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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454844/the-epidemiology-of-febrile-illness-in-sub-saharan-africa-implications-for-diagnosis-and-management
#1
REVIEW
Michael J Maze, Quique Bassat, Nicholas A Feasey, Inácio Mandomando, Patrick Musicha, John A Crump
BACKGROUND: Fever is among the most common symptoms of people living in Africa, and clinicians are challenged by the similar clinical features of a wide spectrum of potential aetiologies. AIM: To summarise recent studies of fever aetiology in sub-Saharan Africa focusing on causes other than malaria. SOURCES: A narrative literature review by searching the MEDLINE database, and recent conference abstracts. CONTENT: Studies of multiple potential causes of fever are scarce, and for many participants the infecting organism remains unidentified, or multiple co-infecting microorganisms are identified, and establishing causation is challenging...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447170/imported-endemic-mycoses-in-spain-evolution-of-hospitalized-cases-clinical-characteristics-and-correlation-with-migratory-movements-1997-2014
#2
Daniel Molina-Morant, Adrián Sánchez-Montalvá, Fernando Salvador, Augusto Sao-Avilés, Israel Molina
Endemic mycoses are systemic fungal infections. Histoplasmosis is endemic in all temperate areas of the world; coccidioidomycosis and paracoccidioidomycosis are only present in the American continent. These pathogens are not present in Spain, but in the last years there has been an increase of reported cases due to migration and temporary movements. We obtained from the Spanish hospitals records clinical and demographic data of all hospitalized cases between 1997 and 2014. There were 286 cases of histoplasmosis, 94 of Coccidioidomycosis and 25 of paracoccidioidomycosis...
February 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433397/hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-in-an-hiv-positive-patient-with-concomitant-disseminated-histoplasmosis
#3
Nisha Loganantharaj, Brianna Oliver, Taylor Smith, Rachna Jetly, Lee Engel, Shane Sanne
A 46-year-old Dominican man, known to have HIV, presented with constitutional symptoms of two week's duration. The patient was found to have cytopenias, significantly elevated ferritin level and lymphadenopathy. Biopsies and laboratory studies met the criteria for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). A concomitant diagnosis of histoplasmosis was confirmed as the trigger for HLH and treatment resulted in clinical improvement and resolution of symptoms.
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429549/mucocutaneous-manifestations-of-infection-by-histoplasma-capsulatum-in-hiv-negative-immunosuppressed-patients
#4
L V Gómez-Santana, A C Torre, B A Hernández, V I Volonteri, B Laura, R Luis-Galimberti
Histoplasmosis is a systemic mycosis caused by the dimorphous fungus Histoplasma capsulatum (H. capsulatum). The fungus enters the body through the respiratory tract in the form of microconidia, which are transformed into intracellular yeast-like structures in the lungs before disseminating hematogenously. Primary infection is usually asymptomatic and self-resolving. Some patients develop severe disease with acute or chronic respiratory involvement. Immunosuppressed patients, mainly those with altered cellular immunity, may have disseminated disease with variable mucocutaneous involvement characterized by papules, nodules, gummas, or ulcers with a granulomatous base...
February 8, 2018: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379706/histoplasmosis-an-oral-malignancy-like-clinical-picture
#5
Tomasz Chroboczek, Julie Dufour, Alain Renaux, Christine Aznar, Magalie Demar, Pierre Couppie, Antoine Adenis
HIV-associated histoplasmosis is mainly misdiagnosed for granulomatous diseases, such as tuberculosis. Nonetheless, malignancy-like lesions have been reported sporadically in HIV-infected patients. Although the main reported lesions are erosive or ulcerated, here a rare case of oral tumor is reported. This case raises the awareness of this presentation, and the importance of accurate identification in the laboratory. Performing systematic specific stains for fungal elements and culture on tissue samples ensures accurate differential diagnosis...
