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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792554/effect-of-acetazolamide-and-methazolamide-on-diaphragm-and-dorsiflexor-fatigue-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Paolo B Dominelli, Chris J McNeil, Tyler Dennis Vermeulen, Troy J R Stuckless, Courtney V Brown, Giulio S Dominelli, Erik Richard Swenson, Lucas J Teppema, Glen Edward Foster
Acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor used clinically and to prevent acute mountain sickness, worsens skeletal muscle fatigue in animals and humans. In animals, methazolamide, a methylated analogue of acetazolamide and an equally potent CA inhibitor, reportedly exacerbates fatigue less than acetazolamide. Accordingly, we sought to determine, in humans, if methazolamide would attenuate diaphragm and dorsiflexor fatigue compared to acetazolamide. Healthy men (dorsiflexor: n=12; diaphragm: n=7) performed fatiguing exercise on three occasions, after ingesting acetazolamide (250 mg three times a day) and then in random order, methazolamide (100 mg twice a day) or placebo for 48 h...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792537/recognizing-quantifying-and-managing-patient-ventilator-asynchrony-in-invasive-and-noninvasive-ventilation
#2
Eugenio Garofalo, Andrea Bruni, Corrado Pelaia, Luisa Liparota, Nicola Lombardo, Federico Longhini, Paolo Navalesi
Patient-ventilator asynchrony may occur with modes of partial ventilatory support. Because this problem is associated with worsened outcomes, identifying and managing asynchronies has been recognized as a relevant clinical problem during both invasive and non-invasive (NIV) mechanical ventilation. Areas covered: In this review article, we first describe the different forms of patient-ventilator asynchrony and how they are classified and quantified. Then, we show how these asynchronies can be recognized, considering the techniques used to properly detect asynchronies, by either ventilator waveform observation, or through systems based on more complexes mathematical algorithms, by means of adjunctive signals, such as the electrical activity of the diaphragm or esophageal pressure...
May 24, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791989/an-unexpected-adverse-event-during-colonoscopy-screening-bochdalek-hernia
#3
Joon Seop Lee, Eun Soo Kim, Min Kyu Jung, Sung Kook Kim, Sun Jin, Deok Heon Lee, Jun Won Seo
Bochdalek hernia (BH) is defined as herniated abdominal contents appearing throughout the posterolateral segment of the diaphragm. It is usually observed during the prenatal or newborn period. Here, we report a case of an adult patient with herniated omentum and colon due to BH that was discovered during a colonoscopy. A 41-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with severe left chest and abdominal pain that began during a colonoscopy. Her chest radiography showed colonic shadow filling in the lower half of the left thoracic cavity...
May 25, 2018: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791395/fiber-optic-fabry-perot-pressure-sensor-based-on-low-temperature-co-fired-ceramic-technology-for-high-temperature-applications
#4
Jia Liu, Pinggang Jia, Huixin Zhang, Xiaodan Tian, Hao Liang, Yingping Hong, Ting Liang, Wenyi Liu, Jijun Xiong
In this study, a novel batch-producible fiber-optic Fabry-Perot (FP) pressure sensor based on a low-temperature co-fired ceramic technology is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for high-temperature applications. The sensor is fabricated by inserting a well-cut single-mode fiber (SMF) into a zirconia fiber ferrule, followed by insertion of the overall structure into an alumina sensor head. The FP cavity in the sensor is formed by placing the end face of the SMF in parallel to the diaphragm. The external pressure can be detected by demodulating the FP cavity length of the sensor...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790300/aspiration-pneumonia-induces-muscle-atrophy-in-the-respiratory-skeletal-and-swallowing-systems
#5
Riyo Komatsu, Tatsuma Okazaki, Satoru Ebihara, Makoto Kobayashi, Yoko Tsukita, Mayumi Nihei, Hisatoshi Sugiura, Kaijun Niu, Takae Ebihara, Masakazu Ichinose
BACKGROUND: Repetition of the onset of aspiration pneumonia in aged patients is common and causes chronic inflammation. The inflammation induces proinflammatory cytokine production and atrophy in the muscles. The proinflammatory cytokines induce muscle proteolysis by activating calpains and caspase-3, followed by further degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Autophagy is another pathway of muscle atrophy. However, little is known about the relationship between aspiration pneumonia and muscle...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789896/an-offline-technique-to-evaluate-residual-motion-of-the-diaphragm-during-deep-inspiratory-breath-hold-from-cone-beam-ct-datasets
#6
Manuel Blessing, Julian Hofmann, Lena Vogel, Judit Boda-Heggemann, Frank Lohr, Frederik Wenz, Florian Stieler, Anna Simeonova-Chergou
PURPOSE: In radiation therapy, the computer-assisted deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique is one approach to deal with respiratory motion of tumors in the lung, liver, or upper abdomen. However, inter- and intra-breath-hold deviations from an optimal static tumor position might occur. A novel method is presented to noninvasively measure the diaphragm position and thus estimate its residual deviation (as surrogate for the tumor position) based on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) projection data using active breathing control during acquisition...
