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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033392/mechanical-recanalization-in-ischemic-anterior-circulation-stroke-within-an-8-hour-time-window-a-real-world-experience
#1
Dagmar Krajíčková, Antonín Krajina, Roman Herzig, Miroslav Lojík, Vendelín Chovanec, Jan Raupach, Eva Vítková, Jan Waishaupt, Oldřich Vyšata, Martin Vališ
PURPOSE: We aimed to assess the safety and effectiveness of mechanical recanalization in patients with ischemic stroke in the anterior circulation within 8 h since symptoms onset and with unknown onset time. We compared time intervals <6 h vs. 6-8 h/unknown onset time, as only limited data are available for a time window beyond 6 h. METHODS: Our cohort included 110 consecutive patients (44 males; mean age, 73.0±11.5 years) with ischemic stroke in the anterior circulation due to the acute occlusion of a large intracranial artery who underwent mechanical recanalization within an 8-hour time window or with unknown onset time...
October 16, 2017: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032219/emergency-extracranial-intracranial-bypass-to-revascularize-salvageable-brain-tissue-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-patients
#2
Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Sebastian Winklhofer, Jorn Fierstra, Susanne Wegener, Giuseppe Esposito, Andreas Luft, Oliver Bozinov, Luca Regli
INTRODUCTION: To present an algorithm based on clinical and radiological factors including MR perfusion/diffusion mismatch (MR-PDM) for the indication of urgent cerebral bypass in patients with acute ischemic stroke METHODS: Analysis of clinical and radiological data on eight consecutive patients undergoing urgent cerebral revascularization for acute ischemic stroke due to occlusion of the internal carotid or middle cerebral artery between 2012 and 2015. All patients were either not eligible or failed first line treatment with emergent endovascular revascularization...
October 11, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030748/neuroimaging-of-cavernous-malformations
#3
REVIEW
Maxim Mokin, Siviero Agazzi, Lowell Dawson, Christopher T Primiani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are common vascular abnormalities often discovered on imaging as an incidental finding. The most common clinical presentations of CCMs include seizure, headache, focal neurological deficits, and intracranial hemorrhage. This article discusses the most recent guidelines including imaging diagnostic criteria and radiographic standards of CCMs and reviews the utility of currently available imaging techniques. RECENT FINDINGS: Gradient echo T2*-weighted imaging and susceptibility-weighted imaging are the recommended imaging protocols for evaluation of suspected CCMs...
October 13, 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027859/quantitative-cerebral-blood-flow-using-xenon-enhanced-ct-after-decompressive-craniectomy-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Aditya Vedantam, Claudia S Robertson, Shankar P Gopinath
OBJECTIVE Few studies have reported on changes in quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) after decompressive craniectomy and the impact of these measures on clinical outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate global and regional CBF patterns in relation to cerebral hemodynamic parameters in patients after decompressive craniectomy for traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS The authors studied clinical and imaging data of patients who underwent xenon-enhanced CT (XeCT) CBF studies after decompressive craniectomy for evacuation of a mass lesion and/or to relieve intractable intracranial hypertension...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026896/tau-and-pet-mri-imaging-biomarkers-for-detecting-and-diagnosing-early-dementia
#5
Yongxia Zhou, Bing Bai
Specific objective of this project is to quantify the neuropathological tau depositions in brain regions and to investigate primary age-related tau pathology and associations with amyloid and glucose-metabolism, neurocognitive tests and MRI metrics. Preliminary results demonstrated higher temporal deposition especially in the hippocampus and the inferior temporal regions compared to mean cortical deposition. Quantitative Braak stage-based regional analyses found highest tau deposition in the Braak stage II in the preclinical samples...
