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Dermatophytosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897199/hydroxychavicol-a-phytochemical-targeting-cutaneous-fungal-infections
#1
Intzar Ali, Naresh Kumar Satti, Prabhu Dutt, Rajendra Prasad, Inshad Ali Khan
The present study was designed to investigate the potency of hydroxychavicol on selected cutaneous human pathogenic fungi by the use of in vitro and in vivo assays and mechanistic characterization along with toxicological effects. Hydroxychavicol consistently displayed a fungicidal effect against all fungal species tested. Inoculum concentrations over the range of 10(4) to 10(7) CFU/ml did not significantly alter its antifungal potential and time-kill curve results revealed concentration-dependent killing...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878642/are-th17-cells-playing-a-role-in-immunity-to-dermatophytosis
#2
Marie-Pierre Heinen, Ludivine Cambier, Laurence Fievez, Bernard Mignon
Despite their superficial localization in the skin, pathogenic dermatophytes can induce a complex but still misunderstood immune response in their hosts. The cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is correlated with both clinical recovery and protection against reinfection, and CD4+ T lymphocytes have been recognized as a crucial component of the immune defense against dermatophytes. Before the discovery of the Th17 pathway, CMI was considered to be only dependent of Th1 cells, and thus most studies on the immunology of dermatophytosis have focused on the Th1 pathway...
November 23, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870929/a-clinical-study-of-cutaneous-changes-in-pregnancy
#3
Vinitha V Panicker, Najeeba Riyaz, P K Balachandran
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Pregnant women experience a myriad of physiological and metabolic changes that affect different organ systems in the body. Cutaneous and appendageal alterations that manifest during pregnancy are largely modulated by hormonal, immunologic, and metabolic factors. Detailed reports encompassing physiological changes and specific dermatoses of pregnancy and effects of various dermatoses on pregnant women are scanty in literature. This study was conducted to examine in detail both physiological changes and specific dermatoses...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868472/topical-and-systemic-antifungals-in-dermatology-practice
#4
Murat Durdu, Macit Ilkit, Yalda Tamadon, Ali Tolooe, Haleh Rafati, Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi
Dermatophytosis is generally defined as an infection of the hair, nails, or glabrous skin. These infections are caused by the keratinophilic fungi Trichophyton spp., Microsporum spp., and Epidermophyton, which have been recovered from both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Although dermatophytosis is generally not a life-threatening condition, these types of infections are among the most common infections worldwide, and their incidence has continued to increase consistently in recent years. Area covered: This article provides an overview of the general characteristics of dermatophytes, including their taxonomy and epidemiology, as well as the different clinical forms and laboratory diagnostics of dermatophytosis...
November 19, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859475/correlation-between-histopathologic-features-and-likelihood-of-identifying-superficial-dermatophytosis-with-periodic-acid-schiff-diastase-staining-a-cohort-study
#5
Michael Z Wang, Ruifeng Guo, Julia S Lehman
BACKGROUND: Periodic Acid Schiff-Diastase (PAS-D) staining is used routinely in dermatopathology. Conventionally, parakeratosis or intracorneal neutrophils justify use of PAS-D stain to identify dermatophytosis. We aimed to investigate the histopathological features of superficial dermatophytosis. METHODS: Skin biopsies with PAS-D stain were retrospectively reviewed by a blinded dermatopathologist. Histopathologic findings in cases with dermatophytosis were compared to those without...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853914/non-dermatophyte-dermatoses-mimicking-dermatophytoses-in-animals
#6
Didier Pin
Dermatophytoses in animals are fungal diseases of the skin caused by dermatophyte fungi of the genus Microsporum or Trichophyton. Because the infection is generally follicular, the most common clinical sign is one or many circular areas of alopecia with variable erythema, scaling and crusting, and the primary differential diagnoses are follicular infections, such as bacterial folliculitis and demodicosis. Although dermatophyte folliculitis or ringworm is the most commonly observed lesion of dermatophytoses in animals, other presentations may be observed according to the host species and the dermatophyte involved: dermatophyte folliculitis or ringworm, scaling and crusting in dermatophytosis due to Microsporum persicolor, nodule in case of kerion or mycetoma, matted hairs, seborrheic dermatosis or miliary dermatitis in cats, generalized exfoliative dermatoses in dogs, cats and horses, superficial non-follicular pustules, papules and macules in the Devon Rex cat, pruritic dermatophytoses in dogs, cats and horses, and onychomycosis in dogs, cats and horses...