March 2018: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374650/concurrent-pneumocystis-jirovecii-and-pulmonary-histoplasmosis-in-an-undiagnosed-hiv-patient
#6
Ahsan Wahab, Siddique Chaudhary, Mahin Khan, Susan Jane Smith
Concurrent Pneumocystis jirovecii (PJ) and pulmonary histoplasmosis (PHP) are rare in a single HIV individual. We present a challenging case of concomitant PJ and PHP in a young HIV individual. A 44-year-old man presented to the emergency department with progressive pulmonary symptoms. He was hypoxic with bilateral pulmonary opacities on chest radiograph. CT of the chest showed a geographical pattern of ground-glass attenuation. He started receiving intravenous antibiotics in addition to oral Bactrim for suspected PJ...
January 26, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371573/global-and-multi-national-prevalence-of-fungal-diseases-estimate-precision
#7
REVIEW
Felix Bongomin, Sara Gago, Rita O Oladele, David W Denning
Fungal diseases kill more than 1.5 million and affect over a billion people. However, they are still a neglected topic by public health authorities even though most deaths from fungal diseases are avoidable. Serious fungal infections occur as a consequence of other health problems including asthma, AIDS, cancer, organ transplantation and corticosteroid therapies. Early accurate diagnosis allows prompt antifungal therapy; however this is often delayed or unavailable leading to death, serious chronic illness or blindness...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348388/disseminated-histoplasmosis-in-an-indonesian-hiv-positive-patient-a-case-diagnosed-by-fine-needle-aspiration-cytology
#8
Nungki Anggorowati, Rita C Sulistyaningsih, Ahmad Ghozali, Yanri W Subronto
A 30-year-old Javanese-Indonesian man was admitted with complaints of 3 months persistent fever, weight loss, and fatigue. He had never known his past history of unprotected HIV until the admission. His only risk factor is unsafe sex. The patient seemed well nourished. Physical examination revealed blood pressure 100/60 mmHg, pulse 100 beats per minute, respiratory rate 20 times per minute, and temperature 38.8°C. Multiple cervical and inguinal lymphadenopathies were also found. Electrocardiogram showed anterolateral ischemic finding, whereas chest X-ray were normal...
October 2017: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346384/histoplasmosis-in-africa-an-emerging-or-a-neglected-disease
#9
REVIEW
Rita O Oladele, Olusola O Ayanlowo, Malcolm D Richardson, David W Denning
Histoplasmosis in Africa has markedly increased since the advent of the HIV/AIDS epidemic but is under-recognised. Pulmonary histoplasmosis may be misdiagnosed as tuberculosis (TB). In the last six decades (1952-2017), 470 cases of histoplasmosis have been reported. HIV-infected patients accounted for 38% (178) of the cases. West Africa had the highest number of recorded cases with 179; the majority (162 cases) were caused by Histoplasma capsulatum var. dubuosii (Hcd). From the Southern African region, 150 cases have been reported, and the majority (119) were caused by H...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342162/comparison-of-diagnostic-methods-to-detect-histoplasma-capsulatum-in-serum-and-blood-samples-from-aids-patients
#10
Katia Cristina Dantas, Roseli Santos de Freitas, Marcos Vinicius da Silva, Paulo Ricardo Criado, Olinda do Carmo Luiz, Adriana Pardini Vicentini
BACKGROUND: Although early and rapid detection of histoplasmosis is essential to prevent morbidity and mortality, few diagnostic tools are available in resource-limited areas, especially where it is endemic and HIV/AIDS is also epidemic. Thus, we compared conventional and molecular methods to detect Histoplasma capsulatum in sera and blood from HIV/AIDS patients. METHODOLOGY: We collected a total of 40 samples from control volunteers and patients suspected of histoplasmosis, some of whom were also infected with other pathogens...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276711/acute-kidney-injury-immune-thrombocytopenic-purpura-and-the-infection-that-binds-them-together-disseminated-histoplasmosis
#11
Pooja Sethi, Jennifer Treece, Chidinma Onweni, Vandana Pai, Sowminya Arikapudi, Lakshmi Kallur, Varun Kohli, Jonathan Moorman
Untreated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be complicated by opportunistic infections, including disseminated histoplasmosis (DH). Although endemic to portions of the United States and usually benign, DH can rarely act as an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients presenting with uncommon complications such as acute kidney injury and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. We report a rare presentation of DH presenting with acute kidney injury and immune thrombocytopenic purpura in an immunocompromised patient with HIV...
