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acute exacerbations of asthma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778504/solitary-chemosensory-cells-are-a-primary-epithelial-source-of-interleukin-25-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-nasal-polyps
#1
Michael A Kohanski, Alan D Workman, Neil N Patel, Li-Yin Hung, Julie P Shtraks, Bei Chen, Mariel Blasetti, Laurel Doghramji, David W Kennedy, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, De'Broski R Herbert, Noam A Cohen
BACKGROUND: IL-25 can function as an early signal for the respiratory Type 2 response characteristic of allergic asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). In the mouse gut, tuft cells are the epithelial source of IL-25. However, the source of human airway epithelial IL-25 has remained elusive. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we sought to determine if the solitary chemosensory cell (SCC) is the predominant source of IL-25 in the sinonasal epithelium...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772098/insights-in-particulate-matter-induced-allergic-airway-inflammation-focus-on-the-epithelium
#2
Katrien C De Grove, Sharen Provoost, Guy G Brusselle, Guy F Joos, Tania Maes
Outdoor air pollution is a major environmental health problem throughout the world. In particular, exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with the development and exacerbation of several respiratory diseases, including asthma. Although the adverse health effects of PM have been demonstrated for many years, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully identified. In this review, we focus on the role of the lung epithelium and specifically highlight multiple cytokines in PM-induced respiratory responses...
May 17, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764909/ohio-pediatric-asthma-repository-opportunities-to-revise-care-practices-to-decrease-time-to-physiologic-readiness-for-discharge
#3
Jeffrey M Simmons, Jocelyn M Biagini Myers, Lisa J Martin, Carolyn M Kercsmar, Christine L Schuler, Valentina V Pilipenko, John W Kroner, Hua He, Stephen R Austin, Huyen-Tran Nguyen, Kristie R Ross, Karen S McCoy, Sherman J Alter, Samantha M Gunkelman, Pierre A Vauthy, Gurjit K Khurana Hershey
BACKGROUND: Large-scale, multisite studies in which researchers evaluate patient- and systems-level factors associated with pediatric asthma exacerbation outcomes are lacking. We sought to investigate patient-level risks and system-level practices related to physiologic readiness for discharge (PRD) in the prospective Ohio Pediatric Asthma Repository. METHODS: Participants were children ages 2 to 17 years admitted to an Ohio Pediatric Asthma Repository hospital for asthma exacerbation...
May 15, 2018: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758106/sputum-to-serum-hydrogen-sulfide-ratio-as-a-novel-biomarker-of-predicting-future-risks-of-asthma-exacerbation
#4
Yasuhito Suzuki, Junpei Saito, Masami Kikuchi, Manabu Uematsu, Atsuro Fukuhara, Suguru Sato, Mitsuru Munakata
BACKGROUND: Increased level of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) in sputum is reported to be a new biomarker of neutrophilic airway inflammation in chronic airway disorders. However, the relationship between H2 S and disease activity remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether H2 S levels could vary during different conditions in asthma. METHOD: H2 S levels in sputum and serum were measured using a sulfide-sensitive electrode in 47 stable asthmatic subjects (S-BA), 21 uncontrolled asthmatic subjects (UC-BA), 26 asthmatic subjects with acute exacerbation (AE-BA), and 15 healthy subjects...
May 14, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756701/prevalence-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-in-pediatric-patients-with-acute-asthma-exacerbation
#5
Elías Kassisse, Hecmary García, Linair Prada, Ixora Salazar, Jorge Kassisse
INTRODUCTION: Mycoplasma pneumoniae may be involved in refractory asthma exacerbation. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in patients with acute asthma exacerbation. Material and method. A prospective, crosssectional, observational, case-control study was carried out in patients older than 2 years old and younger than 12. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies were serologically determined for M. pneumoniae, using the NovaLisa® NovaTec kit for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
June 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755346/a-multicenter-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study-of-the-effects-of-loki-zupa-in-patients-with-chronic-asthma
#6
Yubao Lv, Ying Wei, Muhammadjan Abduwaki, Tohti Jurat, Fengsen Li, Huaizhen Wang, Yuhua Wu, Zheng Li, Bo Liu, Hongjun Yin, Yuxue Cao, Mammat Nurahmat, Zihui Tang, Jingcheng Dong
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Uyghur medical formula Loki zupa in patients with chronic asthma. Adult patients with chronic asthma randomly received placebo or Loki zupa as add-on to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) maintenance treatment. Loki zupa or mimics was administered orally 10 ml per time, three times a day for 8 weeks. The primary endpoints were asthma control test (ACT) score and peak expiratory flow (PEF). The secondary endpoints were acute exacerbation rate, lung function, night waking days, and symptom-free days in the near 2 weeks, Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) score and some inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738108/causes-of-shortness-of-breath-in-the-acute-patient-a-national-study
#7
Zachariah E Hale, Astha Singhal, Renee Y Hsia
BACKGROUND: Dyspnea is a common and ambiguous complaint that results in 3.4 million emergency department visits annually. While learners may encounter lists of differential diagnoses to consider while in training, often these lists are not empirically based. We sought to establish an evidence-based differential diagnosis for dyspnea and to determine whether normal vital signs can rule out a life-threatening diagnosis. METHODS: We analyzed data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2005-2014 for emergency department visits with a chief complaint of dyspnea and tallied the principal discharge diagnosis...
