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Pathogen associated molecular patterns ( PAMPS )

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154460/elevated-co2-increases-r-gene-dependent-resistance-of-medicago-truncatula-against-the-pea-aphid-by-up-regulating-a-heat-shock-gene
#1
Yucheng Sun, Huijuan Guo, Erliang Yuan, Feng Ge
Resistance against pathogens and herbivorous insects in many plant results from the expression of resistance (R) genes. Few reports, however, have considered the effects of elevated CO2 on R gene-based resistance in plants. The current study determined the responses of two near isogenic Medicago truncatula genotypes (Jester has an R gene and A17 does not) to the pea aphid and elevated CO2 in open-top chambers in the field. Aphid abundance, mean relative growth rate and feeding efficiency were increased by elevated CO2 on A17 plants but were reduced on Jester plants...
November 20, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149328/mir858-mediated-regulation-of-flavonoid-specific-myb-transcription-factor-genes-controls-resistance-to-pathogen-infection-in-arabidopsis
#2
Rosany Camargo-Ramírez, Beatriz Val-Torregrosa, Blanca San Segundo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short endogenous non-coding small RNAs that direct post-transcriptional gene silencing in eukaryotes. In plants, the expression of a large number of miRNAs has been shown to be regulated during pathogen infection. However, the functional role of the majority of these pathogen-regulated miRNAs has not been elucidated. In this work, we investigated the role of Arabidopsis miR858 in the defense response of Arabidopsis plants to infection by fungal pathogens with necrotrophic (Plectosphaerella cucumerina) or hemibiotrophic (Fusarium oxysporum and Colletotrichum higginsianum) lifestyles...
November 15, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142418/marantodes-pumilum-blume-kuntze-inhibited-secretion-of-lipopolysaccharide-and-monosodium-urate-crystal-stimulated-cytokines-and-plasma-prostaglandin-e2
#3
Eldiza Puji Rahmi, Jamia Azdina Jamal, Endang Kumolosasi, Juriyati Jalil, Nor-Ashila Aladdin
Background: Marantodes pumilum is traditionally used for dysentery, gonorrhea, and sickness in the bones. Previous studies revealed its antibacterial and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Objective: To evaluate the inhibitory effects of three M. pumilum varieties on the secretion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and monosodium urate crystal (MSU)-induced cytokines and plasma prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in vitro. Materials and Methods: The leaves and roots of M...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138299/induction-of-antiviral-immune-response-through-recognition-of-the-repeating-subunit-pattern-of-viral-capsids-is-toll-like-receptor-2-dependent
#4
Kelly M Shepardson, Benjamin Schwarz, Kyle Larson, Rachelle V Morton, John Avera, Kimberly McCoy, Alayna Caffrey, Ann Harmsen, Trevor Douglas, Agnieszka Rynda-Apple
Although viruses and viral capsids induce rapid immune responses, little is known about viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are exhibited on their surface. Here, we demonstrate that the repeating protein subunit pattern common to most virus capsids is a molecular pattern that induces a Toll-like-receptor-2 (TLR2)-dependent antiviral immune response. This early antiviral immune response regulates the clearance of subsequent bacterial superinfections, which are a primary cause of morbidities associated with influenza virus infections...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135338/convergent-and-divergent-signaling-in-pamp-triggered-immunity-and-effector-triggered-immunity
#5
Yujun Peng, Rowan van Wersch, Yuelin Zhang
Plants use diverse immune receptors to sense pathogen attacks. Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors localized on the plasma membrane leads to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Detection of pathogen effectors by intracellular or plasma membrane-localized immune receptors results in effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Despite the large variations in the magnitude and duration of immune responses triggered by different PAMPs or pathogen effectors during PTI and ETI, plasma membrane-localized immune receptors activate similar downstream molecular events such as MAP kinase activation, oxidative burst, ion influx and increased biosynthesis of plant defense hormones, indicating that defense signals initiated at the plasma membrane converge at later points...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132313/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-of-a-lowly-virulent-strain-of-erwinia-amylovora-in-shoots-of-two-apple-cultivars-susceptible-and-resistant-to-fire-blight
#6
Joanna Puławska, Monika Kałużna, Wojciech Warabieda, Artur Mikiciński
BACKGROUND: Erwinia amylovora is generally considered to be a homogeneous species in terms of phenotypic and genetic features. However, strains show variation in their virulence, particularly on hosts with different susceptibility to fire blight. We applied the RNA-seq technique to elucidate transcriptome-level changes of the lowly virulent E. amylovora 650 strain during infection of shoots of susceptible (Idared) and resistant (Free Redstar) apple cultivars. RESULTS: The highest number of differentially expressed E...
November 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130033/danger-of-frustrated-sensors-role-of-toll-like-receptors-and-nod-like-receptors-in-aseptic-and-septic-inflammations-around-total-hip-replacements
#7
Michiaki Takagi, Yuya Takakubo, Jukka Pajarinen, Yasushi Naganuma, Hiroharu Oki, Masahiro Maruyama, Stuart B Goodman
The innate immune sensors, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), can recognize not only exogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), but also endogenous molecules created upon tissue injury, sterile inflammation, and degeneration. Endogenous ligands are called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), and include endogenous molecules released from activated and necrotic cells as well as damaged extracellular matrix. TLRs and NLRs can interact with various ligands derived from PAMPs and DAMPs, leading to activation and/or modulation of intracellular signalling pathways...
