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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888543/segmented-simultaneous-multi-slice-diffusion-weighted-imaging-with-generalized-trajectories
#1
Michael Herbst, Weiran Deng, Thomas Ernst, V Andrew Stenger
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work is to develop and evaluate a single framework for the use of Cartesian and non-Cartesian segmented trajectories for rapid and robust simultaneous multislice (SMS) diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) at 3 Telsa (T). METHODS: A generalized SMS approach with intrinsic phase navigation using Multiplexed Sensitivity Encoding (MUSE) was developed. Segmented blipped-controlled aliasing in parallel imaging echo planar imaging (EPI) and z-gradient modulated spiral trajectories were examined using SMS DWI scans at 3T with a 32-channel head coil...
November 25, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883250/3d-tract-specific-local-and-global-analysis-of-white-matter-integrity-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Yan Jin, Chao Huang, Madelaine Daianu, Liang Zhan, Emily L Dennis, Robert I Reid, Clifford R Jack, Hongtu Zhu, Paul M Thompson
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive decline in memory and other aspects of cognitive function. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) offers a non-invasive approach to delineate the effects of AD on white matter (WM) integrity. Previous studies calculated either some summary statistics over regions of interest (ROI analysis) or some statistics along mean skeleton lines (Tract Based Spatial Statistic [TBSS]), so they cannot quantify subtle local WM alterations along major tracts...
November 24, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881833/apixaban-for-treatment-of-embolic-stroke-of-undetermined-source-atticus-randomized-trial-rationale-and-study-design
#3
Tobias Geisler, Sven Poli, Christoph Meisner, Juergen Schreieck, Christine S Zuern, Thomas Nägele, Johannes Brachmann, Werner Jung, Georg Gahn, Elisabeth Schmid, Hansjörg Bäezner, Timea Keller, Gabor C Petzold, Jan-Wilko Schrickel, Jan Liman, Rolf Wachter, Frauke Schön, Martin Schabet, Alfred Lindner, Albert C Ludolph, Hubert Kimmig, Sebastian Jander, Uwe Schlegel, Meinrad Gawaz, Ulf Ziemann
RATIONALE: Optimal secondary prevention of embolic stroke of undetermined source is not established. The current standard in these patients is acetylsalicylic acid, despite high prevalence of yet undetected paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. AIM: The ATTICUS randomized trial is designed to determine whether the factor Xa inhibitor apixaban administered within 7 days after embolic stroke of undetermined source, is superior to acetylsalicylic acid for prevention of new ischemic lesions documented by brain magnetic resonance imaging within 12 months after index stroke...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879030/age-related-decline-in-task-switching-is-linked-to-both-global-and-tract-specific-changes-in-white-matter-microstructure
#4
Todd A D Jolly, Patrick S Cooper, Jaime L Rennie, Christopher R Levi, Rhoshel Lenroot, Mark W Parsons, Patricia T Michie, Frini Karayanidis
Task-switching performance relies on a broadly distributed frontoparietal network and declines in older adults. In this study, they investigated whether this age-related decline in task switching performance was mediated by variability in global or regional white matter microstructural health. Seventy cognitively intact adults (43-87 years) completed a cued-trials task switching paradigm. Microstructural white matter measures were derived using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analyses on the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequence...
November 23, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857749/erythropoietin-reduces-apoptosis-of-brain-tissue-cells-in-rats-after-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-a-characteristic-analysis-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#5
Chun-Juan Jiang, Zhong-Juan Wang, Yan-Jun Zhao, Zhui-Yang Zhang, Jing-Jing Tao, Jian-Yong Ma
Some in vitro experiments have shown that erythropoietin (EPO) increases resistance to apoptosis and facilitates neuronal survival following cerebral ischemia. However, results from in vivo studies are rarely reported. Perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) have been applied successfully to distinguish acute cerebral ischemic necrosis and penumbra in living animals; therefore, we hypothesized that PWI and DWI could be used to provide imaging evidence in vivo for the conclusion that EPO could reduce apoptosis in brain areas injured by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion...
