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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454148/-68-ga-galmydar-biodistribution-and-radiation-dosimetry-studies-in-rodents
#1
Jothilingam Sivapackiam, Richard Laforest, Vijay Sharma
INTRODUCTION: 68 Ga-Galmydar is an avid transport substrate of ABCB1 (P-Glycoprotein; 170kDa plasma membrane protein), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; ABCG2; 72kDa), penetrates human epidermal carcinoma (KB3-1), breast cancer (MCF7), embryonic kidney (HEK 293) tumor cells and rat cardiomyoblasts, and localizes within the mitochondria of tumor and myocardium cells. 68 Ga-Galmydar excretes from blood pool quickly, and shows stable retention within rat myocardium in vivo for extended periods, therefore, the agent shows potential to enable myocardial perfusion imaging...
December 1, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446714/blunted-shear-mediated-dilation-of-the-internal-but-not-common-carotid-artery-in-response-to-lower-body-negative-pressure
#2
Erika Iwamoto, Joshua M Bock, Darren P Casey
Shear-mediated dilation in peripheral conduit arteries is blunted with sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation; however, the effect of SNS activation on shear-mediated dilation in carotid arteries is unknown. We hypothesized that SNS activation reduces shear-mediated dilation in common and internal carotid arteries (CCA and ICA, respectively) and this attenuation is greater in the ICA compared to the CCA. Shear-mediated dilation in the CCA and ICA were measured in nine healthy males (24{plus minus}1 yrs) with and without SNS activation...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443019/a-community-based-stress-management-program-using-wearable-devices-to-assess-whole-body-physiological-responses-in-non-laboratory-settings
#3
Robert Carter, Kirtigandha Salwe Carter, John Holliday, Alice Holliday, Carlton Keith Harrison
A pragmatic breath-based intervention to benefit human performance and stress management is timely and valuable to individuals seeking holistic approaches for emotional regulation and optimizing compensatory reserve mechanisms. This protocol is designed to not only teach mind-body awareness but also to provide feedback utilizing physiological data and survey results. The primary findings of this study showed that heart coherence and alpha variables were significantly correlated after four weeks of the breath-based meditation stress protocol...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441225/assessment-of-the-agreement-between-cerebral-hemodynamic-indices-quantified-using-dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-and-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-perfusion-magnetic-resonance-imagings
#4
Seyed Salman Zakariaee, Mohammad Ali Oghabian, Kavous Firouznia, Guive Sharifi, Farshid Arbabi, Farhad Samiei
Background: Brain tumor is one of the most common tumors. A successful treatment might be achieved with an early identification. Pathological investigation as the gold standard method for tumor identification has some limitations. Noninvasive assessment of tumor specifications may be possible using perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) could be calculated based on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) in addition to dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI (DSC-MRI) modality...
2018: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441170/management-of-traumatic-brain-injury-patients
#5
REVIEW
Hari Hara Dash, Siddharth Chavali
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been called the 'silent epidemic' of modern times, and is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children and young adults in both developed and developing nations worldwide. In recent years, the treatment of TBI has undergone a paradigm shift. The management of severe TBI is ideally based on protocol-based guidelines provided by the Brain Trauma Foundation. The aims and objectives of its management are prophylaxis and prompt management of intracranial hypertension and secondary brain injury, maintenance of cerebral perfusion pressure, and ensuring adequate oxygen delivery to injured brain tissue...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439196/reduced-intravoxel-incoherent-motion-microvascular-perfusion-predicts-delayed-cerebral-ischemia-and-vasospasm-after-aneurysm-rupture
#6
Jeremy J Heit, Max Wintermark, Blake W Martin, Guangming Zhu, Michael P Marks, Greg Zaharchuk, Robert L Dodd, Huy M Do, Gary K Steinberg, Maarten G Lansberg, Gregory W Albers, Christian Federau
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Proximal artery vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after cerebral aneurysm rupture result in reduced cerebral perfusion and microperfusion and significant morbidity and mortality. Intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) magnetic resonance imaging extracts microvascular perfusion information from a multi-b value diffusion-weighted sequence. We determined whether decreased IVIM perfusion may identify patients with proximal artery vasospasm and DCI. METHODS: We performed a pilot retrospective cohort study of patients with ruptured cerebral aneurysms...
February 9, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437173/human-brain-organoid-on-a-chip-to-model-prenatal-nicotine-exposure
#7
Yaqing Wang, Li Wang, Yujuan Zhu, Jianhua Qin
Nicotine has been recognized to trigger various neuronal disabilities in the fetal brain and long-lasting behavioral deficits in offspring. However, further understanding of fetal brain development under nicotine exposure is challenging due to the limitations of existing animal models. Here, we create a new brain organoid-on-a-chip system derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) that allows us to model neurodevelopmental disorders under prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) at early stages. The brain organoid-on-a-chip system facilitates 3D culture, in situ neural differentiation, and self-organization of brain organoids under continuous perfused cultures in a controlled manner...
