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Pathogen associated molecular patterns ( PAMPS )

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436098/lecrk-v-an-l-type-lectin-receptor-kinase-in-haynaldia-villosa-plays-positive-role-in-resistance-to-wheat-powdery-mildew
#1
Zongkuan Wang, Jiangyue Cheng, Anqi Fan, Jia Zhao, Zhongyu Yu, Yingbo Li, Heng Zhang, Jin Xiao, Faheem Mohammad, Haiyan Wang, Aizhong Cao, Liping Xing, Xiue Wang
Plant sense potential microbial pathogen by using pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The Lectin receptor like kinase genes (LecRKs) are involved in various cellular processes mediated by signal transduction pathways. In the present study, an L-type lectin receptor kinase gene LecRK-V was cloned from Haynaldia villosa, a diploid wheat relative which is highly resistant to powdery mildew. The expression of LecRK-V was rapidly up-regulated by Bgt inoculation and chitin treatment...
April 24, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432942/insights-into-the-diversity-of-nod-like-receptors-identification-and-expression-analysis-of-nlrc3-nlrc5-and-nlrx1-in-rainbow-trout
#2
Claudio A Álvarez, Felipe Ramírez-Cepeda, Paula Santana, Elisa Torres, Jimena Cortés, Fanny Guzmán, Paulina Schmitt, Luis Mercado
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are efficient soluble intracellular sensors that activate defense mechanisms against pathogens. In teleost fish, the involvement of NLRs in the immune response is not well understood. However, recent work has evidenced the expression of different NLRs in response to some pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In the present work, the cDNA sequence encoding three new NOD-like receptors were identified in Oncorhynchus mykiss, namely OmNLRC3, OmNLRC5 and OmNLRX1...
April 19, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421072/dysregulated-il-1%C3%AE-secretion-in-autoinflammatory-diseases-a-matter-of-stress
#3
Sonia Carta, Claudia Semino, Roberto Sitia, Anna Rubartelli
Infectious and sterile inflammation is induced by activation of innate immune cells. Triggering of toll-like receptors by pathogen-associated molecular pattern or damage-associated molecular pattern (PAMP or DAMP) molecules generates reactive oxygen species that in turn induce production and activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β. Recent evidence indicates that cell stress due to common events, like starvation, enhanced metabolic demand, cold or heat, not only potentiates inflammation but may also directly trigger it in the absence of PAMPs or DAMPs...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406987/arabidopsis-leucine-rich-repeat-receptor-like-kinase-nilr1-is-required-for-induction-of-innate-immunity-to-parasitic-nematodes
#4
Badou Mendy, Mary Wanjiku Wang'ombe, Zoran S Radakovic, Julia Holbein, Muhammad Ilyas, Divykriti Chopra, Nick Holton, Cyril Zipfel, Florian M W Grundler, Shahid Siddique
Plant-parasitic nematodes are destructive pests causing losses of billions of dollars annually. An effective plant defence against pathogens relies on the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by surface-localised receptors leading to the activation of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Extensive studies have been conducted to characterise the role of PTI in various models of plant-pathogen interactions. However, far less is known about the role of PTI in roots in general and in plant-nematode interactions in particular...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400491/elf18-induced-long-noncoding-rna-associates-with-mediator-to-enhance-expression-of-innate-immune-response-genes-in-arabidopsis
#5
Jun Sung Seo, Hai-Xi Sun, Bong Soo Park, Chung-Hao Huang, Shyi-Dong Yeh, Choonkyun Jung, Nam-Hai Chua
The plant immune response is a complex process involving transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. Responses to plant immunity are initiated upon the perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), including peptide fragment of bacterial flagellin (flg22) or translation elongation factor Tu (elf18). Here, we identify an Arabidopsis thaliana long-noncoding RNA, designated ELF18-INDUCED LONG-NONCODING RNA 1 (ELENA1), as a factor enhancing resistance against Pseudomonas syringe pv...
April 11, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386988/a-new-proteinaceous-pathogen-associated-molecular-pattern-pamp-identified-in-ascomycete-fungi-induces-cell-death-in-solanaceae
#6
Barbara Franco-Orozco, Adokiye Berepiki, Olaya Ruiz, Louise Gamble, Lucie L Griffe, Shumei Wang, Paul R J Birch, Kostya Kanyuka, Anna Avrova
Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are detected by plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which gives rise to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). We characterized a novel fungal PAMP, Cell Death Inducing 1 (RcCDI1), identified in the Rhynchosporium commune transcriptome sampled at an early stage of barley (Hordeum vulgare) infection. The ability of RcCDI1 and its homologues from different fungal species to induce cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana was tested following agroinfiltration or infiltration of recombinant proteins produced by Pichia pastoris...
