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Pathogen associated molecular patterns ( PAMPS )

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088582/ripk1-protects-hepatocytes-from-kupffer-cells-mediated-tnf-induced-apoptosis-in-mouse-models-of-pamp-induced-hepatitis
#1
Aveline Filliol, Claire Piquet-Pellorce, Céline Raguénès-Nicol, Sarah Dion, Muhammad Farooq, Catherine Lucas-Clerc, Peter Vandenabeele, Mathieu J M Bertrand, Jacques Le Seyec, Michel Samson
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The severity of liver diseases is exacerbated by the death of hepatocytes, which can be induced by the sensing of Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) derived from the gut microbiota. The molecular mechanisms regulating these cell death pathways are poorly documented. In this study, we investigated the role of the Receptor Interacting Protein Kinase 1 (RIPK1), a protein known to regulate cell fate decisions, in the death of hepatocytes using two in vivo models of PAMP-induced hepatitis...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075229/altered-mitochondrial-dynamics-as-a-consequence-of-venezuelan-equine-encephalitis-virus-infection
#2
Forrest Keck, Taryn Brooks-Faulconer, Tyler Lark, Pavitra Ravishankar, Charles Bailey, Carolina Salvador-Morales, Aarthi Narayanan
Mitochondria are sentinel organelles that are impacted by various forms of cellular stress, including viral infections. While signaling events associated with mitochondria, including those activated by pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), are widely studied, alterations in mitochondrial distribution and changes in mitochondrial dynamics are also beginning to be associated with cellular insult. Cells of neuronal origin have been demonstrated to display remarkable alterations in several instances, including neurodegenerative disorders...
January 11, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069432/microrna-expression-changes-after-lipopolysaccharide-treatment-in-gills-of-amphioxus-branchiostoma-belcheri
#3
Xin Liao, Liu Yang, Qilin Zhang, Junyuan Chen
Recently, amphioxus has served as a model for studying the origin and evolution of vertebrate immunity. However, little is known about how microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the immune defense in amphioxus. In this article, we identified the amphioxus miRNAs in the acute-phase response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We determined the time point for the peak of immune response in amphioxus after LPS challenge by evaluating the expression of Branchiostoma belcheri toll-like receptor 1, NF-κb (c-Rel), and big defensin which react with pathogen-associated molecular patterns(PAMPs)...
January 6, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056815/comparative-genomics-of-host-adaptive-traits-in-xanthomonas-translucens-pv-graminis
#4
Lena Hersemann, Daniel Wibberg, Jochen Blom, Alexander Goesmann, Franco Widmer, Frank-Jörg Vorhölter, Roland Kölliker
BACKGROUND: Xanthomonas translucens pathovars differ in their individual host ranges among Poaceae. As the causal agent of bacterial wilt in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), X. translucens pv. graminis (Xtg) is one of the most important bacterial pathogens in temperate grassland regions. The genomes of six Xtg strains from Switzerland, Norway, and New Zealand were sequenced in order to gain insight into conserved genomic traits from organisms covering a wide geographical range...
January 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055115/measurement-of-t-cell-telomere-length-using-amplified-signal-fish-staining-and-flow-cytometry
#5
Andrea L Henning, Danielle E Levitt, Jakob L Vingren, Brian K McFarlin
Exposure to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS), damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPS), and physiologically challenging stimuli either positively or negatively affect leukocyte maturity. Cellular maturity has implications for the effectiveness of host response to bacterial or viral infection and/or tissue injury. Thus, the ability to accurately assess cellular maturity and health is important to fully understand immune status and function. The most common technique for measuring cellular maturity is to measure telomere length; however, existing techniques are not optimized for single-cell measurements using flow cytometry...
January 5, 2017: Current Protocols in Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049380/evaluation-of-tlr9-expression-on-pbmcs-and-cpg-odn-tlr9-ligation-on-ifn-%C3%AE-production-in-sle-patients
#6
Sahar Mortezagholi, Zohreh Babaloo, Parisa Rahimzadeh, Haideh Namdari, Mojgan Ghaedi, Farhad Gharibdoost, Reza Mirzaei, Katayoon Bidad, Eisa Salehi
CONTEXT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by autoreactive antibodies. Recent findings revealed the importance of innate immune responses, especially Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the pathogenesis of SLE. OBJECTIVE: In this study, the level of TLR9 expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was analyzed. The levels of produced IFN-α were also measured in supernatant of PBMCs from SLE patients and healthy controls after stimulation with CpG ODN2216 which is a plasmocytoid dendritic cell (pDC)-specific TLR9 ligand...