November 16, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780596/clinical-application-of-a-molecular-assay-for-the-detection-of-dermatophytosis-and-a-novel-non-invasive-sampling-technique
#7
Alice Kizny Gordon, Christopher McIver, Minhee Kim, Dedee F Murrell, Peter Taylor
The dermatophytoses are the most common superficial fungal infections worldwide. Clinical diagnosis is not reliable as there are many differentials, and laboratory diagnosis is required to gain access to treatment in more severe disease. Traditional diagnostic methods are limited by suboptimal sensitivity, specificity and prolonged turnaround times. Molecular methods are being used increasingly in the diagnostic algorithm in the clinical microbiology laboratory. The aim of this study was to evaluate a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting the chitin synthase 1 gene (CHS1) of dermatophytes for analytical specificity, and to assess its clinical application by comparing it to the current methods of microscopy and culture...
October 22, 2016: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771883/natural-products-an-alternative-to-conventional-therapy-for-dermatophytosis
#8
Graciliana Lopes, Eugénia Pinto, Lígia Salgueiro
The increased incidence of fungal infections, associated with the widespread use of antifungal drugs, has resulted in the development of resistance, making it necessary to discover new therapeutic alternatives. Among fungal infections, dermatophytoses constitute a serious public health problem, affecting 20-25 % of the world population. Medicinal plants represent an endless source of bioactive molecules, and their volatile and non-volatile extracts are clearly recognized for being the historical basis of therapeutic health care...
October 22, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760830/modeling-dermatophytosis-in-reconstructed-human-epidermis-a-new-tool-to-study-infection-mechanisms-and-to-test-antifungal-agents
#9
Émilie Faway, Ludivine Cambier, Bernard Mignon, Yves Poumay, Catherine Lambert de Rouvroit
Dermatophytosis is a superficial fungal infection of keratinized structures that exhibits an increasing prevalence in humans and is thus requesting novel prophylactic strategies and therapies. However, precise mechanisms used by dermatophytes to adhere at the surface of the human epidermis and invade its stratum corneum are still incompletely identified, as well as the responses provided by the underlying living keratinocytes during the infection. We hereby report development of an in vitro model of human dermatophytosis through infection of reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) by arthroconidia of the anthropophilic Trichophyton rubrum species or of the zoophilic Microsporum canis and Arthroderma benhamiae species...
October 19, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760032/efficacy-of-topical-therapy-with-newly-developed-terbinafine-and-econazole-formulations-in-the-treatment-of-dermatophytosis-in-cats
#10
M Ivaskiene, A P Matusevicius, A Grigonis, G Zamokas, L Babickaite
In the field of veterinary dermatology dermatophytosis is one of the most frequently occurring infectious diseases, therefore its treatment should be effective, convenient, safe and inexpensive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of newly developed topical formulations in the treatment of cats with dermatophytosis. Evaluation of clinical efficacy and safety of terbinafine and econazole formulations administered topically twice a day was performed in 40 cats. Cats, suffering from the most widely spread Microsporum canis-induced dermatophytosis and treated with terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream, recovered within 20...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718160/reappraisal-of-conventional-diagnosis-for-dermatophytes
#11
Marc Pihet, Yohann Le Govic
Dermatophytoses include a wide variety of diseases involving glabrous skin, nails and hair. These superficial infections are a common cause of consultation in dermatology. In many cases, their diagnosis is not clinically obvious, and mycological analysis therefore is required. Direct microscopic examination of the samples using clearing agents provides a quick response to the clinician and is usually combined with cultures on specific media, which must be used to overcome the growth of contaminating moulds that may hamper the recovery of dermatophytes...
October 7, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688443/relapse-after-oral-terbinafine-therapy-in-dermatophytosis-a-clinical-and-mycological-study
#12
Imran Majid, Gousia Sheikh, Farhath Kanth, Rubeena Hakak
BACKGROUND: The incidence of recurrent tinea infections after oral terbinafine therapy is on the rise. AIM: This study aims to identify the appearance of incomplete cure and relapse after 2-week oral terbinafine therapy in tinea corporis and/or tinea cruris. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 100 consecutive patients clinically and mycologically diagnosed to have tinea corporis and/or tinea cruris were included in the study. The enrolled patients were administered oral terbinafine 250 mg once daily for 2 weeks...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663926/tinea-on-a-tattoo
#13
Alexandru Oanţă, Marius Irimie
In the last twenty years, the prevalence of individuals with tattoos in the general population has increased in Europe (1) as well as in Australia (2) and the United States of America (3). A series of complications such as acute inflammatory reactions, allergic contact dermatitis (4,5), photoinduced, lichenoid, and granulomatous reactions (6, 7), pseudolymphoma (8), pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia (9), skin infections (6), and skin cancers (10) may occur on tattoos. Infectious complications on tattoos include bacterial infections (pyoderma, leprosy, syphilis, cutaneous tuberculosis, mycobacteriosis) (11-14), viral infections (molluscum contagiosum, warts, herpes simplex, hepatitis B and C) (15-17), and fungal infections (sporotrichosis, dermatophytosis) (18,19)...
