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Public health AND developping cities

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918574/fecal-sludge-management-in-developing-urban-centers-a-review-on-the-collection-treatment-and-composting
#1
Emmanuel Alepu Odey, Zifu Li, Xiaoqin Zhou, Loissi Kalakodio
The problems posed by fecal sludge (FS) are multidimensional because most cities rapidly urbanize, which results in the increase in population, urban settlement, and waste generation. Issues concerning health and waste treatment have continued to create alarming situations. These issues had indeed interfered with the proper steps in managing FS, which contaminates the environment. FS can be used in agriculture as fertilizer because it is an excellent source of nutrients. The recent decline in crop production due to loss of soil organic component, erosion, and nutrient runoff has generated interest in the recycling of FS into soil nutrients through stabilization and composting...
September 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915301/the-work-of-us-public-health-service-officers-in-puerto-rico-1898-1919
#2
Jose G Rigau-Pérez
The history of the US Public Health Service (PHS) is usually presented in terms of diseases or discoveries; this article examines twenty years' activity in one location. When the United States invaded Puerto Rico in 1898, the Marine Hospital Service (now PHS) took responsibility for foreign quarantine, inspection of immigrants, and medical care for merchant seamen. Its officers evaluated the sanitary conditions of port cities, helped reorganize local disease surveillance and control, and investigated endemic diseases (e...
September 2017: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898956/long-short-term-memory-neural-network-for-air-pollutant-concentration-predictions-method-development-and-evaluation
#3
Xiang Li, Ling Peng, Xiaojing Yao, Shaolong Cui, Yuan Hu, Chengzeng You, Tianhe Chi
Air pollutant concentration forecasting is an effective method of protecting public health by providing an early warning against harmful air pollutants. However, existing methods of air pollutant concentration prediction fail to effectively model long-term dependencies, and most neglect spatial correlations. In this paper, a novel long short-term memory neural network extended (LSTME) model that inherently considers spatiotemporal correlations is proposed for air pollutant concentration prediction. Long short-term memory (LSTM) layers were used to automatically extract inherent useful features from historical air pollutant data, and auxiliary data, including meteorological data and time stamp data, were merged into the proposed model to enhance the performance...
September 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894530/knowledge-and-attitudes-toward-brain-death-and-organ-donation-in-bojnurd
#4
Sima Sadat Hejazi, Shima Nikbakht, Leila Jouybari, Mehdi Hares Abadi, Davood Davoodi, Tooba Hoseini Azizi, Sepideh Yahyaei
BACKGROUND: Organ donation in Iran is common. Bojnurd (North Khorasan, Iran) is a multi-ethnic city, and people with different religions and cultures live together and that could be associated with their behavior and attitude towards health-related issues. So far, no study has taken place on brain death and organ donation in the province of North Khorasan. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitudes of citizens of Bojnurd toward brain death and organ donation...
July 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886559/sewage-treatment-effluents-in-delhi-a-key-contributor-of-%C3%AE-lactam-resistant-bacteria-and-genes-to-the-environment
#5
Manisha Lamba, Shaikh Ziauddin Ahammad
Rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance (AR) in developing countries is posing a greater health risk and increasing the global disease burden. Lack of access to safe drinking water, poor sanitation and inadequate sewage treatment facilities in these countries are fueling the problem associated with emergence of AR. Rapid proliferation of AR mediated by treated and untreated discharges from sewage treatment plants (STPs) is a prime public health concern. This study aims to understand the occurrence, fate, and routes of proliferation of carbapenem (KPC) and extended spectrum β-lactam (ESBL) resistant bacteria, and selected resistant genes in the samples collected from different unit operations in 12 STPs in New Delhi over two seasons...
August 28, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877779/adverse-health-complaints-of-adults-exposed-to-benzene-after-a-flaring-disaster-at-the-bp-refinery-facility-in-texas-city-texas
#6
Mark A D'Andrea, G Kesava Reddy
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the adverse health symptoms experienced by adult subjects who were exposed to benzene after a flaring disaster at the BP refinery in Texas City, Texas. METHODS: A total of 2162 adults aged 18 years or older and exposed to benzene were included. Using the patients' medical charts, we collected and analyzed data on health complaints as well as the patients' serum levels of beta-2-microglobulin and urinary excretion of phenol...
September 7, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865645/developing-a-community-wide-initiative-to-address-childhood-adversity-and-toxic-stress-a-case-study-of-the-philadelphia-ace-task-force
#7
Lee M Pachter, Leslie Lieberman, Sandra L Bloom, Joel A Fein
The Philadelphia ACE Task Force is a community based collaborative of health care providers, researchers, community-based organizations, funders, and public sector representatives. The mission of the task force is to provide a venue to address childhood adversity and its consequences in the Philadelphia metropolitan region. In this article we describe the origins and metamorphosis of the Philadelphia ACE Task Force, which initially was narrowly focused on screening for adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in health care settings but expanded its focus to better represent a true community-based approach to sharing experiences with addressing childhood adversity in multiple sectors of the city and region...