September 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853494/preoperative-grading-of-astrocytic-supratentorial-brain-tumors-with-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-apparent-diffusion-coefficient
#6
Mahsa Raisi-Nafchi, Fariborz Faeghi, Alireza Zali, Hamidreza Haghighatkhah, Jalal Jalal-Shokouhi
BACKGROUND: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a form of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based on measuring the random Brownian motion of water molecules within the biological tissues and is particularly useful in tumor characterization. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of DW MRI and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) for preoperative grading of astrocytic supratentorial brain tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-three patients (14 females, 9 males, mean age 43 years) with astrocytic supratentorial brain tumors underwent preoperative conventional MR imaging and DW MRI...
July 2016: Iranian Journal of Radiology: a Quarterly Journal Published By the Iranian Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852412/-feature-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-patients-with-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease
#7
H X Wang, J Liu, Y H Yang, H P Sun, A H Liu, L P Li, J Ye, Y Hou, Y Sun, H Q Dong, Y P Wang
Objective: To assess the imaging features of 43 patients diagnosed as clinically possible or probable Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) for providing referential information and experience on applications of MRI in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of CJD. Method: All patients who were diagnosed with "suspected CJD" and hospitalized in Xuanwu Hospital from January 2013 to November 2015 were collected, and their clinical information and MRI imaging features were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Totally 62 patients with "suspected CJD" were rectruited in this study, and 43 of them were diagnosied as probable and possible CJD when they were discharged...
October 25, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849158/neurological-injury-in-intermediate-risk-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation
#8
Jonathon P Fanning, Allan J Wesley, Darren L Walters, Eamonn M Eeles, Adrian G Barnett, David G Platts, Andrew J Clarke, Andrew A Wong, Wendy E Strugnell, Cliona O'Sullivan, Oystein Tronstad, John F Fraser
BACKGROUND: The application of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) to intermediate-risk patients is a controversial issue. Of concern, neurological injury in this group remains poorly defined. Among high-risk and inoperable patients, subclinical injury is reported on average in 75% undergoing the procedure. Although this attendant risk may be acceptable in higher-risk patients, it may not be so in those of lower risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty patients undergoing TAVI with the Edwards SAPIEN-XT(™) prosthesis were prospectively studied...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844309/use-of-diffusion-weighted-mri-to-modify-radiosurgery-planning-in-brain-metastases-may-reduce-local-recurrence
#9
Rasheed Zakaria, Andreas Pomschar, Michael D Jenkinson, Jörg-Christian Tonn, Claus Belka, Birgit Ertl-Wagner, Maximilian Niyazi
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an effective and well tolerated treatment for selected brain metastases; however, local recurrence still occurs. We investigated the use of diffusion weighted MRI (DWI) as an adjunct for SRS treatment planning in brain metastases. Seventeen consecutive patients undergoing complete surgical resection of a solitary brain metastasis underwent image analysis retrospectively. SRS treatment plans were generated based on standard 3D post-contrast T1-weighted sequences at 1.5T and then separately using apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps in a blinded fashion...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834639/motion-robust-diffusion-weighted-brain-mri-reconstruction-through-slice-level-registration-based-motion-tracking
#10
Bahram Marami, Benoit Scherrer, Onur Afacan, Burak Erem, Simon K Warfield, Ali Gholipour
This work proposes a novel approach for motion-robust diffusion-weighted (DW) brain MRI reconstruction through tracking temporal head motion using slice-to-volume registration. The slice-level motion is estimated through a filtering approach that allows tracking the head motion during the scan and correcting for out-of-plane inconsistency in the acquired images. Diffusion-sensitized image slices are registered to a base volume sequentially over time in the acquisition order where an outlier-robust Kalman filter, coupled with slice-to-volume registration, estimates head motion parameters...