July 2017: Jacobs Journal of Medical Diagnosis and Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024925/defining-functioning-levels-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-combination-of-a-novel-clustering-method-and-brain-spect-analysis
#6
Faget-Agius Catherine, Vincenti Aurélie, Guedj Eric, Michel Pierre, Richieri Raphaëlle, Alessandrini Marine, Auquier Pascal, Lançon Christophe, Boyer Laurent
This study aims to define functioning levels of patients with schizophrenia by using a method of interpretable clustering based on a specific functioning scale, the Functional Remission Of General Schizophrenia (FROGS) scale, and to test their validity regarding clinical and neuroimaging characterization. In this observational study, patients with schizophrenia have been classified using a hierarchical top-down method called clustering using unsupervised binary trees (CUBT). Socio-demographic, clinical, and neuroimaging SPECT perfusion data were compared between the different clusters to ensure their clinical relevance...
September 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024300/accounting-for-the-role-of-hematocrit-in-between-subject-variations-of-mri-derived-baseline-cerebral-hemodynamic-parameters-and-functional-bold-responses
#7
Feng Xu, Wenbo Li, Peiying Liu, Jun Hua, John J Strouse, James J Pekar, Hanzhang Lu, Peter C M van Zijl, Qin Qin
Baseline hematocrit fraction (Hct) is a determinant for baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF) and between-subject variation of Hct thus causes variation in task-based BOLD fMRI signal changes. We first verified in healthy volunteers (n = 12) that Hct values can be derived reliably from venous blood T1 values by comparison with the conventional lab test. Together with CBF measured using phase-contrast MRI, this noninvasive estimation of Hct, instead of using a population-averaged Hct value, enabled more individual determination of oxygen delivery (DO2 ), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2 )...
October 11, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023876/mri-assessment-of-treatment-delivery-for-interstitial-photodynamic-therapy-of-high-grade-glioma-in-a-preclinical-model
#8
Henri-Arthur Leroy, Maximilien Vermandel, Bertrand Leroux, Alain Duhamel, Jean-Paul Lejeune, Serge Mordon, Nicolas Reyns
BACKGROUND: High-grade gliomas are primary brain tumors that have shown increasing incidence and unfavorable outcomes. Local control is crucial to the management of this pathology. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), based on the light-induced activation of a photosensitizer (PS), achieves local treatment by inducing selective lesions in tumor tissue. OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have reported the outcomes of PDT for glioblastoma via immunohistological data. Our study aimed to evaluate MRI findings, including diffusion, and perfusion sequences, compared with immunohistological data from the same population to address the efficiency of light fractionation...
October 11, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023523/the-role-of-glutamate-in-neuronal-ion-homeostasis-a-case-study-of-spreading-depolarization
#9
Niklas Hübel, Mahshid S Hosseini-Zare, Jokūbas Žiburkus, Ghanim Ullah
Simultaneous changes in ion concentrations, glutamate, and cell volume together with exchange of matter between cell network and vasculature are ubiquitous in numerous brain pathologies. A complete understanding of pathological conditions as well as normal brain function, therefore, hinges on elucidating the molecular and cellular pathways involved in these mostly interdependent variations. In this paper, we develop the first computational framework that combines the Hodgkin-Huxley type spiking dynamics, dynamic ion concentrations and glutamate homeostasis, neuronal and astroglial volume changes, and ion exchange with vasculature into a comprehensive model to elucidate the role of glutamate uptake in the dynamics of spreading depolarization (SD)-the electrophysiological event underlying numerous pathologies including migraine, ischemic stroke, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hematoma, and trauma...