September 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863301/long-term-atmospheric-visibility-trends-in-megacities-of-china-india-and-the-united-states
#8
Yue Hu, Ling Yao, Zhen Cheng, Yungang Wang
Millions of premature deaths worldwide every year mostly in China and India are contributed by the poor air quality. The atmospheric visibility is a proven indicator of the ambient air quality. In this study, nine megacities were selected, including Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou from China, Chicago, Los Angeles (LA) and New York City (NYC) from the United States, and Mumbai, Chennai and Jaipur from India. The data of visibility, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and meteorological factors from 1973 to 2015 were collected...
August 29, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862682/public-health-services-utilization-and-its-determinants-among-internal-migrants-in-china-evidence-from-a-nationally-representative-survey
#9
Jingya Zhang, Senlin Lin, Di Liang, Yi Qian, Donglan Zhang, Zhiyuan Hou
There have been obstacles for internal migrants in China in accessing local public health services for some time. This study aimed to estimate the utilization of local public health services and its determinants among internal migrants. Data were from the 2014 and 2015 nationally representative cross-sectional survey of internal migrants in China. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate the relationship between socioeconomic, migration, and demographic characteristics and public health services utilization...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858265/spatial-variability-of-geriatric-depression-risk-in-a-high-density-city-a-data-driven-socio-environmental-vulnerability-mapping-approach
#10
Hung Chak Ho, Kevin Ka-Lun Lau, Ruby Yu, Dan Wang, Jean Woo, Timothy Chi Yui Kwok, Edward Ng
Previous studies found a relationship between geriatric depression and social deprivation. However, most studies did not include environmental factors in the statistical models, introducing a bias to estimate geriatric depression risk because the urban environment was found to have significant associations with mental health. We developed a cross-sectional study with a binomial logistic regression to examine the geriatric depression risk of a high-density city based on five social vulnerability factors and four environmental measures...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838588/service-provision-for-stroke-the-greek-paradox
#11
Antigoni Fountouki, Dimitrios Theofanidis
Stroke remains a leading cause of mortality, as well as of subsequent serious long-term physical and mental morbidity. This places special demands for updated clinical excellence and optimum organization of stroke care services. Stroke units have been shown to improve patient outcomes. Thus, many western countries have developed and implemented sophisticated stroke facilities and corresponding public awareness strategies. These cannot be easily "translated" in Greece due to special features on the hospital administration system such as a unique rotation system for acute admissions and long-standing austerity...
September 2017: Journal of Vascular Nursing: Official Publication of the Society for Peripheral Vascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836974/insulin-prices-availability-and-affordability-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-pharmacies-in-hubei-province-china
#12
Chenxi Liu, Xinping Zhang, Chaojie Liu, Margaret Ewen, Zinan Zhang, Guoqin Liu
BACKGROUND: Poor access to affordable insulin results in serious and needless complications and premature deaths for those with diabetes who need this essential medicine. To help address this issue, we assessed insulin availability, prices, affordability and price components in Hubei Province as China has the heaviest burden of diabetes globally. METHODS: In 2016, insulin availability and price data was collected in the capital and five other cities. A total of 30 public sector outlets (hospitals and primary care institutions) and 30 private pharmacies were sampled, using an adaptation of the World Health Organization/Health Action International methodology, Data was collected for all human and analogue insulins in stock, then analyzed by type (prandial, basal or pre-mixed) and duration of action...
August 24, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836654/health-labour-market-requirements-of-health-professional-education-in-yemen
#13
Taha Almahbashi, Syed Mohamed Aljunid, Aniza Ismail
It is important to link health professional education to the health service needs of the private and public labour market so as to meet the plans of the health sector. Thus, the main focus of this study was to identify the present labour market requirements for the outcomes of health training institutes. A qualitative study was carried out among mixed healthcare professionals and various stakeholders in Sana'a City, Yemen. Six focus group discussions were formed for 42 graduates and 20 in-depth interviews were undertaken with health development partners and public and private employers...
August 20, 2017: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833191/exploring-spatially-varying-relationships-between-children-s-lead-poisoning-and-environmental-factors
#14
Liyang Shao, Lianjun Zhang, Zhen Zhen
Children's lead poisoning continues to compromise children's health and development, particularly in the inner cities of the United States. We applied a global Poisson model, a Poisson with random effects model, and a geographically weighted Poisson regression (GWPR) model to deal with the spatial dependence and heterogeneity of the number of children's lead poisoning cases in Syracuse, New York. We used three environmental factors-the building year (i.e., the year of construction) of houses, the town taxable value of houses, and the soil lead concentration-averaged at the census block level to explore the spatially varying relationships between children's lead poisoning and environmental factors...