August 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659806/the-role-of-phagocytes-and-nets-in-dermatophytosis
#14
Fábio Seiti Yamada Yoshikawa, Sandro Rogério De Almeida
Innate immunity is the host first line of defense against pathogens. However, only in recent years, we are beginning to better understand the ways it operates. A key player is this branch of the immune response that are the phagocytes, as macrophages, dendritic cells and neutrophils. These cells act as sentinels, employing specialized receptors in the sensing of invaders and host injury, and readily responding to them by production of inflammatory mediators. They afford protection not only by ingesting and destroying pathogens, but also by providing a suitable biochemical environment that shapes the adaptive response...
September 22, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647359/cutaneous-problems-in-elderly-diabetics-a-population-based-comparative-cross-sectional-survey
#15
N Asokan, V G Binesh
BACKGROUND: There are few population-based studies on prevalence of cutaneous problems in diabetes mellitus. AIMS: To identify skin problems associated with diabetes mellitus among elderly persons in a village in Kerala. METHODS: In this population-based cross-sectional survey, we compared the prevalence of skin problems among 287 elderly diabetics (aged 65 years or more) with 275 randomly selected elderly persons without diabetes mellitus...
September 20, 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640161/unusual-species-of-dermatophytes-rarely-identified-or-new
#16
Marie-Pierre Hayette, Rosalie Sacheli
Dermatophytes are causing superficial mycosis in animals and humans. Depending on the geophilic, zoophilic or anthropophilic origin of the fungus but also on the immunological status of the patient, symptomatology can widely differ. Nevertheless, each species is currently associated with typical clinical manifestations, even if atypical localizations and/or clinical pictures are sometimes also reported. Diagnostic tools applied to species identification have been changing since the last two decades with the more frequent use of molecular methods currently considered nowadays as reference methods for species identification...
September 17, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632407/in-vivo-anti-trichophyton-activities-of-seed-oil-obtained-from-caraganakorshinskii-kom
#17
Wenna Zhou, Heng Xu, Guangxiang Luan, HongLun Wang, Xiaoyan Wang, Mingkai Ji
AIM: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of seed oil of Caragana korshinskii Kom. against Trichophyton mentagrophytes on an in vivo guinea pig model of dermatophytosis. METHODS: The skin of albino guinea pigs was infected with T. mentagrophytes, and the animals were divided into five groups: negative control (NC group), positive control (PC group), vehicle control, CK50% group (received topical 50% seed oil of C.korshinskii), and CK100% group (received topical 100% seed oil of C...
September 16, 2016: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620985/comparison-of-two-systemic-antifungal-agents-itraconazole-and-terbinafine-for-the-treatment-of-dermatophytosis-in-european-hedgehogs-erinaceus-europaeus
#18
Steve Bexton, Helen Nelson
BACKGROUND: Dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton erinacei is a common scaling and crusting skin disease affecting European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) admitted to wildlife rescue centres. The application of topical therapy can be challenging because wild hedgehogs are subject to stress and often roll into a ball when handled. Systemic antifungal therapy is more convenient but has not been evaluated in this species. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy of oral itraconazole versus oral terbinafine for the treatment of dermatophytosis affecting hedgehogs...
December 2016: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590363/non-dermatophyte-dermatoses-mimicking-dermatophytoses-in-humans
#19
F Libon, N Nikkels-Tassoudji, B Dezfoulian, J E Arrese, A F Nikkels
Human dermatophytic cutaneous infections usually present as single or multiple slowly progressing annular erythemato-squamous lesions with a tendency to central healing on the hairless skin. In the intertriginous regions (feet, inguinal, axillar, submammary), dermatophytic colonisations and infections manifest as whitish, slightly hyperkeratotic, pruritic and sometimes fissurated lesions. On the scalp, dermatophytic infections commonly lead to single or multiple more or less inflammatory and alopecic lesions...
September 2, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590362/pathogenesis-of-dermatophytosis-sensing-the-host-tissue
#20
Nilce M Martinez-Rossi, Nalu T A Peres, Antonio Rossi
The genera Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton include filamentous fungi that cause dermatophytosis, a superficial infection of the skin, stratum corneum, nail beds, and hair follicles. The ability of dermatophytes to adhere to these substrates and adapt to the host environment is essential for the establishment of infection. Several fungal enzymes and proteins participate in this adaptive response to the environment and to keratin degradation. Transcription factors such as PacC and Hfs1, as well as heat shock proteins, are involved in sensing and adapting to the acidic pH of the skin in the early stages of fungal-host interaction...
September 2, 2016: Mycopathologia
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