October 12, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021747/hyperbaric-oxygen-environment-can-enhance-brain-activity-and-multitasking-performance
#10
Dor Vadas, Leonid Kalichman, Amir Hadanny, Shai Efrati
Background: The Brain uses 20% of the total oxygen supply consumed by the entire body. Even though, <10% of the brain is active at any given time, it utilizes almost all the oxygen delivered. In order to perform complex tasks or more than one task (multitasking), the oxygen supply is shifted from one brain region to another, via blood perfusion modulation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether a hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) environment, with increased oxygen supply to the brain, will enhance the performance of complex and/or multiple activities...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019892/bright-sinus-appearance-on-arterial-spin-labeling-mr-imaging-aids-to-identify-cerebral-venous-thrombosis
#11
Ji Hee Kang, Tae Jin Yun, Roh-Eul Yoo, Byung-Woo Yoon, A Leum Lee, Koung Mi Kang, Seung Hong Choi, Ji-Hoon Kim, Chul-Ho Sohn, Moon Hee Han
Cerebral venous thrombosis is a potentially lethal disease. Early diagnosis is essential to improve its prognosis. However, its early diagnosis based on conventional imaging modalities remains a challenge in clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether bright sinus appearance on arterial spin-labeling perfusion-weighted image (ASL-PWI) could help identify cerebral venous thrombosis.ASL-PWI of 13 patients who were confirmed as cerebral venous thrombosis based on neurologic symptoms and computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) venography (with/without cerebral angiography) were retrospectively analyzed for the presence or absence of the following: bright signal in dural sinus termed "bright sinus appearance"; and hypoperfusion in brain parenchyma drained by thrombosed sinus...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018070/hypothermic-oxygenated-machine-perfusion-hope-for-orthotopic-liver-transplantation-of-human-liver-allografts-from-extended-criteria-donors-ecd-in-donation-after-brain-death-dbd-a-prospective-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial-hope-ecd-dbd
#12
Zoltan Czigany, Wenzel Schöning, Tom Florian Ulmer, Jan Bednarsch, Iakovos Amygdalos, Thorsten Cramer, Xavier Rogiers, Irinel Popescu, Florin Botea, Jiří Froněk, Daniela Kroy, Alexander Koch, Frank Tacke, Christian Trautwein, Rene H Tolba, Marc Hein, Ger H Koek, Cornelis H C Dejong, Ulf Peter Neumann, Georg Lurje
INTRODUCTION: Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has emerged as the mainstay of treatment for end-stage liver disease. In an attempt to improve the availability of donor allografts and reduce waiting list mortality, graft acceptance criteria were extended increasingly over the decades. The use of extended criteria donor (ECD) allografts is associated with a higher incidence of primary graft non-function and/or delayed graft function. As such, several strategies have been developed aiming at reconditioning poor quality ECD liver allografts...
October 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016814/early-post-treatment-assessment-of-mri-perfusion-biomarkers-can-predict-long-term-response-of-lung-cancer-brain-metastases-to-stereotactic-radiosurgery
#13
Neil K Taunk, Jung Hun Oh, Amita Shukla-Dave, Kathryn Beal, Behroze Vachha, Andrei Holodny, Vaios Hatzoglou
Background: Imaging criteria to evaluate the response of brain metastases to stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the early post-treatment period remains a crucial unmet need. The aim of this study is to correlate early (within 12 weeks) post-treatment perfusion MRI changes with long-term outcomes after treatment of lung cancer brain metastases with SRS. Methods: Pre- and post-treatment perfusion MRI scans were obtained in patients treated with SRS for intact non-small cell lung cancer brain metastases...
August 24, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016776/atrial-fibrillation-is-associated-with-decreased-total-cerebral-blood-flow-and-brain-perfusion
#14
Marianna Gardarsdottir, Sigurdur Sigurdsson, Thor Aspelund, Hrafnhildur Rokita, Lenore J Launer, Vilmundur Gudnason, David O Arnar
Aims: Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been associated with cognitive impairment. Additionally, brain volume may be reduced in individuals with AF. Potential causes may include cerebral micro-embolism or reduced stroke volume due to the beat-to-beat variation in AF. The aims of this study were to measure cerebral blood flow and estimate whole brain perfusion in elderly individuals with and without AF. Methods and results: Blood flow in the cervical arteries was measured with phase contrast MRI and brain perfusion estimated in a large cohort from the AGES-Reykjavik Study...