April 7, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374903/rna-sensors-of-the-innate-immune-system-and-their-detection-of-pathogens
#7
REVIEW
Nanhua Chen, Pengpeng Xia, Shuangjie Li, Tangjie Zhang, Tony T Wang, Jianzhong Zhu
The innate immune system plays a critical role in pathogen recognition and initiation of protective immune response through the recognition of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by its pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Nucleic acids including RNA and DNA have been recognized as very important PAMPs of pathogens especially for viruses. RNA are the major PAMPs of RNA viruses, to which most severe disease causing viruses belong thus posing a tougher challenge to human and animal health. Therefore, the understanding of the immune biology of RNA PRRs is critical for control of pathogen infections especially for RNA virus infections...
April 4, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374588/detection-of-the-lipopeptide-pam3csk4-using-a-hybridized-toll-like-receptor-electrochemical-sensor
#8
Zhe She, Kristin Topping, Tianxiao Ma, Tiantian Zhao, Wenxia Zhou, Ajar Kamal, Soha Ahmadi, Heinz-Bernhard Kraatz
Electrochemical detection of Pam3CSK4, a synthetic triacylated lipopeptide that mimics the structural moieties of its natural Gram negative bacterial pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) counterpart, has been achieved using hybridized toll-like receptors (TLR) combining TLR1 and TLR2 onto a single sensor surface. These sensors represent the first hybridized TLR sensors. The limit of detection for Pam3CSK4 attained was 7.5 μg/mL, which is within the same order of magnitude for that of the more labor-intensive and time-consuming cell-assay technique, 2...
April 12, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335522/extracellular-vesicles-deliver-host-and-virus-rna-and-regulate-innate-immune-response
#9
REVIEW
Takahisa Kouwaki, Masaaki Okamoto, Hirotake Tsukamoto, Yoshimi Fukushima, Hiroyuki Oshiumi
The innate immune system plays a crucial role in controlling viral infection. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors and RIG-I-like receptors, sense viral components called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and trigger signals to induce innate immune responses. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, deliver functional RNA and mediate intercellular communications. Recent studies have revealed that EVs released from virus-infected cells deliver viral RNA to dendritic cells and macrophages, thereby activating PRRs in recipient cells, which results in the expression of type I interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokines...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334203/innate-immune-recognition-and-inflammation-in-neisseria-meningitidis-infection
#10
Kay Johswich
Neisseria meningitidis (Nme) can cause meningitis and sepsis, diseases which are characterised by an overwhelming inflammatory response. Inflammation is triggered by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) which are activated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Nme contains multiple PAMPs including lipooligosaccharide, peptidoglycan, proteins and metabolites. Various classes of PRRs including Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, C-type lectins, scavenger receptors, pentraxins and others are expressed by the host to respond to any given microbe...
March 1, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322156/recent-findings-on-the-application-of-toll-like-receptors-agonists-in-cancer-therapy
#11
Martina Mikulandra, Jasminka Pavelic, Tanja Matijevic Glavan
The immune system's first line of defense is innate immunity, largely based on a large family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize evolutionary conserved molecular motifs on pathogens called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The most extensively studied family of PRRs are Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which can trigger various cellular pathways after ligand stimulation. Their role in cancer is still unresolved as there are many different studies showing contradictory results. TLRs have been associated with both tumor progression and immunosuppression as well as with apoptosis and immune system activation...
March 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293243/induced-systemic-resistance-against-botrytis-cinerea-by-bacillus-cereus-ar156-through-a-ja-et-and-npr1-dependent-signaling-pathway-and-activates-pamp-triggered-immunity-in-arabidopsis
#12
Pingping Nie, Xia Li, Shune Wang, Jianhua Guo, Hongwei Zhao, Dongdong Niu
Induced resistance response is a potent and cost effective plant defense against pathogen attack. The effectiveness and underlying mechanisms of the suppressive ability by Bacillus cereus AR156 to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) in Arabidopsis has been investigated previously; however, the strength of induced systemic resistance (ISR) activity against Botrytis cinerea remains unknown. Here, we show that root-drench application of AR156 significantly reduces disease incidence through activation of ISR...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288861/biotechnology-approaches-to-produce-potent-self-adjuvanting-antigen-adjuvant-fusion-protein-subunit-vaccines
#13
REVIEW
Peter Michael Moyle
Traditional vaccination approaches (e.g. live attenuated or killed microorganisms) are among the most effective means to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. These approaches, nevertheless, have failed to yield successful vaccines against many important pathogens. To overcome this problem, methods have been developed to identify microbial components, against which protective immune responses can be elicited. Subunit antigens identified by these approaches enable the production of defined vaccines, with improved safety profiles...
