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Superficial mycoses

W P Silva-Rocha, M F de Azevedo, G M Chaves
OBJECTIVE: Dermatomycoses are superficial fungal infections which affect the skin, hair and nails of humans and animals. Male and female patients of all ages are affected by this condition. The main etiological agents of dermatomycoses are the dermatophytes fungi of the genera Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton, while the main yeasts belong to the genera Candida, Malassezia and Trichosporon. The variation in the distribution of dermatomycoses worldwide justify the conduction of epidemiological studies in order to contribute for the better understanding of patterns of mycological cutaneous infections...
September 20, 2016: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
K Diongue, M A Diallo, M Ndiaye, A S Badiane, M C Seck, A Diop, Y D Ndiaye, D Ndiaye
INTRODUCTION: Superficial fungal infections, particularly of the skin, scalp and nails are very common and have been reported worldwide. The most common causative agents of these mycoses are dermatophytes, yeasts and molds. However, these agents vary with time and depend on many factors including the geography. The objective of this study was to identify the causative agents of superficial mycoses diagnosed at the Le Dantec University Hospital in Dakar (Senegal). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study concerned 1851 outpatients received in the parasitological and mycological laboratory of Le Dantec hospital during the period from January 2011 to December 2015...
August 31, 2016: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
M Bloch, R Cavignaux, A Debourgogne, J Dorin, M Machouart, N Contet-Audonneau
Dermatophytes are responsible for widespread superficial fungal infections, currently representing a real public health problem. Some of the fungi involved in these mycoses are transmitted by pets, illustrating great host specificity within this fungal group. Thus, a new variety of zoophilic dermatophyte has been described in recent years by the Mycology Laboratory of the University Hospital of Nancy, within the complex T. mentagrophytes. This variant was named T. mentagrophytes var. porcellae, following the observation of a significant number of patients with dermatomycoses of exposed parts of the body and having had contact with a guinea pig...
September 2016: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Mohamed Mahdi Alshahni, Tsuyoshi Yamada
Dermatophytes are a group of closely related fungi that nourish on keratinized materials for their survival. They infect stratum corneum, nails, and hair of human and animals, accounting the largest portion of fungi causing superficial mycoses. Huge populations are suffering from dermatophytoses, though the biology of these fungi is largely unknown yet. Reasons are partially attributed to the poor amenability of dermatophytes to genetic manipulation. However, advancements in this field over the last decade made it possible to conduct genetic studies to satisfying extents...
July 19, 2016: Mycopathologia
P Mayser
Treating eczema with fungal and/or bacterial superinfections or superficial mycoses are a common problem in daily practice. A fungal superinfection as a consequence of a diminished skin barrier might complicate the course of eczema. In addition, in an inflammatory superficial mycotic infection a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction may result in healing of the lesion, but might also be responsible for irreversible damage of epidermal structures. An example is permanent hair loss by scarring alopecia in the context of inflammatory tinea capitis...
September 2016: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
Geneviève Gavigan, Alana McEvoy, James Walker
BACKGROUND: Dermatology in vulnerable populations is under-researched. Our objective was to analyze the most commonly referred skin diseases affecting the Correctional Service Canada inmates in Ontario. METHODS: An observational, cross-sectional, retrospective chart review of inmate patients seen from 2008 until 2013 was performed. Two groups of patients were included in the analysis: those assessed in-person, and those evaluated by e-consult. RESULTS: In the in-person patient group, the 3 most common diagnoses were acne, psoriasis and other superficial mycoses...
April 2016: CMAJ Open
Ana María Capote, Giuseppe Ferrara, María Mercedes Panizo, Nataly García, Víctor Alarcón, Vera Reviakina, Maribel Dolande
The superficial mycoses are very common infectious diseases and therefore are a frequent reason for medical consultation. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic frequency of superficial mycoses in the Mycology Department of the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel" during 14 years (2001-2014). A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed to review the mycological records of patients with presumptive diagnosis of superficial mycosis. Nails, hairs and epidermal scales were the processed samples...