May 22, 2018: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789875/ct-angiography-in-the-lower-extremity-peripheral-artery-disease-feasibility-of-an-ultra-low-volume-contrast-media-protocol
#7
Barbora Horehledova, Casper Mihl, Gianluca Milanese, Rutger Brans, Nienke G Eijsvoogel, Babs M F Hendriks, Joachim E Wildberger, Marco Das
PURPOSE: The ALARA principle is not only relevant for effective dose (ED) reduction, but also applicable for contrast media (CM) management. Therefore, the aim was to evaluate the feasibility of an ultra-low CM protocol in the assessment of peripheral artery disease (PAD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty PAD patients were scanned on third-generation dual-source computed tomography, from diaphragm to the forefoot, as follows: tube voltage: 70 kV, reference effective tube current: 90 mAs, collimation: 192 × 2 × 0...
May 22, 2018: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789801/exercise-prevents-diaphragm-wasting-induced-by-cigarette-smoke-through-modulation-of-antioxidant-genes-and-metalloproteinases
#8
Gracielle Vieira Ramos, Alessandra Choqueta de Toledo-Arruda, Clara Maria Pinheiro-Dardis, Camila Liyoko Suehiro, Thiago Luiz de Russo, Rodolfo Paula Vieira, Milton Arruda Martins, Tania Fátima Salvini, João Luiz Quagliotti Durigan
Background: The present study aimed to analyze the effects of physical training on an antioxidant canonical pathway and metalloproteinases activity in diaphragm muscle in a model of cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Male mice were randomized into control, smoke, exercise, and exercise + smoke groups, which were maintained in trial period of 24 weeks. Gene expression of kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1; nuclear factor erythroid-2 like 2; and heme-oxygenase1 by polymerase chain reaction was performed...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787734/osteopathic-manipulative-treatment-including-specific-diaphragm-techniques-improves-pain-and-disability-in-chronic-non-specific-low-back-pain-a-randomized-trial
#9
Mireia Martí-Salvador, Laura Hidalgo-Moreno, Julio Doménech-Fernández, Juan Francisco Lisón, Maria Dolores Arguisuelas
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of an osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) which includes a diaphragm intervention compared to the same OMT with a sham-diaphragm intervention in chronic non-specific low back pain (NS-CLBP). DESIGN: Parallel group randomized controlled trial SETTING: private and institutional health centers. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-six subjects (18-60 yrs.) with a diagnosis of NS-CLBP lasting at least 3 months. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomized to receive either an OMT protocol including specific diaphragm techniques (n=33) or the same OMT protocol with a sham-diaphragm intervention (n=33), conducted in five sessions provided during 4 weeks...
May 19, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783140/congenital-diaphragmatic-disease-an-unusual-presentation-in-adulthood-case-report
#10
Angela Gurrado, Roberta Maria Isernia, Alessandro De Luca, Valentina Ferraro, Daniela Virgintino, Anna Napoli, Giuseppe Cavallaro, Eugenio Maiorano, Angela Pezzolla, Mario Testini
INTRODUCTION: Congenital diaphragmatic disease is a quite common condition that usually occurs in the neonatal period, and the diagnosis of congenital diaphragmatic disease in adulthood is rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-years-old Caucasian woman was admitted in emergency at our Department, due to a bowel obstruction and dyspnea. A CT-scan showed a diaphragmatic herniation in the left area, with malposition of dilated transverse and descending colon in the chest. An emergency laparatomy was performed, showing a toxic megacolon, in the absence of a true diaphragmatic hernia, and a left diaphragm and left liver hypoplasia...
May 7, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783118/placenta-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-and-their-exosomes-exert-therapeutic-effects-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#11
Ariel Bier, Peter Berenstein, Noam Kronfeld, Daria Morgoulis, Amotz Ziv-Av, Hodaya Goldstein, Gila Kazimirsky, Simona Cazacu, Rinat Meir, Rachela Popovtzer, Amir Dori, Chaya Brodie
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a degenerative lethal, X-linked disease of skeletal and cardiac muscles caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Cell therapy using different cell types, including mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), has been considered as a potential approach for the treatment of DMD. MSCs can be obtained from autologous sources such as bone marrow and adipose tissues or from allogeneic placenta and umbilical cord. The safety and therapeutic impact of these cells has been demonstrated in pre-clinical and clinical studies and their functions are attributed to paracrine effects that are mediated by secreted cytokines and extracellular vesicles...
May 3, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782331/management-challenges-in-an-infant-with-pentalogy-of-cantrell-giant-anterior-encephalocele-and-craniofacial-anomalies-a-case-report
#12
Richard Hubbard, Seth Hayes, Holly Gillis, Spencer Lindsey, Prashant Malhotra, Tariq Wani, Joseph D Tobias, Ralph Beltran
Pentalogy of Cantrell is a rare syndrome consisting of midline abnormalities involving the heart, sternum, abdominal wall, and the anterior and pericardial diaphragm. This combination of defects places patients at particular perioperative risk and requires individualized management during anesthetic care. The following report documents the management of a patient with pentalogy of Cantrell, whose condition was further complicated by severe midline craniofacial abnormalities, including large anterior encephalocele, deficient mandible, tethered tongue, and cleft palate...