May 8, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731926/practical-approach-to-lung-health-experience-from-the-republic-of-macedonia
#8
Biljana Ilievska-Poposka, Maja Zakoska, Stefan Talevski
BACKGROUND: Among the adults and children aged 5 yrs who attend PHC settings, 20-30% seeks to care for respiratory symptoms. Over 80-90% of the respiratory patients suffer from acute respiratory infections (ARI), followed by chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), asthma, and less frequently with pneumonia and tuberculosis (TB). To improve the quality of care in patients who seek assistance for respiratory symptoms in PHC settings and the efficiency of respiratory service delivery within healthcare systems, WHO has designated several initiatives among which one is PAL (Practical Approach to Lung Health)...
April 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724254/radical-containing-combustion-derived-particulate-matter-enhance-pulmonary-th17-inflammation-via-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor
#9
Sridhar Jaligama, Vivek S Patel, Pingli Wang, Asmaa Sallam, Jeffrey Harding, Matthew Kelley, Skylar R Mancuso, Tammy R Dugas, Stephania A Cormier
BACKGROUND: Pollutant particles containing environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are formed during many combustion processes (e.g. thermal remediation of hazardous wastes, diesel/gasoline combustion, wood smoke, cigarette smoke, etc.). Our previous studies demonstrated that acute exposure to EPFRs results in dendritic cell maturation and Th17-biased pulmonary immune responses. Further, in a mouse model of asthma, these responses were enhanced suggesting exposure to EPFRs as a risk factor for the development and/or exacerbation of asthma...
May 3, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712666/randomized-phase-2-trial-of-monthly-vitamin-d-to-prevent-respiratory-complications-in-children-with-sickle-cell-disease
#10
Margaret T Lee, Meyer Kattan, Ilene Fennoy, Stephen M Arpadi, Rachel L Miller, Serge Cremers, Donald J McMahon, Jeri W Nieves, Gary M Brittenham
In sickle cell disease, respiratory infection and asthma may lead to respiratory complications that are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Vitamin D has anti-infective and immunomodulatory effects that may decrease the risk for respiratory infections, asthma, and acute chest syndrome. We conducted a randomized double-blind active-controlled clinical trial to determine whether monthly oral vitamin D3 can reduce the rate of respiratory events in children with sickle cell disease. Seventy sickle cell subjects, ages 3-20 years, with baseline records of respiratory events over 1 year before randomization, underwent screening...
May 8, 2018: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692764/the-virome-and-its-major-component-anellovirus-a-convoluted-system-molding-human-immune-defenses-and-possibly-affecting-the-development-of-asthma-and-respiratory-diseases-in-childhood
#11
REVIEW
Giulia Freer, Fabrizio Maggi, Massimo Pifferi, Maria E Di Cicco, Diego G Peroni, Mauro Pistello
The microbiome, a thriving and complex microbial community colonizing the human body, has a broad impact on human health. Colonization is a continuous process that starts very early in life and occurs thanks to shrewd strategies microbes have evolved to tackle a convoluted array of anatomical, physiological, and functional barriers of the human body. Cumulative evidence shows that viruses are part of the microbiome. This part, called virome, has a dynamic composition that reflects what we eat, how and where we live, what we do, our genetic background, and other unpredictable variables...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652870/surveillance-for-the-identification-of-cases-of-acute-respiratory-infection-by-enterovirus-d68-in-children-in-a-tertiary-level-care-hospital-during-2014-2016
#12
Ana Estela Gamiño-Arroyo, José Luis Sánchez-Huerta, Alicia Elhaín de la Garza-López, Israel Parra-Ortega, Noé Escobar-Escamilla, Edgar Mendieta-Condado, Fabiola Garcés-Ayala, Gisela Barrera-Badillo, José Ernesto Ramírez-González, José Alberto Díaz-Quiñonez, Daniela de la Rosa-Zamboni
Background: The reemergence of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) infections in the United States was reported from August-October 2014 (691 cases). In Mexico, an outbreak at the National Institute of Respiratory Diseases was reported (24 cases). The results of epidemiological surveillance of Enterovirus sp. (EV) and other respiratory viruses in a national pediatric tertiary care level hospital are presented. Methods: Following the alert issued by the reemergence of EV-D68 in 2014, epidemiological surveillance -which only detected respiratory viruses by PCR in patients with influenza-like illness using nasopharyngeal swabs- expanded to include children with asthma exacerbation or acute respiratory distress...
2018: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626211/targeting-cytokines-to-treat-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#13
REVIEW
Peter J Barnes
Cytokines play a key role in orchestrating and perpetuating the chronic airway inflammation in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), making them attractive targets for treating these disorders. Asthma and some cases of COPD are mainly driven by type 2 immune responses, which comprise increased airway eosinophils, T helper 2 (TH 2) cells and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and the secretion of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. Clinical trials of antibodies that block these interleukins have shown reduced acute exacerbations and oral corticosteroid use and improvements in lung function and symptoms in selected patients...