February 13, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437084/increasing-adherence-to-brain-trauma-foundation-guidelines-for-hospital-care-of-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Ali A Saherwala, Mary Kay Bader, Sonja E Stutzman, Stephen A Figueroa, Jamshid Ghajar, April R Gorman, Abu Minhajuddin, DaiWai M Olson
BACKGROUND: The Brain Trauma Foundation has developed treatment guidelines for the care of patients with acute traumatic brain injury. The Adam Williams Initiative is a program established to provide education and resources to encourage hospitals across the United States to incorporate the guidelines into practice. OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship in hospitals between participation in the Adam Williams Initiative and adherence to the Brain Trauma Foundation guidelines for patients with acute traumatic brain injury...
February 2018: Critical Care Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436885/cerebral-perfusion-and-compensatory-blood-supply-in-patients-with-recent-small-subcortical-infarcts
#9
Salvatore Rudilosso, Carlos Laredo, Marco Mancosu, Nuria Moya-Planas, Yashu Zhao, Oscar Chirife, Ángel Chamorro, Xabier Urra
Hypoperfusion is the typical perfusion pattern associated with recent small subcortical infarcts of the brain, but other perfusion patterns may be present in patients with these infarcts. Using CT perfusion, we studied 67 consecutive patients who had a small subcortical infarct at a follow-up MRI study to investigate the correlation between the perfusion pattern and the clinical and radiological course. On CT perfusion map analysis, 51 patients (76%) had focal hypoperfusion, 4 patients (6%) had hyperperfusion and the remaining 12 patients (18%) showed no abnormalities...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436733/placental-perfusion-imaging-using-velocity-selective-arterial-spin-labeling
#10
Zungho Zun, Catherine Limperopoulos
PURPOSE: The placenta remains the least understood human organ, in large part because of the lack of noninvasive tools currently available to examine placental function in vivo. This study investigates the feasibility of using velocity-selective arterial spin labeling (VSASL) to assess placental perfusion. METHODS: In placental perfusion imaging, VSASL was compared with pseudocontinuous ASL (PCASL), which is currently the standard technique in brain arterial spin labeling (ASL)...
February 13, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434800/protective-effects-of-scopolamine-and-penehyclidine-hydrochloride-on-acute-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-after-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-and-effects-on-cytokines
#11
Dengqin Wang, Qi Jiang, Xiuling Du
The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of scopolamine and penehyclidine hydrochloride on acute cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the effect on cytokine levels. Eighty patients with cardiac arrest admitted to our hospital from June 2011 to December 2015 were recruited and randomly divided into two groups (n=40 each). Following cardiopulmonary resuscitation, scopolamine was administered in the control group, whereas penehyclidine hydrochloride was administered in the observation group...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432248/neurologic-complications-in-the-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#12
Mark S Wainwright
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: All critical care is directed at maintaining brain health, but recognizing neurologic complications of critical illness in children is difficult, and limited data exist to guide practice. This article discusses an approach to the recognition and management of seizures, stroke, and cardiac arrest as complications of other critical illnesses in the pediatric intensive care unit. RECENT FINDINGS: Convulsive and nonconvulsive seizures occur frequently in children after cardiac arrest or traumatic brain injury and during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation...
February 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429985/posterior-associative-and-cingulate-cortex-involvement-of-brain-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-spect-imaging-in-semantic-dementia-with-probable-alzheimer-disease-pathology-a-case-report
#13
Yumi Takano, Keiko Kunitoki, Yasuko Tatewaki, Tatsushi Mutoh, Tomoko Totsune, Hideo Shimomura, Manabu Nakagawa, Hiroyuki Arai, Yasuyuki Taki
BACKGROUND Semantic dementia (SD) is a type of primary progressive aphasia with prominent language dysfunction, mostly within the spectrum of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Although there is an overlap in clinical manifestations of SD attributable to FTLD and neuropathologically proven Alzheimer disease (AD), clinical diagnostic clues are not readily available. We present a characteristic finding based on a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based regional cerebral blood flow study and its statistical imaging analysis for a rare case of SD with AD-like pathology...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428249/computed-tomography-perfusion-aids-in-the-prognostication-of-comatose-postcardiac-arrest-patients
#14
Jai Jai Shiva Shankar, Brandie Stewart-Perrin, Ata-Ur-Rehman Quraishi, Iqbal Bata, Robert Vandorpe
Early assessment of the potential for neurologic recovery in comatose cardiac arrest patients (CCAP) has been a challenge despite significant evolution in management and imaging techniques. The purpose of study was to determine if the use of computed tomography perfusion (CTP) in CCAPs is feasible and if this technique can predict the likelihood that CCAPs will have a devastating outcome at hospital discharge. We prospectively enrolled 10 newly admitted comatose adults who had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and were treated with standard therapeutic hypothermia protocols...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428027/does-vasopressin-exacerbate-cerebral-edema-in-patients-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Casey J Allen, Ty K Subhawong, Mena M Hanna, Lydia Chelala, M Ross Bullock, Carl I Schulman, Kenneth G Proctor
Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is often used as an alternative pressor to catecholamines (CATs). However, unlike CATs, AVP is a powerful antidiuretic that could promote edema. We tested the hypothesis that AVP promoted cerebral edema and/or increased requirements for osmotherapy, relative to those who received CATs, for cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) management after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This is a retrospective review of 286 consecutive TBI patients with intracranial pressure monitoring at a single institution from September 2008 to January 2015...
