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Public health AND developping cities

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438227/characterization-of-carbon-monoxide-exposure-during-hurricane-sandy-and-subsequent-nor-easter
#1
Amy Schnall, Royal Law, Amy Heinzerling, Kanta Sircar, Scott Damon, Fuyuen Yip, Josh Schier, Tesfaye Bayleyegn, Amy Wolkin
OBJECTIVE: Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless gas produced by fossil fuel combustion. On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy moved ashore near Atlantic City, New Jersey, causing widespread morbidity and mortality, $30 to $50 billion in economic damage, and 8.5 million households to be without power. The combination of power outages and unusually low temperatures led people to use alternate power sources, placing many at risk for CO exposure. METHODS: We examined Hurricane Sandy-related CO exposures from multiple perspectives to help identify risk factors and develop strategies to prevent future exposures...
April 25, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435814/gender-dependent-differences-in-the-relationship-between-diabetes-mellitus-and-ambient-air-pollution-among-adults-in-south-korean-cities
#2
Dongwook Sohn, Hyunjin Oh
BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been a serious public health threat worldwide. It has been linked to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases but is also believed to contribute to air-pollution-mediated cardiometabolic disease such as diabetes. We investigated the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and air pollution in densely developed urban settings in South Korea, using national epidemiologic data. METHODS: The analysis focused on examining gender-related differences in the relationship between DM 2 and air pollutants, specifically particulate matter ≤ 10μm (PM10) and sulfur dioxide (SO2)...
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430095/window-of-opportunity-for-new-disease-surveillance-developing-keyword-lists-for-monitoring-mental-health-and-injury-through-syndromic-surveillance
#3
Ursula Lauper, Jian-Hua Chen, Shao Lin
Studies have documented the impact that hurricanes have on mental health and injury rates before, during, and after the event. Since timely tracking of these disease patterns is crucial to disaster planning, response, and recovery, syndromic surveillance keyword filters were developed by the New York State Department of Health to study the short- and long-term impacts of Hurricane Sandy. Emergency department syndromic surveillance is recognized as a valuable tool for informing public health activities during and immediately following a disaster...
April 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426310/a-public-health-approach-to-hepatitis-c-in-an-urban-setting
#4
Fabienne Laraque, Jay K Varma
The clinical consequences of HCV infection are increasing because the population with the highest prevalence of the infection, persons born between 1945 and 1965, is aging. As a result, health care expenditures are expected to increase. Now that a cure for HCV infection is the norm, a public health approach is necessary to identify, link to care, and treat infected persons and prevent new infections. We believe that the success of public health interventions, such as those for tuberculosis, can be translated to HCV infection...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412623/the-urban-heat-island-effect-its-causes-and-mitigation-with-reference-to-the-thermal-properties-of-asphalt-concrete
#5
REVIEW
Abbas Mohajerani, Jason Bakaric, Tristan Jeffrey-Bailey
The Urban Heat Island (UHI) is a phenomenon that affects many millions of people worldwide. The higher temperatures experienced in urban areas compared to the surrounding countryside has enormous consequences for the health and wellbeing of people living in cities. The increased use of manmade materials and increased anthropogenic heat production are the main causes of the UHI. This has led to the understanding that increased urbanisation is the primary cause of the urban heat island. The UHI effect also leads to increased energy needs that further contribute to the heating of our urban landscape, and the associated environmental and public health consequences...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403172/a-first-estimate-of-the-structure-and-density-of-the-populations-of-pet-cats-and-dogs-across-great-britain
#6
James Aegerter, David Fouracre, Graham C Smith
Policy development, implementation, and effective contingency response rely on a strong evidence base to ensure success and cost-effectiveness. Where this includes preventing the establishment or spread of zoonotic or veterinary diseases infecting companion cats and dogs, descriptions of the structure and density of the populations of these pets are useful. Similarly, such descriptions may help in supporting diverse fields of study such as; evidence-based veterinary practice, veterinary epidemiology, public health and ecology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378517/the-creation-and-dissemination-of-downloadable-information-on-dementia-and-driving-from-a-social-health-perspective
#7
Yumiko Arai, Asuna Arai, Yoko Mizuno, Naoto Kamimura, Manabu Ikeda
BACKGROUND: Driving cessation is a likely consequence of progressive dementia. Patients and families can benefit from support through this transition, both to safeguard the patient and public and to help preserve healthy social activity of the patient. METHODS: To provide appropriate supportive information, we developed a 35-page manual ('Supporting family caregivers of older drivers with dementia') available as a free download from our department website. We then informed municipal governments of its availability, tracked website access metrics, and followed up 7 months later with a postal survey to the heads of each municipal government's department of welfare for older citizens...
