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Public health AND developping cities

Juarez P Dias, Maria da Conceição N Costa, Gubio Soares Campos, Enny S Paixão, Marcio S Natividade, Florisneide R Barreto, Martha Suely C Itaparica, Cristina Goes, Francisca L S Oliveira, Eloisa B Santana, Neusa S J Silva, Carlos A A Brito, Laura C Rodrigues, Silvia Inez Sardi, Ramon C Saavedra, Maria Glória Teixeira
Chikungunya has had a substantial impact on public health because of the magnitude of its epidemics and its highly debilitating symptoms. We estimated the seroprevalence, proportion of symptomatic cases, and proportion of chronic form of disease after introduction of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in 2 cities in Brazil. We conducted the population-based study through household interviews and serologic surveys during October-December 2015. In Feira de Santana, we conducted a serologic survey of 385 persons; 57.1% were CHIKV-positive...
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Mayckel da Silva Barreto, Raquel de Deus Mendonça, Adriano Marçal Pimenta, Cristina Garcia-Vivar, Sonia Silva Marcon
The objectives of this study were to identify, among individuals with hypertension, sociodemographic factors associated with non-use of routine medical appointments available in primary care and check if non-use of consultations interferes with noncompliance with pharmacotherapy, uncontrolled blood pressure and hospitalization. This is a cross-sectional study with random and stratified sampling. A total of 422 individuals living in the city of Maringá, Paraná, were interviewed. There were crude and adjusted analyses using logistic regression, estimating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals...
March 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Jolanta Kolodziejek, Christof Jungbauer, Stephan W Aberle, Franz Allerberger, Zoltán Bagó, Jeremy V Camp, Katharina Dimmel, Phebe de Heus, Michael Kolodziejek, Peter Schiefer, Bernhard Seidel, Karin Stiasny, Norbert Nowotny
The results of integrated human and veterinary surveillance for West Nile virus (WNV) infections in Austria during the transmission seasons 2015 and 2016 are shown. Altogether WNV nucleic acid was detected in 21 humans, horses, wild birds and mosquito pools. In detail: in four human clinical cases [two cases of West Nile fever (WNF) and two cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND)]; eight blood donors [among 145,541 tested donations], of which three remained asymptomatic and five subsequently developed mild WNF; two horses with WNND, of which one recovered and one had to be euthanized; two wild birds [one goshawk and one falcon, both succumbed to WNND]; and five Culex pipiens mosquito pools...
March 14, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Elva Jiménez-Hernández, Arturo Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Juan Carlos Núñez-Enriquez, Jorge Alfonso Martín-Trejo, Laura Eugenia Espinoza-Hernández, Janet Flores-Lujano, José Arellano-Galindo, Aurora Medina-Sanson, Rogelio Paredes-Aguilera, Laura Elizabeth Merino-Pasaye, Martha Margarita Velázquez-Aviña, José Refugio Torres-Nava, Rosa Martha Espinosa-Elizondo, Raquel Amador-Sánchez, Juan José Dosta-Herrera, Javier Anastacio Mondragón-García, Heriberto Valdés-Guzmán, Laura Mejía-Pérez, Gilberto Espinoza-Anrubio, María Minerva Paz-Bribiesca, Perla Salcedo-Lozada, Rodolfo Ángel Landa-García, Rosario Ramírez-Colorado, Luis Hernández-Mora, María Luisa Pérez-Saldivar, Marlene Santamaría-Ascencio, Anselmo López-Loyola, Arturo Hermilo Godoy-Esquivel, Luis Ramiro García-López, Alison Ireri Anguiano-Ávalos, Karina Mora-Rico, Alejandro Castañeda-Echevarría, Roberto Rodríguez-Jiménez, José Alberto Cibrian-Cruz, Karina Anastacia Solís-Labastida, Rocío Cárdenas-Cardos, Armando Martínez-Avalos, Luz Victoria Flores-Villegas, José Gabriel Peñaloza-González, Ana Itamar González-Ávila, Martha Beatriz Altamirano-García, Norma López-Santiago, Martin Sánchez-Ruiz, Roberto Rivera-Luna, Luis Rodolfo Rodríguez-Villalobos, Francisco Hernández-Pérez, Jaime Ángel Olvera-Durán, Luis Rey García-Cortés, Minerva Mata-Rocha, Omar Alejandro Sepúlveda-Robles, Cesar Raúl González-Bonilla, Vilma Carolina Bekker-Méndez, Silvia Jiménez-Morales, Haydee Rosas-Vargas, Juan Manuel Mejía-Aranguré
In Mexico, due to the high rates of diabetes, overweight, and obesity, there has also been noted an increased newborn weight, which may be contributing to the elevated incidence rate of childhood acute leukemia (AL). We conducted a case-control study in public hospitals of Mexico City aimed to know whether a greater weight at birth is associated with a higher risk of developing leukemia. We included incident cases with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) diagnosed between 2010 and 2015...