October 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834215/diffusion-weighted-imaging-uncovers-likely-sources-of-processing-speed-deficits-in-schizophrenia
#11
Peter Kochunov, Laura M Rowland, Els Fieremans, Jelle Veraart, Neda Jahanshad, George Eskandar, Xiaoming Du, Florian Muellerklein, Anya Savransky, Dinesh Shukla, Hemalatha Sampath, Paul M Thompson, L Elliot Hong
Schizophrenia, a devastating psychiatric illness with onset in the late teens to early 20s, is thought to involve disrupted brain connectivity. Functional and structural disconnections of cortical networks may underlie various cognitive deficits, including a substantial reduction in the speed of information processing in schizophrenia patients compared with controls. Myelinated white matter supports the speed of electrical signal transmission in the brain. To examine possible neuroanatomical sources of cognitive deficits, we used a comprehensive diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) protocol and characterized the white matter diffusion signals using diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) and permeability-diffusivity imaging (PDI) in patients (n = 74), their nonill siblings (n = 41), and healthy controls (n = 113)...
November 9, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832912/diffusion-restriction-in-the-corticospinal-tracts-and-the-corpus-callosum-in-neonates-after-cerebral-insult
#12
Monika Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Agnieszka Duczkowska, Sylwia Szkudlinska-Pawlak, Marek Duczkowski, Jaroslaw Madzik, Astra Cabaj, Katarzyna Krupa, Pawel Peczkowski, Hanna Bragoszewska
BACKGROUND: In neonatal brains diffusion restriction, which is not limited to the region of insult, but is also found in distant locations from it seems to be a frequent finding, called pre-Wallerian degeneration. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to describe these findings and to estimate the frequency of their occurrence with an attempt to determine their clinical significance. METHODS: 125 brain MRI examinations of neonates with confirmed brain damage performed or consulted in our Institute were retrospectively reviewed, focusing on the presence of restricted diffusion in corticospinal tracts (CST) and corpus callosum (CC)...
November 7, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818467/application-of-cardiac-gating-to-improve-the-reproducibility-of-intravoxel-incoherent-motion-measurements-in-the-head-and-neck
#13
Koung Mi Kang, Seung Hong Choi, Dong Eun Kim, Tae Jin Yun, Ji-Hoon Kim, Chul-Ho Sohn, Sun-Won Park
PURPOSE: To prospectively evaluate whether cardiac gating can improve the reproducibility of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) parameters in the head and neck, we performed IVIM diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) using 4 b values (4b), 4 b values with cardiac gating (4b gating) and 17 b values (17b). METHODS: We performed IVIM DWI twice per person on nine healthy volunteers using 4b, 4b gating and 17b and five patients with head and neck masses using 4b gating and 17b...
November 4, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818370/can-diffusion-weighted-imaging-be-used-as-a-tool-to-predict-seizures-in-patients-with-pleds
#14
Jaishree Narayanan
It is unclear which patients with PLEDs will have associated seizures and therefore will need to be treated aggressively with antiepileptic medications. We present a prospective observational study of ten consecutive non-anoxic patients with PLEDs based on continuous 24-hour EEG monitoring. According to the EEG, five of the patients had seizures associated with PLEDs and five had PLEDs but no seizures. The aetiology included: neoplasm (n=1), cortical dysplasia (n=1), acute head trauma (n=1), encephalomalacia related to healed abscess (n=1), intra-parenchymal haemorrhage (n=1), and no structural lesion (n=5)...
