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Urszula Polak, Yanjie Li, Jill Sergesketter Butler, Marek Napierala
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is the most common autosomal recessive ataxia. This severe neurodegenerative disease is caused by an expansion of guanine-adenine-adenine (GAA) repeats located in the first intron of the frataxin (FXN) gene, which represses its transcription. Although transcriptional silencing is associated with heterochromatin-like changes in the vicinity of the expanded GAAs, the exact mechanism and pathways involved in transcriptional inhibition are largely unknown. As major remodeling of the epigenome is associated with somatic cell reprogramming, modulating chromatin modification pathways during the cellular transition from a somatic to a pluripotent state is likely to generate permanent changes to the epigenetic landscape...
October 17, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
Vimal Kishor Singh, Neeraj Kumar, Manisha Kalsan, Abhishek Saini, Ramesh Chandra
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) are self renewable and can differentiate to different types of adult cells, which has shown great promises in the field of regenerative medicine. iPSCs are reprogrammed from human somatic cells through ectopic expression of various transcription factors viz. Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc (OSKM). This novel technology enables derivation of patient specific cells, which possess a potential cure for many diseases. During the last decade, significant progresses have been achieved in enhancing the reprogramming efficiency, safety of iPSCs derivation, development of different delivery techniques by various research groups...
2015: Journal of Stem Cells
Giovanna Ferrari-Amorotti, Claudia Chiodoni, Fei Shen, Sara Cattelani, Angela Rachele Soliera, Gloria Manzotti, Giulia Grisendi, Massimo Dominici, Francesco Rivasi, Mario Paolo Colombo, Alessandro Fatatis, Bruno Calabretta
Most triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) exhibit gene expression patterns associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a feature that correlates with a propensity for metastatic spread. Overexpression of the EMT regulator Slug is detected in basal and mesenchymal-type TNBCs and is associated with reduced E-cadherin expression and aggressive disease. The effects of Slug depend, in part, on the interaction of its N-terminal SNAG repressor domain with the chromatin-modifying protein lysine demethylase 1 (LSD1); thus, we investigated whether tranylcypromine [also known as trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine hydrochloride (PCPA) or Parnate], an inhibitor of LSD1 that blocks its interaction with Slug, suppresses the migration, invasion, and metastatic spread of TNBC cell lines...
December 2014: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Giovanna Ferrari-Amorotti, Valentina Fragliasso, Roza Esteki, Zelia Prudente, Angela Rachele Soliera, Sara Cattelani, Gloria Manzotti, Giulia Grisendi, Massimo Dominici, Marco Pieraccioli, Giuseppe RaschellĂ , Claudia Chiodoni, Mario Paolo Colombo, Bruno Calabretta
The process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) which is required for cancer cell invasion is regulated by a family of E-box-binding transcription repressors, which include Snail (SNAIL1) and Slug (SNAI2). Snail appears to repress the expression of the EMT marker E-cadherin by epigenetic mechanisms dependent on the interaction of its N-terminal SNAG domain with chromatin-modifying proteins including lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A). We assessed whether blocking Snail/Slug-LSD1 interaction by treatment with Parnate, an enzymatic inhibitor of LSD1, or TAT-SNAG, a cell-permeable peptide corresponding to the SNAG domain of Slug, suppresses the motility and invasiveness of cancer cells of different origin and genetic background...
January 1, 2013: Cancer Research
Ramesh Neelamegam, Emily L Ricq, Melissa Malvaez, Debasis Patnaik, Stephanie Norton, Stephen M Carlin, Ian T Hill, Marcelo A Wood, Stephen J Haggarty, Jacob M Hooker
Modulation of histone modifications in the brain may represent a new mechanism for brain disorder therapy. Post-translational modifications of histones regulate gene expression, affecting major cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and function. An important enzyme involved in one of these histone modifications is lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1). This enzyme is flavin-dependent and exhibits homology to amine oxidases. Parnate (2-phenylcyclopropylamine (2-PCPA); tranylcypromine) is a potent inhibitor of monoamine oxidases and derivatives of 2-PCPA have been used for development of selective LSD1 inhibitors based on the ability to form covalent adducts with flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)...