March 2016: Investigación Clínica
Olaf Kniemeyer, Frank Ebel, Thomas Krüger, Petra Bacher, Alexander Scheffold, Ting Luo, Maria Strassburger, Axel A Brakhage
Filamentous fungi of the genus Aspergillus play significant roles as pathogens causing superficial and invasive infections as well as allergic reactions in humans. Particularly invasive mycoses caused by Aspergillus species are characterized by high mortality rates due to difficult diagnosis and insufficient antifungal therapy. The application of immunoproteomic approaches has a great potential to identify new targets for the diagnosis, therapy, and vaccine development of diseases caused by Aspergillus species...
October 2016: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
Nilce M Martinez-Rossi, Tiago R Jacob, Pablo R Sanches, Nalu T A Peres, Elza A S Lang, Maíra P Martins, Antonio Rossi
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are proteins whose transcription responds rapidly to temperature shifts. They constitute a family of molecular chaperones, involved in the proper folding and stabilisation of proteins under physiological and adverse conditions. HSPs also assist in the protection and recovery of cells exposed to a variety of stressful conditions, including heat. The role of HSPs extends beyond chaperoning proteins, as they also participate in diverse cellular functions, such as the assembly of macromolecular complexes, protein transport and sorting, dissociation of denatured protein aggregates, cell cycle control, and programmed cell death...
April 2016: Current Genomics
Alexandro Bonifaz, Rubí Rojas, Andrés Tirado-Sánchez, Dinora Chávez-López, Carlos Mena, Luz Calderón, Ponce-Olivera Rosa María
Diapers create particular conditions of moisture and friction, and with urine and feces come increased pH and irritating enzymes (lipases and proteases). Fungi can take advantage of all these factors. Candida yeasts, especially C. albicans, are responsible for the most frequent secondary infections and are isolated in more than 80 % of cases. Correct diagnosis is important for ensuring the correct prescription of topical antimycotics. Nystatin, imidazoles and ciclopirox are effective. It is important to realize there are resistant strains...
October 2016: Mycopathologia
Katarzyna Rajkowska, Alina Kunicka-Styczyńska, Marta Maroszyńska
Candida spp. cause significant health problems, inducing various types of superficial and deep-seated mycoses in humans. As a result of the increasing antibiotic resistance among pathogenic yeasts, the interest in alternative agents of antifungal activity is growing. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of selected essential oils (EOs) against Candida clinical and food-borne strains, including antibiotic-resistant isolates, in relation to yeast cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH). Candida strains showed different range of susceptibility to tea tree, thyme, peppermint, and clove oils, and peppermint oil demonstrated the lowest anticandidal activity with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0...
April 19, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Ivan M Pchelin, Vasily V Zlatogursky, Mariya V Rudneva, Galina A Chilina, Ali Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Dmitry M Lavnikevich, Natalya V Vasilyeva, Anastasia E Taraskina
Trichophyton spp. are important causative agents of superficial mycoses. The phylogeny of the genus and accurate strain identification, based on the ribosomal ITS region sequencing, are still under development. The present work is aimed at (i) inferring the genus phylogeny from partial ITS, LSU and BT2 sequences (ii) description of ribosomal ITS region polymorphism in 15 strains of Trichophyton interdigitale. We performed DNA sequence-based species identification and phylogenetic analysis on 48 strains belonging to the genus Trichophyton...
September 2016: Mycoses
Ellen Ovrén, Lars Berglund, Klas Nordlind, Ola Rollman
Direct microscopy of keratinised specimens is a standard screening procedure that assists clinicians to differentiate true superficial mycoses from non-fungal disorders of the skin, nail and hair. Most clinical dermatologists use bright-field microscopy when searching for dermatophyte fungi in clinical samples while laboratory-based mycologists increasingly favour fluorescence microscopy in order to optimise visualisation of fungal elements. This study compared the validity and speediness of fluorescence microscopy vs...