May 17, 2018: A&A practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780074/communication-site-ligation-and-polyglycolic-acid-sheet-use-for-the-treatment-of-hydrothorax-in-patients-undergoing-continuous-ambulatory-peritoneal-dialysis
#13
Hirotoshi Kubokura, Junichi Okamoto, Jitsuo Usuda
INTRODUCTION: Hydrothorax due to pleuroperitoneal communication (PPC) can occur in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). We report our experiences of the safety and efficacy of the treatment of four patients with a novel video-assisted thoracoscopy method. METHODS: Single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) was performed with a mini-thoracotomy of 5 cm in length. The PPC site was identified on the diaphragm and ligated using an endoscopic loop...
May 21, 2018: Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779705/an-investigation-into-the-use-of-ultrasound-as-a-surrogate-measure-of-diaphragm-function
#14
Samantha Holtzhausen, Marianne Unger, Alison Lupton-Smith, Susan Hanekom
PURPOSE: Sonographic assessment of the diaphragm may be a surrogate for interpretation of diaphragm function in mechanically ventilated patients. This study aimed to determine the correlation between respiratory muscle function and diaphragm thickness in a healthy population. METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted. Diaphragm thickness was determined by sonographic measurement. Respiratory muscle strength, fatigue and endurance was determined using a mouth pressure manometer...
May 17, 2018: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779603/diaphragm-pacing
#15
REVIEW
Anthony F DiMarco
Diaphragm pacing (DP) is a useful and cost-effective alternative to mechanical ventilation in patients with ventilator-dependent spinal cord injury and central hypoventilation syndrome. Patients with SCI should be carefully screened to assess the integrity of their phrenic nerves. In eligible patients, DP improves mobility, speech, olfaction, and quality of life. The stigma of being attached to a mechanical device and risk of ventilator disconnection are eliminated. There is also some evidence that DP results in a reduction in the rate of respiratory tract infections...
June 2018: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779598/metabolic-myopathies-and-the-respiratory-system
#16
REVIEW
Patrick Koo, Jigme M Sethi
Metabolic myopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by inherited defects of enzymatic pathways involved in muscle cellular energetics and adenosine triphosphate synthesis. Skeletal and respiratory muscles are most affected. There are multiple mechanisms of disease. The age of onset and prognosis vary. Metabolic myopathies cause exercise intolerance, myalgia, and increase in muscle breakdown products during exercise. Some affect smooth muscle like the diaphragm and cause respiratory failure...
June 2018: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779594/disorders-of-the-diaphragm
#17
REVIEW
F Dennis McCool, Kamran Manzoor, Taro Minami
Pathologic processes that involve the central nervous system, phrenic nerve, neuromuscular junction, and skeletal muscle can impair diaphragm function. When these processes are of sufficient severity to cause diaphragm dysfunction, respiratory failure may be a consequence. This article reviews basic diaphragm anatomy and physiology and then discusses diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to disorders that result in unilateral or bilateral diaphragm dysfunction. This discussion provides a context in which disorders of the diaphragm and their implications on respiratory function can be better appreciated...
June 2018: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779593/assessing-diaphragm-function-in-chest-wall-and-neuromuscular-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Taro Minami, Kamran Manzoor, F Dennis McCool
Diaphragm dysfunction is defined as the partial or complete loss of diaphragm muscle contractility. However, because the diaphragm is one of only a few skeletal muscles that is not amenable to direct examination, the tools available for the clinician to assess diaphragm function have been limited. Traditionally, measures of lung volume, inspiratory muscle strength, and radiographic techniques such as fluoroscopy have provided the major method to assess diaphragm function. Measurement of transdiaphragmatic pressure provides the most direct means of evaluating the diaphragm, but this technique is not readily available to clinicians...
June 2018: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779590/pathophysiology-of-neuromuscular-respiratory-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Joshua O Benditt
Gas exchange between the atmosphere and the human body depends on the lungs and the function of the respiratory pump. The respiratory pump consists of the respiratory control center located in the brain, bony rib cage, diaphragm, and intercostal, accessory, and abdominal muscles. A variety of muscles serve to fine-tune adjustments of ventilation to metabolic demands. Appropriate evaluation and interventions can prevent respiratory complications and prolong life in individuals with neuromuscular diseases. This article discusses normal function of the respiratory pump, general pathophysiologic issues, and abnormalities in more common neuromuscular diseases...
June 2018: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777859/three-dimensional-model-of-the-female-perineum-and-pelvic-floor-muscles
#20
Géraldine Giraudet, Laurent Patrouix, Christian Fontaine, Xavier Demondion, Michel Cosson, Chrystèle Rubod
OBJECTIVE: The anatomy of the perineum and the pelvic diaphragm of woman is complex. A numerical complete three-dimensional (3D) model of every muscle of the woman pelvis doesn't exist. The pathophysiology of genital prolapse is still debated. Knowledge of anatomy is essential to better understand its mechanisms. The aim of this research was to build a complete three-dimensional model of the female perineum and pelvic floor muscles. STUDY DESIGN: To model the pelvic muscles we reconstructed them in three dimensions from tracing a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of a female pelvis from a cadaver...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
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