July 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127881/grapevine-immune-signaling-network-in-response-to-drought-stress-as-revealed-by-transcriptomic-analysis
#8
Muhammad S Haider, Mahantesh M Kurjogi, M Khalil-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad Fiaz, Tariq Pervaiz, Songtao Jiu, Jia Haifeng, Wang Chen, Jinggui Fang
Drought is a ubiquitous abiotic factor that severely impedes growth and development of horticulture crops. The challenge postured by global climate change is the evolution of drought-tolerant cultivars that could cope with concurrent stress. Hence, in this study, biochemical, physiological and transcriptome analysis were investigated in drought-treated grapevine leaves. The results revealed that photosynthetic activity and reducing sugars were significantly diminished which were positively correlated with low stomatal conductance and CO2 exchange in drought-stressed leaves...
October 31, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125848/early-decreased-tlr2-expression-on-monocytes-is-associated-with-their-reduced-phagocytic-activity-and-impaired-maturation-in-a-porcine-polytrauma-model
#9
Lukas Schimunek, Rafael Serve, Michel P J Teuben, Philipp Störmann, Birgit Auner, Mathias Woschek, Roman Pfeifer, Klemens Horst, Tim-P Simon, Miriam Kalbitz, Ramona Sturm, Hans-C Pape, Frank Hildebrand, Ingo Marzi, Borna Relja
In their post-traumatic course, trauma patients suffering from multiple injuries have a high risk for immune dysregulation, which may contribute to post-injury complications and late mortality. Monocytes as specific effector cells of the innate immunity play a crucial role in inflammation. Using their Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs), notably Toll-Like Receptors (TLR), the monocytes recognize pathogens and/or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and organize their clearance. TLR2 is the major receptor for particles of gram-positive bacteria, and initiates their phagocytosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121497/mannosylcalix-n-arenes-as-multivalent-ligands-for-dc-sign
#10
Ilaria Morbioli, Vanessa Porkolab, Andrea Magini, Alessandro Casnati, Franck Fieschi, Francesco Sansone
DC-SIGN is a receptor protruded from the membrane of immature dendritic cells (DCs) that participates in the activation of the immune response through the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). On the other hand, HIV exploits the interaction between high-mannose structures of its envelope glycoprotein gp120 and DC-SIGN to be transported towards and infect T-cells. DC-SIGN is involved in the recognition process in the form of a tetramer and the multiple exposition of carbohydrate recognition sites (CRSs) is amplified by the formation on the DCs membrane of patches of tetramers...
October 31, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111394/non-mammalian-toll-like-receptor-18-tlr18-recognizes-bacterial-pathogens-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-l-indications-for-a-role-of-participation-in-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#11
Shijuan Shan, Dezhi Liu, Rongrong Liu, Yaoyao Zhu, Ting Li, Fumiao Zhang, Liguo An, Guiwen Yang, Hua Li
Toll-like receptors are important pattern recognition receptors that can recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and play a critical role in innate immunity. In the present study, tlr18 was identified from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (named Cctlr18). The deduced amino acid sequence contained only a signal peptide, eight LRR (leucine-rich repeat) motifs, a transmembrane region and a TIR (Toll/IL-1 receptor) domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CcTlr18 was most closely related to Ctenopharyngodon idella Tlr18...
October 27, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107936/a-harpin-elicitor-induces-the-expression-of-a-coiled-coil-nucleotide-binding-leucine-rich-repeat-cc-nb-lrr-defense-signaling-gene-and-others-functioning-during-defense-to-parasitic-nematodes
#12
Weasam A R Aljaafri, Brant T McNeece, Bisho R Lawaju, Keshav Sharma, Prakash M Niruala, Shankar R Pant, David H Long, Kathy S Lawrence, Gary W Lawrence, Vincent P Klink
The bacterial effector harpin induces the transcription of the Arabidopsis thaliana NON-RACE SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE 1/HARPIN INDUCED1 (NDR1/HIN1) coiled-coil nucleotide binding leucine rich repeat (CC-NB-LRR) defense signaling gene. In Glycine max, Gm-NDR1-1 transcripts have been detected within root cells undergoing a natural resistant reaction to parasitism by the syncytium-forming nematode Heterodera glycines, functioning in the defense response. Expressing Gm-NDR1-1 in Gossypium hirsutum leads to resistance to Meloidogyne incognita parasitism...
October 13, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106804/targeting-rage-signaling-in-inflammatory-disease
#13
Barry I Hudson, Marc E Lippman
The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is a multiligand pattern recognition receptor implicated in diverse chronic inflammatory states. RAGE binds and mediates the cellular response to a range of damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) including AGEs, HMGB1, S100s, and DNA. RAGE can also act as an innate immune sensor of microbial pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules (PAMPs) including bacterial endotoxin, respiratory viruses, and microbial DNA. RAGE is expressed at low levels under normal physiology, but it is highly upregulated under chronic inflammation because of the accumulation of various RAGE ligands...