May 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254779/cytokinin-mediated-regulation-of-reactive-oxygen-species-homeostasis-modulates-stomatal-immunity-in-arabidopsis
#14
Dominique Arnaud, Seungchul Lee, Yumiko Takebayashi, Daeseok Choi, Jaemyung Choi, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Ildoo Hwang
Stomata play an important role in preinvasive defense responses by limiting pathogen entry into leaves. Although the stress hormones salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) are known to regulate stomatal immunity, the role of growth promoting hormones is far from understood. Here, we show that in Arabidopsis thaliana, cytokinins (CKs) function in stomatal defense responses. The cytokinin receptor HISTIDINE KINASE3 (AHK3) and RESPONSE REGULATOR2 (ARR2) promote stomatal closure triggered by pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) and resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato bacteria...
March 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251581/chitin-and-its-effects-on-inflammatory-and-immune-responses
#15
REVIEW
Daniel Elieh Ali Komi, Lokesh Sharma, Charles S Dela Cruz
Chitin, a potential allergy-promoting pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), is a linear polymer composed of N-acetylglucosamine residues which are linked by β-(1,4)-glycosidic bonds. Mammalians are potential hosts for chitin-containing protozoa, fungi, arthropods, and nematodes; however, mammalians themselves do not synthetize chitin and thus it is considered as a potential target for recognition by mammalian immune system. Chitin is sensed primarily in the lungs or gut where it activates a variety of innate (eosinophils, macrophages) and adaptive immune cells (IL-4/IL-13 expressing T helper type-2 lymphocytes)...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249680/the-molecular-mechanisms-of-signaling-by-cooperative-assembly-formation-in-innate-immunity-pathways
#16
Parimala R Vajjhala, Thomas Ve, Adam Bentham, Katryn J Stacey, Bostjan Kobe
The innate immune system is the first line of defense against infection and responses are initiated by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). PRRs also detect endogenous danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that are released by damaged or dying cells. The major PRRs include the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family members, the nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain, leucine-rich repeat containing (NLR) family, the PYHIN (ALR) family, the RIG-1-like receptors (RLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) and the oligoadenylate synthase (OAS)-like receptors and the related protein cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)...
February 26, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242654/cellulose-derived-oligomers-act-as-damage-associated-molecular-patterns-and-trigger-defense-like-responses
#17
Clarice de Azevedo Souza, Shundai Li, Andrew Z Lin, Freddy Boutrot, Guido Grossmann, Cyril Zipfel, Shauna C Somerville
The plant cell wall, often the site of initial encounters between plants and their microbial pathogens, is composed of a complex mixture of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin polysaccharides as well as proteins. The concept of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) was proposed to describe plant elicitors like oligogalacturonides (OGs), which can be derived by the breakdown of the pectin homogalacturon by pectinases. OGs act via many of the same signaling steps as pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) to elicit defenses and provide protection against pathogens...
April 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235783/proteome-and-secretome-analysis-reveals-differential-post-transcriptional-regulation-of-toll-like-receptor-responses
#18
Marijke Koppenol-Raab, Virginie Sjoelund, Nathan P Manes, Rachel A Gottschalk, Bhaskar Dutta, Zachary L Benet, Iain D C Fraser, Aleksandra Nita-Lazar
The innate immune system is the organism's first line of defense against pathogens. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are responsible for sensing the presence of pathogen-associated molecules. The prototypic PRRs, the membrane-bound receptors of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and initiate an innate immune response through signaling pathways that depend on the adaptor molecules MyD88 and TRIF. Deciphering the differences in the complex signaling events that lead to pathogen recognition and initiation of the correct response remains challenging...
April 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235583/immune-responses-of-channel-catfish-following-the-stimulation-of-three-recombinant-flagellins-of-yersinia-ruckeri-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#19
Jie Jiang, Wuyi Zhao, Quanxin Xiong, Kaiyu Wang, Yang He, Jun Wang, Defang Chen, Yi Geng, Xiaoli Huang, Ping Ouyang, Weimin Lai
Innate immunity is initiated depending on the recognition of certain protein receptors termed pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) to protect the host from various invading pathogens. As one of the most powerful PAMPs, flagellin is the major structural component of the flagellum that provides the main force for bacterial motility in flagellated microorganisms. The genome of the Y. ruckeri strain SC09 contains three flagellin genes, which encode the flagellins FlaA, FlaB and FlaC, respectively...
February 21, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220433/small-rna-and-mrna-profiling-of-arabidopsis-in-response-to-phytophthora-infection-and-pamp-treatment
#20
Yingnan Hou, Wenbo Ma
Small non-coding RNAs (smRNAs) regulate gene expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Well known for their roles in development, smRNAs have emerged as important regulators of plant immunity. Upon pathogen perception, accumulation of specific smRNAs are found to be altered, presumably as a host defense response. Therefore, identification of differentially accumulated smRNAs and their target genes would provide important insight into the regulation mechanism of immune responses. Here, we describe the detailed experimental procedure using Illumina sequencing to analyze the expression profiles of smRNAs and mRNAs in Arabidopsis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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