February 15, 2012: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Wenlin Li, HongYan Zhou, Ramzey Abujarour, Saiyong Zhu, Jin Young Joo, Tongxiang Lin, Ergeng Hao, Hans R Schöler, Alberto Hayek, Sheng Ding
Induced pluripotent stem cell technology has attracted enormous interest for potential application in regenerative medicine. Here, we report that a specific glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) inhibitor, CHIR99021, can induce the reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts transduced by only two factors, Oct4 and Klf4. When combined with Parnate (also named tranylcypromine), an inhibitor of lysine-specific demethylase 1, CHIR99021 can cause the reprogramming of human primary keratinocyte transduced with the two factors, Oct4 and Klf4...
December 2009: Stem Cells
Zhang Jie, Tan Li, Hou Jia-Yun, Jiang Qiu, Zen Ping-Yao, Song Houyan
Trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine (referred to as PCPA hereafter, also known as tranylcypromine and Parnate) is used clinically as an antidepressant. Here, we use a new model-zebrafish (Danio rerio) to study the molecular mechanisms of its adverse reactions in vivo. Following a PCPA exposure (75 microM), embryos showed "sluggish" action (slow swim and slow escape action). Whole mount in situ hybridization showed that sox1a and huc expressions were downregulated in PCPA-treated embryos, which indicated a decrease in the number of nerve cells...
August 28, 2009: Brain Research Bulletin
Shinya Mimasu, Toru Sengoku, Seketsu Fukuzawa, Takashi Umehara, Shigeyuki Yokoyama
Transcriptional activity and chromatin structure accessibility are correlated with the methylation of specific histone residues. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is the first discovered histone demethylase, which demethylates Lys4 or Lys9 of histone H3, using FAD. Among the known monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tranylcypromine (Parnate) showed the most potent inhibitory effect on LSD1. Recently, the crystal structure of LSD1 and tranylcypromine was solved at 2.75 A, revealing a five-membered ring fused to the flavin of LSD1...
February 1, 2008: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Maojun Yang, Jeffrey C Culhane, Lawrence M Szewczuk, Pegah Jalili, Haydn L Ball, Mischa Machius, Philip A Cole, Hongtao Yu
Histone modifications, such as acetylation and methylation, are important epigenetic marks that regulate diverse biological processes that use chromatin as the template, including transcription. Dysregulation of histone acetylation and methylation leads to the silencing of tumor suppressor genes and contributes to cancer progression. Inhibitors of enzymes that catalyze the addition and removal of these epigenetic marks thus have therapeutic potential for treating cancer. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is the first discovered histone lysine demethylase and, with the help of its cofactor CoREST, specifically demethylates mono- and dimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 (H3-K4), thus repressing transcription...
July 10, 2007: Biochemistry
Dawn M Z Schmidt, Dewey G McCafferty
The catalytic domain of the flavin-dependent human histone demethylase lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) belongs to the family of amine oxidases including polyamine oxidase and monoamine oxidase (MAO). We previously assessed monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) for their ability to inhibit the reaction catalyzed by LSD1 [Lee, M. G., et al. (2006) Chem. Biol. 13, 563-567], demonstrating that trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine (2-PCPA, tranylcypromine, Parnate) was the most potent with respect to LSD1. Here we show that 2-PCPA is a time-dependent, mechanism-based irreversible inhibitor of LSD1 with a KI of 242 microM and a kinact of 0...
April 10, 2007: Biochemistry
Min Gyu Lee, Christopher Wynder, Dawn M Schmidt, Dewey G McCafferty, Ramin Shiekhattar
Demethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 is carried out by BHC110/LSD1, an enzyme with close homology to monoamine oxidases (MAO). Monoamine oxidase A or B are frequent targets of selective and nonselective small molecular inhibitors used for treatment of depression. Here we show that in contrast to selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors such as pargyline, nonselective monoamine oxidase inhibitors potently inhibit nucleosomal demethylation of histone H3 lysine 4. Tranylcypromine (brand name Parnate) displayed the best inhibitory activity with an IC50 of less than 2 microM...
June 2006: Chemistry & Biology
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1961: American Journal of Psychiatry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 30, 1962: Medical Journal of Australia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1960: American Journal of Psychiatry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 31, 1965: Medical Journal of Australia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1965: Minnesota Medicine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1964: Diseases of the Nervous System
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1964: Diseases of the Nervous System
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 1964: British Medical Journal (1857-1980)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1963: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
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