November 6, 2017: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104090/two-novel-calreticulin-related-molecules-with-microbial-binding-and-phagocytosis-enhancing-capacity-in-the-half-smooth-tongue-sole-cynoglossus-semilaevis
#14
Guanghua Wang, Zengjie Jiang, Shuwen He, Min Zhang
Calreticulin (CRT) is highly conserved chaperone located in the endoplasmic reticulum. It plays important roles in innate immunity. Although various immune-related functions of CRT have been reported in vertebrates and invertebrates, information on the potential functions of teleost CRT is very limited. In the present study, we characterized two calreticulin-related molecules from tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis), calreticulin-like1 and calreticulin-like2 (CsCRTL1 and CsCRTL2). CsCRTL1and CsCRTL2 contain signature CRT motifs that are highly conserved in different species...
November 6, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097235/unc93b1-is-essential-for-cytokine-activation-of-five-pamps-in-the-orange-spotted-grouper-epinephelus-coioides
#15
Yaosi Liang, Yu Wang, Liangge He, Jianan He, Wan Peng, Libin Zhou, Yong Zhang, Haifa Zhang, Herong Shi, Haoran Lin, Danqi Lu
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important innate immune receptors that recognize multiple pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and activate the immune responses to resist the invasion of pathogens. Many TLRs need assistance from trafficking chaperones to transport to the specific cell compartments and then are processed before they are activated. In this study, we identified an important trafficking chaperone, Unc-93 homolog B1 (unc93b1), from the Epinephelus coioides (orange-spotted grouper). The deduced protein sequence of Eco...
October 31, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096648/inhibition-of-damp-signaling-as-an-effective-adjunctive-treatment-strategy-in-pneumococcal-meningitis
#16
Ilias Masouris, Matthias Klein, Susanne Dyckhoff, Barbara Angele, H W Pfister, Uwe Koedel
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal meningitis remains a potentially lethal and debilitating disease, mainly due to brain damage from sustained inflammation. The release of danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), like myeloid-related protein 14 (MRP14) and high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), plays a major role in persistence of inflammation. In this study, we evaluated if paquinimod, an MRP14-inhibitor, and an anti-HMGB1 antibody can improve clinical outcome as adjunctive therapeutics in pneumococcal meningitis...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090631/bacillus-cereus-ar156-activates-defense-responses-to-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-tomato-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-similarly-to-flg22
#17
Shune Wang, Ying Zheng, Chun Gu, Chan He, Mengying Yang, Xin Zhang, Jianhua Guo, Hongwei Zhao, Dongdong Niu
Bacillus cereus AR156 (AR156) is a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium capable of inducing systemic resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). Here we show that when applied to Arabidopsis leaves, AR156 acted similarly to flg22, a typical pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), in initiating PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). AR156-elicited PTI responses included phosphorylation of MPK3 and MPK6, induction of the expression of defense-related genes PR1, FRK1, WRKY22, and WRKY29; production of reactive oxygen species; and callose deposition...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070514/phosphorylation-of-map-kinase-phosphatase-1-mkp1-is-required-for-resistance-against-bacteria
#18
Lingyan Jiang, Jeffrey Anderson, Marina A González Besteiro, Scott Charles Peck
Plants perceive potential pathogens via recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by surface-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which initiates a series of intracellular responses that ultimately limit bacterial growth. PAMP responses include changes in intracellular protein phosphorylation, including activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) cascades. MAP kinase phosphatases (MKPs), such as Arabidopsis MKP1, are important negative regulators of MAPKs and play a crucial role in controlling the intensity and duration of MAPK activation during innate immune signaling...
October 25, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062590/toll-like-receptor-signaling-in-burn-wound-healing-and-scarring
#19
REVIEW
Peter D'Arpa, Kai P Leung
Significance: Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) emanate from burn-injured tissue and enter systemic circulation. Locally and systemically, they activate pattern-recognition receptors, including toll-like receptors (TLRs), to stimulate cytokine secretion, which in the severest burns typically results in extreme systemic cytokine levels, a dysfunctioning immune system, infection, impaired healing, and excessive scarring. This system-wide disruption of homeostasis can advance to life-threatening, multiorgan dysfunction syndrome...
October 1, 2017: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062589/integration-of-canonical-and-noncanonical-pathways-in-tlr4-signaling-complex-regulation-of-the-wound-repair-program
#20
REVIEW
Paula J McKeown-Longo, Paul J Higgins
Significance: Chronic inflammation and maladaptive repair contribute to the development of fibrosis that negatively impacts quality of life and organ function. The toll-like receptor (TLR) system is a critical node in the tissue response to both exogenous (pathogen-associated) and endogenous (damage-associated) molecular pattern factors (PAMPs and DAMPs, respectively). The development of novel TLR ligand-, pathway-, and/or target gene-specific therapeutics may have clinical utility in the management of the exuberant inflammatory/fibrotic tissue response to injury without compromising the host defense to pathogens...
October 1, 2017: Advances in Wound Care
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