October 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228334/clinical-and-epidemiological-characterization-of-histoplasmosis-cases-in-a-nonendemic-area-connecticut-united-states
#12
Marwan M Azar, Xuchen Zhang, Roland Assi, Chadi Hage, L Joseph Wheat, Maricar F Malinis
We performed a retrospective analysis of histoplasmosis cases diagnosed at our institution in New Haven, Connecticut, from 2005 to 2015. Among 12 cases of active histoplasmosis, seven were immunosuppressed and five had human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Eleven patients reported travel to potentially endemic areas at a median of 105 days prior to presentation; travel to the Caribbean was most common (n = 6). Median time to diagnosis from symptom onset and first Histoplasma antigen testing were 41 and 28 days, respectively...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197841/haemorrhagic-conversion-of-infectious-myelitis-in-an-immunocompromised-patient
#13
Michael Stephen Pohlen, Jonathan Sunwei Lin, Kevin Yuqi Wang, Mohammad Ghasemi-Rad, Christie M Lincoln
A 28-year-old man recently diagnosed with HIV (CD4 19 cells/mm3, viral load 3.6 million copies/mL, not on highly active antiretroviral therapy on initial diagnosis at outside hospital), disseminated histoplasmosis, shingles and syphilis presented with paraplegia developing over 3 days. Spine MRI demonstrated a longitudinally extensive cord lesion extending from C3 to the tip of the conus. Brain MRI was consistent with meningoencephalitis. Cerebrospinal fluid findings were notable for positive varicella zoster virus (VZV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) PCRs as well as a Venereal Disease Research Laboratory titre of 1:2...
December 2, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165514/-disseminated-histoplasmosis-and-hiv-infection-case-series-in-a-peruvian-hospital
#14
Giancarlo Pérez-Lazo, Julio Maquera-Afaray, Christian R Mejia, Raúl Castillo
BACKGROUND: Histoplasmosis is an endemic fungal infection in Peru and HIV coinfection leads to difficult diagnoses and high associated mortality. AIM: To describe clinical, epidemiological and clinical outcomes in patients with HIV infection with diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis (DH) at Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen National Hospital, Lima, Peru. METHODS: Retrospective, descriptive study; information was obtained from the computer registry of patients with HIV infection diagnosed with DH, during the period 1996-2014...
August 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164168/aids-related-endemic-mycoses-in-western-cape-south-africa-and-clinical-mimics-a-cross-sectional-study-of-adults-with-advanced-hiv-and-recent-onset-widespread-skin-lesions
#15
Ilan S Schwartz, Chris Kenyon, Rannakoe Lehloenya, Saskya Claasens, Zandile Spengane, Hans Prozesky, Rosie Burton, Arifa Parker, Sean Wasserman, Graeme Meintjes, Marc Mendelson, Jantjie Taljaard, Johann W Schneider, Natalie Beylis, Bonnie Maloba, Nelesh P Govender, Robert Colebunders, Sipho Dlamini
Background: Skin lesions are common in advanced HIV infection and are sometimes caused by serious diseases like systemic mycoses (SM). AIDS-related SM endemic to Western Cape, South Africa, include emergomycosis (formerly disseminated emmonsiosis), histoplasmosis, and sporotrichosis. We previously reported that 95% of patients with AIDS-related emergomycosis had skin lesions, although these were frequently overlooked or misdiagnosed clinically. Prospective studies are needed to characterize skin lesions of SM in South Africa and to help distinguish these from common HIV-related dermatoses...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080114/a-twenty-first-century-perspective-of-disseminated-histoplasmosis-in-india-literature-review-and-retrospective-analysis-of-published-and-unpublished-cases-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-north-india
#16
REVIEW
Ayush Gupta, Arnab Ghosh, Gagandeep Singh, Immaculata Xess
PURPOSE: Published literature lacks systematic studies on disseminated histoplasmosis in India, and previous reviews on its epidemiology in India were conducted two decades back. Thus, we review the Indian studies published in this century to understand the recent epidemiology of histoplasmosis in India and do a retrospective analysis of all cases diagnosed at our institute. METHODS: A literature of review search was done in Pubmed/Medline and Scopus. Studies published during January 2001-December 2015 were considered along with retrospective analysis of cases presented to us...