April 4, 2017: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376097/geospatial-characteristics-of-measles-transmission-in-china-during-2005-2014
#8
Wan Yang, Liang Wen, Shen-Long Li, Kai Chen, Wen-Yi Zhang, Jeffrey Shaman
Measles is a highly contagious and severe disease. Despite mass vaccination, it remains a leading cause of death in children in developing regions, killing 114,900 globally in 2014. In 2006, China committed to eliminating measles by 2012; to this end, the country enhanced its mandatory vaccination programs and achieved vaccination rates reported above 95% by 2008. However, in spite of these efforts, during the last 3 years (2013-2015) China documented 27,695, 52,656, and 42,874 confirmed measles cases. How measles manages to spread in China-the world's largest population-in the mass vaccination era remains poorly understood...
April 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367879/phenotypic-and-molecular-characterization-of-enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli-isolated-in-kawasaki-japan
#9
Akiko Kubomura, Takako Misaki, Sachiko Homma, Chiaki Matsuo, Nobuhiko Okabe
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), an enteric pathogen, causes persistent diarrhea in children, HIV-infected individuals, and travelers in economically developing countries. However, the pathogenesis of EAEC infection is not well understood. The aim of this study is to characterize EAEC in Japan. During 2012-2014, we identified 40 EAEC strains carrying the aggR gene at the Kawasaki City Institute for Public Health, Japan. We characterized these strains using O:H-antigen typing, polymerase chain reaction (for pCVD432, astA, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, and four aggregative adherence fimbriae genes), HEp-2 cell adherence, clump formation, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing...
March 28, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349904/relation-between-dental-caries-and-body-mass-index-for-age-among-schoolchildren-of-jazan-city-kingdom-of-saudi-arabia
#10
Mir Fa Quadri, Bassam M Hakami, Asma Aa Hezam, Raed Y Hakami, Fadwa A Saadi, Layla M Ageeli, Wafqah H Alsagoor, Mohammad A Faqeeh, Mohammed A Dhae
OBJECTIVE: To analyze and report the type of relation present between dental caries and body mass index (BMI)-for-age among schoolchildren in Jazan region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study with multi-staged random sampling technique was designed to recruit the sample of schoolchildren. Caries was examined using the World Health Organization recommended "decayed and filled teeth"/"decayed missing and filled teeth (dft/DMFT)" method...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335404/perceptions-of-health-co-benefits-in-relation-to-greenhouse-gas-emission-reductions-a-survey-among-urban-residents-in-three-chinese-cities
#11
Jinghong Gao, Guozhang Xu, Wenjun Ma, Yong Zhang, Alistair Woodward, Sotiris Vardoulakis, Sari Kovats, Paul Wilkinson, Tianfeng He, Hualiang Lin, Tao Liu, Shaohua Gu, Jun Wang, Jing Li, Jun Yang, Xiaobo Liu, Jing Li, Haixia Wu, Qiyong Liu
Limited information is available on the perceptions of stakeholders concerning the health co-benefits of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of urban residents on the health co-benefits involving GHG abatement and related influencing factors in three cities in China. Beijing, Ningbo and Guangzhou were selected for this survey. Participants were recruited from randomly chosen committees, following quotas for gender and age in proportion to the respective population shares...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323222/laparoscopic-nerve-preserving-sacropexy
#12
Alfredo Ercoli, Stefano Cosma, Francesca Riboni, Giuseppe Campagna, Paolo Petruzzelli, Daniela Surico, Saverio Danese, Giovanni Scambia, Chiara Benedetto
STUDY OBJECTIVE: to demonstrate our developed nerve preserving technique during laparoscopic sacropexy (LSP) for multicompartment pelvic organ prolapse. DESIGN: exemplificative case of our surgical procedure based on a multicentric experience consisting of more than 800 cases in 10 years without major intraoperative complications. Informed consent was taken from the subject, and the institutional review board approved this research. SETTING: public practice at Maggiore della Carità University Hospital, Novara; at Sant'Anna Hospital, City of Health and Science, University of Torino; at A...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315054/a-preliminary-investigation-of-noise-impact-within-metro-stations-in-the-urban-city-of-guangzhou-china
#13
Peng Wang, Yimin Wang, Chao Zou, Jixing Guo
The noise in the metro station is synthesized from a variety of different noise sources. Excessive noise exposure will bring serious impacts on humans' health. To alleviate the shortage of the urban land, most metro stations are planning to develop convenience stores and shopping malls. In order to evaluate the potential noise impact on humans' comfort in the metro stations, this study selected four representative stations of Guangzhou Metro Line 1 to carry out a preliminary questionnaire survey of 226 respondents for the perception and perform a noise measurement...
March 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314500/achieving-sustainable-community-based-health-in-detroit-through-adaptation-of-the-unsdgs
#14
Alexander Plum, Linda Kaljee
BACKGROUND: In 2012, the Rio+20 meeting initiated the concept of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as a continuation of the Millennium Development Goals. The resulting document "The Future We Want" is best conceived as a roadmap toward poverty eradication and sustainable development. Although the SDGs were developed for low- and middle-income countries, many of these same issues face low-resource cities and communities in higher-income countries. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to use the SDGs as a platform to develop health-related goals for the city of Detroit...