March 13, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Anber Naqvi, Abdul Qadir, Adeel Mahmood, Mujtaba Baqar, Iqra Aslam, Farhan Sajid, Mehvish Mumtaz, Jun Li, Gan Zhang
The present study biomonitored the placental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in women from Punjab Province, Pakistan, that provides the pioneer data for occurrence and body burden of PCBs in placental tissues from South Asian women. The ∑34 PCB concentrations in placental tissues were ranged from 20.2 to 115.98 ng/g lipid weight (lip. wt.), with predominance of tetra-PCB (54.67%). The levels of ∑8 DL-PCBs and ∑6 -indicator PCBs were ranged from 2.03 to 27.64 ng/g (lip. wt.) and 1.71 to 30...
March 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Matthew C Altman, Elizabeth Whalen, Alkis Togias, George T O'Connor, Leonard B Bacharier, Gordon R Bloomberg, Meyer Kattan, Robert A Wood, Scott Presnell, Petra LeBeau, Katy Jaffee, Cynthia M Visness, William W Busse, James E Gern
BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma in inner city populations is a major public health burden and understanding early life immune mechanisms that promote asthma onset is key to disease prevention. Children who develop asthma demonstrate a high prevalence of aeroallergen sensitization and T helper 2 (Th2)-type inflammation, however the early life immune events that lead to Th2 skewing and disease development are unknown. OBJECTIVE: We sought to use RNA sequencing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected at age 2 to determine networks of immune responses that occur in children who develop allergy and asthma...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Teferi Mekonnen, Worku Animaw, Yeshaneh Seyum
Background: Nowadays adulthood overweight/obesity is an emerging public health problem in developing countries. There is no information on magnitude and contributing factors of adulthood overweight/obesity in Ethiopia, particularly in North West region of the country. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess magnitude and contributing factors of adulthood overweight/obesity in North West region of Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from September1, 2015 to November 30, 2015 in northwest region of Ethiopia particularly Bahir-Dar city and its rural districts...
2018: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
Abhishek Kumar Awasthi, Jinhui Li
The generation of e-waste has increased significantly in India, and the informal recycling of e-waste has adverse effects on environment and public health. In this article, the E-waste management is evaluated in accordance from the resident's awareness perspective in Bangalore city, India. The survey data revealed that about 58% male and 42% female responded and 35% of the participants belong to age range between 18 and 25 years. About 60% of respondent's education level was either graduate or post graduate, 27% high school to higher school, 10% higher educated (> post graduate), and 3% primary to middle...
March 3, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Olav B Nielssen, William Stone, Naidene M Jones, Sarah Challis, Amelia Nielssen, Gordon Elliott, Nicholas Burns, Astrid Rogoz, Lucy E Cooper, Matthew M Large
OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of people attending mental health clinics at shelters for the homeless in inner city Sydney. DESIGN: Retrospective review of medical records of homeless hostel clinic attenders. SETTING: Mental health clinics located in three inner city homeless hostels. PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive series of clinic attenders, 21 July 2008 - 31 December 2016. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic characteristics; social, medical and mental health histories of homeless people...
March 5, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
D T Tyler Flockhart, Jason B Coe
Concerns over cat homelessness, over-taxed animal shelters, public health risks, and environmental impacts has raised attention on urban-cat populations. To truly understand cat population dynamics, the collective population of owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in the shelter system must be considered simultaneously because each subpopulation contributes differently to the overall population of cats in a community (e.g., differences in neuter rates, differences in impacts on wildlife) and cats move among categories through human interventions (e...
2018: PloS One
Cheryl Cusack, Benita Cohen, Javier Mignone, Mariette J Chartier, Zana Lutfiyya
AIM: This article explores and describes participatory action research as a preferred method in addressing nursing practice issues. This is the first study that used participatory action research with public health nurses in Canada to develop a professional practice model. BACKGROUND: Participatory action research is a sub-category of action research that incorporates feminist and critical theory with foundations in the field of social psychology. For nurses, critical analysis of long-established beliefs and practices through participatory action research contributes to emancipatory knowledge regarding the impact of traditional hierarchies on their practice...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Amal Oudghiri, Hind Karimi, Fouad Chetioui, Fathiah Zakham, Jamal Eddine Bourkadi, My Driss Elmessaoudi, Amin Laglaoui, Imane Chaoui, Mohammed El Mzibri
BACKGROUND: The emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has raised public health concern for global TB control. Although multi drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR- TB) prevalence and associated genetic mutations in Morocco are well documented, scarce information on XDR TB is available. Hence, the evaluation of pre-XDR and XDR prevalence, as well as the mutation status of gyrA, gyrB, rrs, tlyA genes and eis promoter region, associated with resistance to second line drugs, is of great value for better management of M/XDR TB in Morocco...
