptors and has demonstrated efficacy in reducing behavioral effects induced by drugs of abuse in human and animal models...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584860/substance-use-during-imprisonment-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#19
Adrian P Mundt, Gergo Baranyi, Caroline Gabrysch, Seena Fazel
Substance use disorders are among the most common health problems of people involved with the criminal justice system. Scaling up addiction services in prisons is a global public health and human rights challenge, especially in poorly resourced countries. We systematically reviewed the prevalence of substance use in prison populations in low- and middle-income countries. We searched for studies reporting prevalence rates of nicotine, alcohol, illicit drug, and injection drug use during imprisonment in unselected samples of imprisoned people in low- and middle-income countries...
March 23, 2018: Epidemiologic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580953/effects-of-drugs-of-abuse-on-channelrhodopsin-2-kinetics
#20
Dominic Gioia, Minfu Xu, Wesley Wayman, John Woodward
Channelrhodopsins are light activated ion channels used extensively over the past decade to probe the function of genetically defined neuronal populations and distinct neural circuits with high temporal and spatial precision. The widely used Channelrhodopsin-2 variant (ChR2) is an excitatory opsin that undergoes conformational changes in response to blue light, allowing non-selective passage of protons and cations across the plasma membrane thus leading to depolarization. In the addiction neuroscience field, opsins such as ChR2 provide a means to disambiguate the overlapping circuitry involved in mediating the reinforcing and aversive effects of drugs of abuse as well as to determine the plasticity that can occur in these circuits during the development of dependence...
March 23, 2018: Neuropharmacology
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