January 1, 2018: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427702/high-brain-distribution-of-a-new-central-nervous-system-drug-candidate-despite-its-p-glycoprotein-mediated-efflux-at-the-mouse-blood-brain-barrier
#16
Camille Taccola, Sylvaine Cartot-Cotton, Delphine Valente, Pascal Barneoud, Catherine Aubert, Valérie Boutet, Fabienne Gallen, Murielle Lochus, Sophie Nicolic, Agnès Dodacki, Maria Smirnova, Salvatore Cisternino, Xavier Declèves, Fanchon Bourasset
Efficacy of drugs aimed at treating central nervous system (CNS) disorders rely partly on their ability to cross the cerebral endothelium, also called the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which constitutes the main interface modulating exchanges of compounds between the brain and blood. In this work, we used both, conventional pharmacokinetics (PK) approach and in situ brain perfusion technique to study the blood and brain PK of PKRinh, an inhibitor of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) activation, in mice...
February 7, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417380/assessing-long-term-neuroinflammatory-responses-to-encephalopathy-using-mri-approaches-in-a-rat-endotoxemia-model
#17
Rheal A Towner, D Saunders, N Smith, W Towler, M Cruz, S Do, J E Maher, K Whitaker, M Lerner, K A Morton
Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) induces neuroinflammation, which is associated with cognitive impairment (CI). CI is also correlated with aging. We used contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), perfusion MRI, and MR spectroscopy to assess long-term alterations in BBB permeability, microvascularity, and metabolism, respectively, in a rat lipopolysaccharide-induced SAE model. Free radical-targeted molecular MRI was used to detect brain radical levels at 24 h and 1 week post-LPS injection. CE-MRI showed increased Gd-DTPA uptake in LPS rat brains at 24 h in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and perirhinal cortex regions...
February 7, 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414151/migrainous-aura-as-stroke-mimic-the-role-of-perfusion-computed-tomography
#18
Mariana Ridolfi, Antonio Granato, Paola Polverino, Giovanni Furlanis, Maja Ukmar, Irene Zorzenon, Paolo Manganotti
OBJECTIVES: The acute-onset of migrainuos aura (MA) can be erroneously diagnosed in Emergency Department (ED) as acute stroke (AS) and it can be classified as "stroke mimic" (SM). Perfusion computer tomography (PCT) may be useful to improve detection of infarcts. The aim of the study was to investigate the role in ED of PCT in improving diagnosis of migrainous aura. Data were compared with the well-defined perfusion patterns in patients with acute ischemic stroke. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A standardized Stroke Protocol was planned...
January 31, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413668/qtc-prolongation-increased-nt-probnp-and-pre-clinical-myocardial-wall-remodeling-in-excessive-alcohol-consumers-the-sabpa-study
#19
Annemarie Wentzel, Leoné Malan, Jacobus D Scheepers, Nicolaas T Malan
Alcohol contributes greatly to vascular and structural modifications. Due to differences in the metabolism and tolerance of alcohol between ethnic groups, the manner of these modifications may differ. We investigated the association between alcohol consumption - measured via ethnic-specific gamma glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) cut-points - and markers of cardiac perfusion, electrical activity, and pre-clinical structural alterations. A South African target population study was performed in a bi-ethnic cohort (n = 405)...
September 14, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412496/characterization-of-active-and-infiltrative-tumorous-subregions-from-normal-tissue-in-brain-gliomas-using-multiparametric-mri
#20
Anahita Fathi Kazerooni, Mahnaz Nabil, Mehdi Zeinali Zadeh, Kavous Firouznia, Farid Azmoudeh-Ardalan, Alejandro F Frangi, Christos Davatzikos, Hamidreza Saligheh Rad
BACKGROUND: Targeted localized biopsies and treatments for diffuse gliomas rely on accurate identification of tissue subregions, for which current MRI techniques lack specificity. PURPOSE: To explore the complementary and competitive roles of a variety of conventional and quantitative MRI methods for distinguishing subregions of brain gliomas. STUDY TYPE: Prospective. POPULATION: Fifty-one tissue specimens were collected using image-guided localized biopsy surgery from 10 patients with newly diagnosed gliomas...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
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