February 27, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Anna Fernández, Juan M Mendive, Sonia Conejo-Cerón, Patricia Moreno-Peral, Michael King, Irwin Nazareth, Carlos Martín-Pérez, Carmen Fernández-Alonso, Antonina Rodríguez-Bayón, Jose Maria Aiarzaguena, Carmen Montón-Franco, Antoni Serrano-Blanco, Inmaculada Ibañez-Casas, Emiliano Rodríguez-Sánchez, Luis Salvador-Carulla, Paola Bully Garay, María Isabel Ballesta-Rodríguez, Pilar LaFuente, María Del Mar Muñoz-García, Pilar Mínguez-Gonzalo, Luz Araujo, Diego Palao, María Cruz Gómez, Fernando Zubiaga, Desirée Navas-Campaña, Jose Manuel Aranda-Regules, Alberto Rodriguez-Morejón, Juan de Dios Luna, Juan Ángel Bellón
BACKGROUND: Depression is viewed as a major and increasing public health issue, as it causes high distress in the people experiencing it and considerable financial costs to society. Efforts are being made to reduce this burden by preventing depression. A critical component of this strategy is the ability to assess the individual level and profile of risk for the development of major depression. This paper presents the cost-effectiveness of a personalized intervention based on the risk of developing depression carried out in primary care, compared with usual care...
February 23, 2018: BMC Medicine
Dennis Darrin Pruitt, Erkan Gunay
There is little existing in the literature that provides a definition of readiness for a jurisdiction's whole health care system. As defining readiness at the system level has proven to be challenging, an approach that provides a framework for planning and measuring health care readiness with broad utility is needed. The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) devised the Readiness Target Project. Nine areas or dimensions of readiness emerged from this work. Through focus groups and feedback from hospital stakeholders DOHMH developed a matrix of readiness areas outlining current state, target state, gaps, and recommendations to achieve readiness...
February 20, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
M Fontcuberta-Famadas, G Serral, M J López, P Balfagón, E García-Cid, L Caballé-Gavaldà
BACKGROUND: An intervention to promote the development of an allergen control plan (ACP) and preventive measures for the management of allergens in school food services was implemented in all schools of Barcelona city over a three-year period (2013-2015) by the public health services. The present study aimed to assess changes regarding the management of food allergens in school food services in Barcelona after an intervention conducted by the public health services of the city. METHODS: School meal operators of a random sample of 117 schools were assessed before and after the intervention using a structured questionnaire...
February 15, 2018: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
Ying Li, Ting Ren, Patrick L Kinney, Andrew Joyner, Wei Zhang
Global climate change is anticipated to raise overall temperatures and has the potential to increase future mortality attributable to heat. Urban areas are particularly vulnerable to heat because of high concentrations of susceptible people. As the world's largest developing country, China has experienced noticeable changes in climate, partially evidenced by frequent occurrence of extreme heat in urban areas, which could expose millions of residents to summer heat stress that may result in increased health risk, including mortality...
February 12, 2018: Environmental Research
Julian Abel
Compassionate communities as part of the public health approach to end-of-life care (EoLC) offers the possibility of solving the inequity of the difference in provision of care for those people with incurable cancer and those with non-cancer terminal illnesses. The naturally occurring supportive network surrounding the patient is the starting point for EoLC. The network can provide both hands-on care and support to those providing hands-on care. Healthcare professionals can build much stronger partnerships with these supportive networks and transform EoLC at home...
February 2018: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Kaliny Xavier da Guarda, Julia Maria Costa Cruz, Ivanildes Solange da Costa Barcelos
The Taenia solium cysticercosis affects millions of people worldwide and is considered a public health problem, especially in developing countries. The diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) is complex and involves the analysis of epidemiological, clinical, neuroimaging, and immunological host data. NCC is endemic in Brazil, and is related to the cause of death mainly in the Southeast, South, and Central-West regions. The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of cysticercosis in inhabitants of the city of Jataí, Goiás, in the Central-West region of Brazil from April to August 2012...
February 9, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
WeiJian Liu, YunSong Xu, WenXin Liu, QingYang Liu, ShuangYu Yu, Yang Liu, Xin Wang, Shu Tao
Emissions of air pollutants from primary and secondary sources in China are considerably higher than those in developed countries, and exposure to air pollution is main risk of public health. Identifying specific particulate matter (PM) compositions and sources are essential for policy makers to propose effective control measures for pollutant emissions. Ambient PM2.5 samples covered a whole year were collected from three coastal cities of the Bohai Sea. Oxidative potential (OP) was selected as the indicator to characterize associated PM compositions and sources most responsible for adverse impacts on human health...
February 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Navarro Ferronato, Marcelo Antonio Gorritty Portillo, Edith Gabriela Guisbert Lizarazu, Vincenzo Torretta, Marco Bezzi, Marco Ragazzi
Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is considered an important public health, economic and environmental concern, especially in developing countries. This paper introduces the situation of MSWM in La Paz (Bolivia) in 2016, and is based on the Wasteaware indicators and waste flow analysis, useful tools for classifying and comparing waste treatment and management plans among other countries. Taking into account the lack of technology in waste treatment and the presence of a developed informal sector, the paper analyses the main strengths and weak points for implementing a sustainable MSWM...
February 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
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