August 9, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991060/hemodynamic-instability-and-cardiovascular-events-after-traumatic-brain-injury-predict-outcome-after-artifact-removal-with-deep-belief-network-analysis
#15
Hakseung Kim, Seung-Bo Lee, Yunsik Son, Marek Czosnyka, Dong-Joo Kim
BACKGROUND: Hemodynamic instability and cardiovascular events heavily affect the prognosis of traumatic brain injury. Physiological signals are monitored to detect these events. However, the signals are often riddled with faulty readings, which jeopardize the reliability of the clinical parameters obtained from the signals. A machine-learning model for the elimination of artifactual events shows promising results for improving signal quality. However, the actual impact of the improvements on the performance of the clinical parameters after the elimination of the artifacts is not well studied...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987196/overview-of-neuroradiology
#16
Elna-Marie Larsson, Johan Wikström
Neuroradiology with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is essential for the initial evaluation of patients with a clinical suspicion of brain and spine disorders. Morphologic imaging is required to obtain a probable diagnosis to support the treatment decisions in pre- and perinatal disorders, vascular diseases, traumatic injuries, metabolic disorders, epilepsy, infection/inflammation, neurodegenerative disorders, degenerative spinal disease, and tumors of the central nervous system...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985690/influence-of-high-flow-modified-ultrafiltration-on-brain-oxygenation-and-perfusion-during-surgery-for-children-with-ventricular-septal-defects-a-pilot-study
#17
Zaishen Jia, Yichao Teng, Yuan Liu, Hong Wang, Yue Li, Xiaotong Hou
BACKGROUND: Modified ultrafiltration (MUF) can be performed in infants with ventricular septal defects (VSDs) after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) to reduce haemodilution and its potential adverse effects. High-flow MUF might reduce ultrafiltration duration and hasten the necessary correction of haemodilution during CPB. However, its influence on brain oxygenation remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: This non-randomized, prospective, pilot study aimed to investigate the influence of high-flow MUF on brain oxygenation in infants with VSDs...
October 1, 2017: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984668/brain-heart-interactions-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Ayman El-Menyar, Abhishek Goyal, Rifat Latifi, Hassan Al-Thani, William Frishman
The cardiovascular manifestations associated with nontraumatic head disorders are commonly known. Similar manifestations have been reported in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the underlying mechanisms and impact on the patient's clinical outcomes are not well explored. The neurocardiac axis theory and neurogenic stunned myocardium phenomenon could partly explain the brain-heart link and interactions and can thus pave the way to a better understanding and management of TBI. Several observational retrospective studies have shown a promising role for beta-adrenergic blockers in patients with TBI in reducing the overall TBI-related mortality...
November 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982981/the-hippo-pathway-regulator-kibra-promotes-podocyte-injury-by-inhibiting-yap-signaling-and-disrupting-actin-cytoskeletal-dynamics
#19
Kristin Meliambro, Jenny S Wong, Justina Ray, Rhodora C Calizo, Sara Towne, Beatriz Cole, Fadi El Salem, Ronald E Gordon, Lewis Kaufman, John C He, Evren U Azeloglu, Kirk N Campbell
Kidney podocytes represent a key constituent of the glomerular filtration barrier. Identifying the molecular mechanisms of podocyte injury and survival is important for better understanding and management of kidney diseases. KIBRA (KIdney BRAin protein), an upstream regulator of the Hippo signaling pathway encoded by the Wwc1 gene, shares the pro-injury properties of its putative binding partner dendrin and antagonizes the pro-survival signaling of the downstream Hippo pathway effector YAP (Yes-associated protein) in Drosophila and MCF10A cells...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982786/preoperative-cerebral-oxygen-extraction-fraction-imaging-generated-from-7t-mr-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-predicts-development-of-cerebral-hyperperfusion-following-carotid-endarterectomy
#20
J-I Nomura, I Uwano, M Sasaki, K Kudo, F Yamashita, K Ito, S Fujiwara, M Kobayashi, K Ogasawara
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Preoperative hemodynamic impairment in the affected cerebral hemisphere is associated with the development of cerebral hyperperfusion following carotid endarterectomy. Cerebral oxygen extraction fraction images generated from 7T MR quantitative susceptibility mapping correlate with oxygen extraction fraction images on positron-emission tomography. The present study aimed to determine whether preoperative oxygen extraction fraction imaging generated from 7T MR quantitative susceptibility mapping could identify patients at risk for cerebral hyperperfusion following carotid endarterectomy...
October 5, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
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