July 2016: Mycoses
Martin Schaller, Markus Friedrich, Manuela Papini, Ramon M Pujol, Stefano Veraldi
Superficial fungal infections affect 20-25% of people worldwide and can cause considerable morbidity, particularly if an inflammatory component is present. As superficial fungal infections can be diverse, the treatment should be tailored to the individual needs of the patient and several factors should be taken into account when deciding on the most appropriate treatment option. These include the type, location and surface area of the infection, patient age, degree of inflammation and underlying comorbidities...
June 2016: Mycoses
Ali Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Abdollah Rafiei, Koichi Makimura, Yvonne Gräser, Maral Gharghani, Batool Sadeghi-Nejad
Dermatophytosis is among the most common superficial mycoses in Iran. The purpose of this report was to update the clinical and mycological features of human dermatophytosis in the Khuzestan, southwestern Iran. In the framework of a one-year survey, a total of 4120 skin, hair and nail samples obtained from the outpatients with symptoms suggestive of tinea were analyzed by using direct microscopy, culture and molecular identification methods. Strains isolated from cultures were subjected to amplification of the nuclear rDNA ITS regions in a PCR assay followed by an early established RFLP analysis...
August 2016: Mycopathologia
Wenying Cai, Changming Lu, Xiqing Li, Junmin Zhang, Ping Zhan, Liyan Xi, Jiufeng Sun, Xinbing Yu
Superficial fungal infections are common worldwide; however, the distribution of pathogenic species varies among geographical areas and changes over time. This study aimed to determine the epidemiologic profile of superficial fungal infections during 2004-2014 in Guangzhou, Southern China. Data regarding the superficial mycoses from outpatients and inpatients in our hospital were recorded and analyzed. From the 3367 patients that were enrolled in the study, 3385 samples were collected from skin, hair and nail lesions...
June 2016: Mycopathologia
Sang-Ha Kim, Seung-Hak Cho, Seung-Ki Youn, Je-Seop Park, Jong Tae Choi, Young-Seok Bak, Young-Bin Yu, Young Kwon Kim
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to build and provide a basic database of skin fungal infections for the effective management of skin fungal infections in the future. METHODS: We collected health insurance data between the years 2006 and 2010 from the Health Insurance Corporation (Seoul, Korea) and analyzed the data to determine the prevalence and treatment management of skin fungal infections. RESULTS: Skin fungal infections were divided into two groups: namely dermatophytosis and other superficial mycoses...
December 2015: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
Michał Andres, Andrzej Jaworek, Magdalena Stec-Polak, Joanna Radzimowska, Anna Wojas-Pelc
INTRODUCTION: Superficial fungal infections are a major epidemiological issue with increasing prevalence. Mycological examination is crucial for proper diagnosis. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological and etiological factors of superficial fungal infections in Malopolska and the incidence of superficial fungal infections in relation to sex and age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 4608 results of mycological examinations taken from patients in 2010-2014 in Mycology Laboratory in Krakow...
2015: Przegla̧d Lekarski
Tomoya Nakamura, Akiko Nishibu, Naoki Yoshida, Mitsue Yasoshima, Kazushi Anzawa, Yasuharu Watanabe, Yoshinori Nagai, Kiyoshi Takatsu, Kazuo Ogawa, Takashi Mochizuki
Trichophyton infection is highly prevalent and tends to be recurrent. Therefore, it is important to develop new therapeutic agents. Previously, we established a mouse model of Trichophyton-induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS) and demonstrated that dectin-1 was involved in inflammation induced by trichophytin, the Trichophyton antigen. Here, we used that model to investigate glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) from plants of the genus Glycyrrhiza as a potential anti-inflammatory agent against superficial mycoses. GA suppressed swelling and the expression of inflammatory cytokines, including macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ mRNA...
April 2016: Experimental Dermatology
Yotsabeth Saúl-García, Leyla Humbría-García, Rosaura Hernández-Valles
Candida species other than C. albicans are often described as causative agents of superficial mycosis and are more resistant to treatment with azoles. In order to determine the distribution of species and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp., one ambispective study, which analyzed 18 yeast isolates obtained from samples from patients diagnosed with superficial mycosis, was performed. Taxonomic identification was performed by macroscopic visualization of the growth characteristics in chromogenic agar and by conventional methods...
September 2015: Investigación Clínica
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