December 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016342/case-report-histoplasmosis-in-himachal-pradesh-india-an-emerging-endemic-focus
#17
Vikram K Mahajan, Rashmi Kaul Raina, Suman Singh, Rattan Sagar Rashpa, Anuradha Sood, Pushpinder S Chauhan, Karaninder S Mehta, Ritu Rawat, Vikas Sharma
We describe four cases of histoplasmosis indigenous to Himachal Pradesh (India) that will be of considerable public health interest. A 48-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative man with cervical and mediastinal lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, adrenal mass, and bone marrow involvement was treated as disseminated tuberculosis without benefit. Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis was diagnosed from the fungus in smears from adrenal mass. Another 37-year-old HIV-positive man was on treatment of suspected pulmonary tuberculosis...
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978596/safe-usage-of-anakinra-and-dexamethasone-to-treat-refractory-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-secondary-to-acute-disseminated-histoplasmosis-in-a-patient-with-hiv-aids
#18
Anthony J Ocon, Birju D Bhatt, Cynthia Miller, Ruben A Peredo
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a serious life-threatening disease if not recognised early. In patients with HIV/AIDS, this association has been reported following acute opportunistic infections, including histoplasmosis. However, optimal treatment is not known. We describe a male aged 46 years with AIDS who developed HLH following acute disseminated histoplasmosis. Presenting symptoms included fever, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia. Bone marrow biopsy confirmed HLH. Initially, he was refractory to the treatment with amphotericin B, antiretroviral therapy and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)...
October 4, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956543/disseminated-histoplasmosis-in-aids-patients-an-urban-disease-experience-in-a-metropolis-in-the-middle-east-of-brasil
#19
Bianca da Silva Ferreira, Joâo Alves de Araújo Filho, Nayara Matos Pereira, Lucas de Miranda Godoy, Bruna Borges Lamounier, Elizon Dias Nunes, Lucas Espíndola Rosa
Histoplasmosis is a fungal disease commonly observed as an opportunistic disease in AIDS patients. It is a neglected disease in many countries, particularly Latin America, including Brazil. It is related with environmental factors, even in urban areas, where the incidence has increased. Implementing a descriptive ecological study, we performed a retrospective chart review for data collected between January 2003 and July 2014 for AIDS patients with histoplasmosis who lived in Goiania. The selected cases were georeferenced to analyse the incidence of histoplasmosis in AIDS patients in the metropolitan area of Goiania...
September 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954600/disseminated-histoplasmosis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Séverine Evrard, Philippe Caprasse, Pierre Gavage, Myriam Vasbien, Jean Radermacher, Marie-Pierre Hayette, Rosalie Sacheli, Marjan Van Esbroeck, Lieselotte Cnops, Eric Firre, Laurent Médart, Filip Moerman, Jean-Marc Minon
Case report We report the case of a young Cameroonian woman who presented with cough, hyperthermia, weight loss, pancytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly. A positive HIV serology was discovered and a chest radiography revealed a 'miliary pattern'. Bone marrow aspiration pointed out yeast inclusions within macrophages. Given the morphological aspect, the clinical presentation and immunosuppression, histoplasmosis was retained as a working hypothesis. Antiretroviral and amphotericin B treatments were promptly initiated...
September 28, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
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