November 2016: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303469/association-between-maternal-exposure-to-tobacco-presence-of-tgfa-gene-and-the-occurrence-of-oral-clefts-a-case-control-study
#15
Mohammed Junaid, M B Aswath Narayanan, D Jayanthi, S G Ramesh Kumar, A Leena Selvamary
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between maternal tobacco use or exposure, presence of variant transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA) gene, and the occurrence of oral clefts. METHODS: The present case control study was carried out for 5 months in three tertiary government hospitals in Chennai city with a sample of 100 children (50 children with non syndromic cleft and 50 control) aged 0-24 months. The details of maternal risk factors during the period of gestation were recorded from case and control parents through a pre-validated questionnaire, following which blood samples from 92 children (46 case and 46 controls) based on consent were obtained and evaluated for TGFA gene polymorphism...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301455/-characteristics-of-communication-systems-of-suspected-occupational-disease-in-the-autonomous-communities-spain
#16
Montserrat García Gómez, Félix Urbaneja Arrúe, Vega García López, Valentín Estaban Buedo, Valentín Rodríguez Suárez, Lourdes Miralles Martínez-Portillo, Isabel González García, Josefa Egea Garcia, Emma Corraliza Infanzon, Laura Ramírez Salvador, Santiago Briz Blázquez, Ricard Armengol Rosell, José María Cisnal Gredilla, Juan Francisco Correa Rodríguez, Juan Carlos Coto Fernández, Mª Rosario Díaz Peral, Mercedes Elvira Espinosa, Iñigo Fernández Fernández, Eduardo García-Ramos Alonso, Nieves Martínez Arguisuelas, Ana Isabel Rivas Pérez
BACKGROUND: There are several initiatives to develop systems for the notification of suspected occupational disease (OD) in different autonomous communities. The objective was to describe the status of development and characteristics of these systems implemented by the health authorities. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on the existence of systems for the information and surveillance of suspected OD, their legal framework, responsible institution and availability of information...
March 17, 2017: Revista Española de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300976/primary-health-care-reform-in-the-cities-of-lisbon-and-rio-de-janeiro-context-strategies-results-learning-and-challenges
#17
Daniel Soranz, Luís Augusto Coelho Pisco
On the 30th anniversary of Alma-Ata, the World Health Organization published in 2008 the "Primary Health Care Now More Than Ever" Report, calling on all governments to reflect on the need to reflect on four sets of reforms. These included: (i) universal coverage reforms; (ii) service delivery reforms; (iii) public policies reforms that would ensure healthier communities; and (iv) leadership reforms. In this context, in the period 2005-2016, the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Lisbon developed a profound primary healthcare reform, and did so by sharing many of the solutions based on the best internationally recognized organizational practices...
March 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295804/family-history-of-cardiovascular-disease-and-parental-lifestyle-behaviors-are-associated-with-offspring-cardiovascular-disease-risk-markers-in-childhood
#18
Danilo R Silva, André O Werneck, Paul J Collings, Rômulo A Fernandes, Décio S Barbosa, Enio R V Ronque, Luís B Sardinha, Edilson S Cyrino
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease risk markers have become more prevalent in childhood. To provide increased understanding of the etiology of this public health issue, we investigated associations between family characteristics with cardiovascular disease risk markers in adolescents from a developing nation. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study data for fasting glucose, lipoproteins (LDL-C and HDL-C), triglycerides, and total cholesterol were collected from 991 adolescents aged 10-17 who were recruited from public schools in Londrina city, Southern Brazil...
March 11, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288726/prevalence-of-drink-driving-and-speeding-in-china-a-time-series-analysis-from-two-cities
#19
Q Li, H He, L Duan, Y Wang, D M Bishai, A A Hyder
OBJECTIVES: To confront the public health challenge imposed by road traffic injuries in China. STUDY DESIGN: A consortium of international partners designed and implemented targeted interventions, such as social media campaigns, advocacy for legislative change and law enforcement training, to reduce the percentage of drink driving and speeding in two Chinese cities, Dalian and Suzhou, from 2010 to 2014. METHODS: Time series models were developed to detect changes in the prevalence of drink driving and speeding using data collected through four years of observational studies...
March 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288609/social-exclusion-index-for-health-surveys-sei-hs-a-prospective-nationwide-study-to-extend-and-validate-a-multidimensional-social-exclusion-questionnaire
#20
Addi P L van Bergen, Stella J M Hoff, Hanneke Schreurs, Annelies van Loon, Albert M van Hemert
BACKGROUND: Social exclusion (SE) refers to the inability of certain groups or individuals to fully participate in society. SE is associated with socioeconomic inequalities in health, and its measurement in routine public health monitoring is considered key to designing effective health policies. In an earlier retrospective analysis we demonstrated that in all four major Dutch cities, SE could largely be measured with existing local public health monitoring data. The current prospective study is aimed at constructing and validating an extended national measure for SE that optimally employs available items...
March 14, 2017: BMC Public Health
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