August 22, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832531/the-association-between-air-pollution-and-population-health-risk-for-respiratory-infection-a-case-study-of-shenzhen-china
#15
Xiaolin Xia, An Zhang, Shi Liang, Qingwen Qi, Lili Jiang, Yanjun Ye
Nowadays, most of the research on air pollution and its adverse effects on public health in China has focused on megacities and heavily-polluted regions. Fewer studies have focused on cities that are slightly polluted. Shenzhen used to have a favorable air environment, but its air quality has deteriorated gradually as a result of development in recent years. So far, no systematic investigations have been conducted on the adverse effects of air pollution on public health in Shenzhen. This research has applied a time series analysis model to study the possible association between different types of air pollution and respiratory hospital admission in Shenzhen in 2013...
August 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832281/analysing-local-level-responses-to-migration-and-urban-health-in-hillbrow-the-johannesburg-migrant-health-forum
#16
Jo Vearey, Kirsten Thomson, Theresa Sommers, Courtenay Sprague
Johannesburg is home to a diverse migrant population and a range of urban health challenges. Locally informed and implemented responses to migration and health that are sensitive to the particular needs of diverse migrant groups are urgently required. In the absence of a coordinated response to migration and health in the city, the Johannesburg Migrant Health Forum (MHF) - an unfunded informal working group of civil society actors - was established in 2008. We assess the impact, contributions and challenges of the MHF on the development of local-level responses to migration and urban health in Johannesburg to date...
July 4, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830396/missed-opportunities-in-the-evaluation-of-public-health-interventions-a-case-study-of-physical-activity-programmes
#17
Sarah Hanson, Andy Jones
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based approaches are requisite in evaluating public health programmes. Nowhere are they more necessary than physical activity interventions where evidence of effectiveness is often poor, especially within hard to reach groups. Our study reports on the quality of the evaluation of a government funded walking programme in five 'Walking Cities' in England. Cities were required to undertake a simple but robust evaluation using the Standard Evaluation Framework (SEF) for physical activity interventions to enable high quality, consistent evaluation...
August 22, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829235/taking-innovative-vector-control-interventions-in-urban-latin-america-to-scale-lessons-learnt-from-multi-country-implementation-research
#18
Juliana Quintero, Tatiana García-Betancourt, Andrea Caprara, Cesar Basso, Elsa Garcia da Rosa, Pablo Manrique-Saide, Giovanini Coelho, Gustavo Sánchez-Tejeda, Felipe Dzul-Manzanilla, Diego Alejandro García, Gabriel Carrasquilla, Eduardo Alfonso-Sierra, Cyntia Monteiro Vasconcelos Motta, Johannes Sommerfeld, Axel Kroeger
Prior to the current public health emergency following the emergence of chikungunya and Zika Virus Disease in the Americas during 2014 and 2015, multi-country research investigated between 2011 and 2013 the efficacy of novel Aedes aegypti intervention packages through cluster randomised controlled trials in four Latin-American cities: Fortaleza (Brazil); Girardot (Colombia), Acapulco (Mexico) and Salto (Uruguay). Results from the trials led to a scaling up effort of the interventions at city levels. Scaling up refers to deliberate efforts to increase the impact of successfully tested health interventions to benefit more people and foster policy and program development in a sustainable way...
August 22, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825572/-relationship-between-level-of-education-and-overweight-in-outpatients-a-transversal-study
#19
César N Sánchez, Natalia Maddalena, Marina Penalba, Marina Quarleri, Verónica Torres, Adolfo Wachs
Obesity and overweight are serious public health problems. Many observational studies suggest that low level of education would be among the many factors involved in its development. Our objective was to determine whether there was a relationship between lower education levels and increased body mass index (BMI). In this cross-sectional study, the BMI of adult outpatients evaluated at Internal Medicine Service of a General Hospital in Buenos Aires City was measured and a survey was given to determine their level of education and the prevalence of other cardiovascular risk factors...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821546/a-supervised-statistical-learning-approach-for-accurate-legionella-pneumophila-source-attribution-during-outbreaks
#20
Andrew H Buultjens, Kyra Y L Chua, Sarah L Baines, Jason Kwong, Wei Gao, Zoe Cutcher, Stuart Adcock, Susan Ballard, Mark B Schultz, Takehiro Tomita, Nela Subasinghe, Glen P Carter, Sacha J Pidot, Lucinda Franklin, Torsten Seemann, Anders Gonçalves Da Silva, Benjamin P Howden, Timothy P Stinear
Public health agencies are increasingly relying on genomics during Legionnaires' disease investigations. However, the causative bacterium (Legionella pneumophila) has an unusual population structure with extreme temporal and spatial genome sequence conservation. Furthermore, Legionnaires' disease outbreaks can be caused by multiple L. pneumophila genotypes in a single source. These factors can confound cluster identification using standard phylogenomic methods. Here, we show that a statistical learning approach based onL...
August 18, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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