November 4, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812502/comparison-of-unsupervised-classification-methods-for-brain-tumor-segmentation-using-multi-parametric-mri
#15
N Sauwen, M Acou, S Van Cauter, D M Sima, J Veraart, F Maes, U Himmelreich, E Achten, S Van Huffel
Tumor segmentation is a particularly challenging task in high-grade gliomas (HGGs), as they are among the most heterogeneous tumors in oncology. An accurate delineation of the lesion and its main subcomponents contributes to optimal treatment planning, prognosis and follow-up. Conventional MRI (cMRI) is the imaging modality of choice for manual segmentation, and is also considered in the vast majority of automated segmentation studies. Advanced MRI modalities such as perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) have already shown their added value in tumor tissue characterization, hence there have been recent suggestions of combining different MRI modalities into a multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI) approach for brain tumor segmentation...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794423/neuroprotective-effect-of-lercanidipine-in-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-model-of-stroke-in-rats
#16
Sangeetha Gupta, Uma Sharma, Naranamangalam R Jagannathan, Yogendra Kumar Gupta
Oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptotic neuronal cell death are cardinal mechanisms involved in the cascade of acute ischemic stroke. Lercanidipine apart from calcium channel blocking activity possesses anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. In the present study, we investigated neuroprotective efficacy and therapeutic time window of lercanidipine in a 2h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) model in male Wistar rats. The study design included: acute (pre-treatment and post-treatment) and sub-acute studies...
October 26, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790244/detection-of-low-signal-pulvinar-areas-using-diffusion-weighted-imaging-in-patients-with-dementia-experiencing-visual-hallucinations
#17
Mayuko Sugiura, Masayuki Satoh, Ken-Ichi Tabei, Tomoki Saito, Mutsuki Mori, Makiko Abe, Hirotaka Kida, Masayuki Maeda, Hajime Sakuma, Hidekazu Tomimoto
BACKGROUND: Little research has been conducted regarding the role of pulvinar nuclei in the pathogenesis of visual hallucinations due to the difficulty of assessing abnormalities in this region using conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The present study aimed to retrospectively investigate the relative abilities of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) to visualize the pulvinar and to ascertain the relationship between pulvinar visualization and visual hallucinations...
September 2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766699/mulitshot-cartesian-turbo-spin-echo-diffusion-imaging-using-iterative-pocsmuse-reconstruction
#18
Zhe Zhang, Bing Zhang, Ming Li, Xue Liang, Xiaodong Chen, Renyuan Liu, Xin Zhang, Hua Guo
PURPOSE: To report a diffusion imaging technique insensitive to off-resonance artifacts and motion-induced ghost artifacts using mulitshot Cartesian turbo spin-echo (TSE) acquisition and iterative POCS-based reconstruction of multiplexed sensitivity encoded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (POCSMUSE) for phase correction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Phase insensitive diffusion preparation was used to deal with the violation of the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) conditions of TSE diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), followed by a mulitshot Cartesian TSE readout for data acquisition...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766468/early-diffusion-restriction-of-white-matter-in-infants-with-small-subdural-hematomas-is-associated-with-delayed-atrophy
#19
Cameron A Elliott, Vijay Ramaswamy, Francois D Jacob, Tejas Sankar, Vivek Mehta
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality. In these patients, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is the test of choice to describe the extent of microstructural injury. CASE PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION: In this case series, we describe novel acute and chronic MRI findings in four infants (6-19 months) with small, unilateral subdural hematomas in whom the etiology of head injury was suspicious for non-accidental trauma (NAT)...
October 20, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751927/clinical-implication-of-temporary-hypointense-lesion-on-diffusion-weighted-imaging-after-extracranial-intracranial-bypass-surgery
#20
Hidehito Kimura, Masaaki Taniguchi, Tatsuya Mori, Kohkichi Hosoda, Eiji Kohmura
We present a rare case of a patient suffering temporary aphasia after an extracranial-to-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery, which was shown as a transient hypointense lesion on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value, evidence of postoperative hyperperfusion. Postoperative hyperperfusion syndrome after EC-IC bypass causing temporary neurological deterioration has been reported rarely as isosignal intensity on DWI with hyperintense lesion on T2-weighted image and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) image as an expression of vasogenic edema...
October 14, 2016: World Neurosurgery
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