April 6, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575272/going-beyond-zip-code-can-a-person-s-address-help-us-improve-their-acute-care
#14
Erik J Blutinger, Zachary F Meisel, Eugenia C South
Do you know if the man you treated last night with unexplained chest pain lives on a block with a lot of boarded up houses or vacant lots? Does the woman with many repeat visits for asthma exacerbations live in an area with high rates of violent crime? Do these factors in any way relate to their ED visit - the complaint, the workup, the management, your discharge plan? If you knew more about your patient's immediate neighborhood surroundings, would that enhance your ability to deliver high quality acute care? During a busy shift, emergency care providers rarely have time to reflect on how individual and neighborhood socioeconomic factors impact their patient's health...
March 25, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554886/pulmonary-interstitial-emphysema-in-fatal-asthma-case-report-and-histopathological-review
#15
Thais Mauad, Felipe B P do Nascimento, Marisa Dolhnikoff, Milena C M Picka, Paulo H N Saldiva
BACKGROUND: Mortality related to asthma has decreased worldwide since the introduction of inhaled corticosteroid therapy in the past decades. However, there are still some asthma fatalities identified mainly in populations with less access to regular treatment. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema due to alveolar rupture has been rarely described as a complication of an acute severe asthma attack, and its identification in pathological analysis can be difficult. Previous studies reported the association of pulmonary interstitial emphysema and bronchial ductal gland ectasia in asthma...
March 20, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534838/cortactin-expression-in-nasal-polyps-of-aspirin-exacerbated-respiratory-disease-aerd-patients
#16
Giuseppe Brescia, Daniela Parrino, Lorenzo Nicolè, Claudia Zanotti, Cristiano Lanza, Umberto Barion, Filippo Marino, Gino Marioni
PURPOSE: The term aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) refers to a combination of asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP), and acute respiratory tract reactions to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. AERD has now been included among the CRSwNP endotypes, and is considered one of the most aggressive in terms of disease recurrence. Cortactin is a multi-domain protein with a part in several cellular mechanisms involving actin assembly and cytoskeleton arrangement...
May 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522844/regulation-of-type-2-innate-lymphoid-cell-dependent-airway-hyperreactivity-by-butyrate
#17
Christina Li-Ping Thio, Po-Yu Chi, Alan Chuan-Ying Lai, Ya-Jen Chang
BACKGROUND: Allergic asthma is characterized by airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and inflammation driven by aberrant TH 2 responses. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a critical source of the TH 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13, which promote acute asthma exacerbation. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been shown to attenuate T cell-mediated allergic airway inflammation. However, their role in regulation of ILC2-driven AHR and lung inflammation remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the immunomodulatory role of SCFAs in regulation of ILC2-induced AHR and airway inflammation and delineated the mechanism involved...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521552/factors-associated-with-hospital-admission-in-adult-patients-with-asthma-exacerbations-a-systematic-review
#18
Nicholas Arrotta, Jesse Hill, Cristina Villa-Roel, Elizabeth Dennett, Molly Harries, Brian H Rowe
OBJECTIVES: A variable proportion of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute asthma require admission to hospital. Previous studies have identified select factors associated with admission following ED presentation; however, no review has synthesized the evidence in this regard. This systematic review summarizes the evidence regarding factors associated with hospital admission following ED presentation. METHODS: Searches were conducted in seven electronic databases and common sources of grey literature...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501242/comorbidity-disease-burden-and-mortality-across-age-groups-in-a-swedish-primary-care-asthma-population-an-epidemiological-register-study-pacehr
#19
Karin Lisspers, Christer Janson, Kjell Larsson, Gunnar Johansson, Gunilla Telg, Marcus Thuresson, Björn Ställberg
BACKGROUND: Asthma is often associated with other diseases. To identify and manage comorbidities is important, as these conditions may increase the disease burden. OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of comorbidities, disease burden and mortality across age groups in a large Swedish primary care real-life asthma population. METHODS: Observational cohort study of asthma patients, all ages, identified from electronic medical records by ICD-10-CM code, data from 36 primary care centers...
March 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495633/the-impact-of-ambient-air-pollution-on-daily-hospital-visits-for-various-respiratory-diseases-and-the-relevant-medical-expenditures-in-shanghai-china
#20
Hao Zhang, Yue Niu, Yili Yao, Renjie Chen, Xianghong Zhou, Haidong Kan
The evidence concerning the acute effects of ambient air pollution on various respiratory diseases was limited in China, and the attributable medical expenditures were largely unknown. From 2013 to 2015, we collected data on the daily visits to the emergency- and outpatient-department for five main respiratory diseases and their medical expenditures in Shanghai, China. We used the overdispersed generalized additive model together with distributed lag models to fit the associations of criteria air pollutants with hospital visits, and used the linear models to fit the associations with medical expenditures...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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