January 3, 2017: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049142/danger-associated-molecular-patterns-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Carmen Venegas, Michael T Heneka
Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and endogenous "danger" signals, known as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), released from cells alert the innate immune system and activate several signal transduction pathways through interactions with the highly conserved pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Both PAMPs and DAMPs directly induce proinflammatory cascades and trigger the formation of the inflammasome, mediating the release of cytokines. Here, we highlight the role of DAMPs, including amyloid β (Aβ), high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), the S100 family proteins, chromogranin A, and nucleic acids, in the innate-immune activation during the course of Alzheimer disease (AD), the most frequent neurodegenerative disorder...
January 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036046/herpesviruses-dutpases-a-new-family-of-pathogen-associated-molecular-pattern-pamp-proteins-with-implications-for-human-disease
#8
REVIEW
Marshall V Williams, Brandon Cox, Maria Eugenia Ariza
The human herpesviruses are ubiquitous viruses and have a prevalence of over 90% in the adult population. Following a primary infection they establish latency and can be reactivated over a person's lifetime. While it is well accepted that human herpesviruses are implicated in numerous diseases ranging from dermatological and autoimmune disease to cancer, the role of lytic proteins in the pathophysiology of herpesvirus-associated diseases remains largely understudies. Only recently have we begun to appreciate the importance of lytic proteins produced during reactivation of the virus, in particular the deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolases (dUTPase), as key modulators of the host innate and adaptive immune responses...
December 28, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965667/danger-signals-and-graft-versus-host-disease-current-understanding-and-future-perspectives
#9
REVIEW
Tomomi Toubai, Nathan D Mathewson, John Magenau, Pavan Reddy
Graft-versus-host response after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) represents one of the most intense inflammatory responses observed in humans. Host conditioning facilitates engraftment of donor cells, but the tissue injury caused from it primes the critical first steps in the development of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Tissue injuries release pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) through widespread stimulation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) by the release of danger stimuli, such as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941860/lactate-signalling-regulates-fungal-%C3%AE-glucan-masking-and-immune-evasion
#10
Elizabeth R Ballou, Gabriela M Avelar, Delma S Childers, Joanna Mackie, Judith M Bain, Jeanette Wagener, Stavroula L Kastora, Mirela D Panea, Sarah E Hardison, Louise A Walker, Lars P Erwig, Carol A Munro, Neil A R Gow, Gordon D Brown, Donna M MacCallum, Alistair J P Brown
As they proliferate, fungi expose antigens at their cell surface that are potent stimulators of the innate immune response, and yet the commensal fungus Candida albicans is able to colonize immuno competent individuals. We show that C. albicans may evade immune detection by presenting a moving immunological target. We report that the exposure of β-glucan, a key pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) located at the cell surface of C. albicans and other pathogenic Candida species, is modulated in response to changes in the carbon source...
December 12, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900049/toll-like-receptors-and-cutaneous-melanoma
#11
Ilaria Coati, Serena Miotto, Irene Zanetti, Mauro Alaibac
Innate immune cells recognize highly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Previous studies have demonstrated that PRRs also recognize endogenous molecules, termed damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that are derived from damaged cells. PRRs include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), scavenger receptors, C-type lectin receptors and nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptors. To date, 10 TLRs have been identified in humans and each receptor responds to a different ligand...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888386/innate-recognition-of-microbial-derived-signals-in-immunity-and-inflammation
#12
REVIEW
Yue Zhang, Chunli Liang
Microbes generate a vast array of different types of conserved structural components called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which can be recognized by cells of the innate immune system. This recognition of "nonself" signatures occurs through host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), suggesting that microbial-derived signals are good targets for innate immunity to discriminate between self- and nonself. Such PAMP-PRR interactions trigger multiple but distinct downstream signaling cascades, subsequently leading to production of proinflammatory cytokines and interferons that tailor immune responses to particular microbes...
December 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885703/immunological-tolerance-part-i-of-a-report-of-a-workshop-on-foundational-concepts-of-immune-regulation
#13
Colin C Anderson, Peter Bretscher, Alexandre Corthay, Zlatko Dembic, Calliopi Havele, Zoltan A Nagy, Inger Øynebråten
This report, the first of two, arose from a one-week workshop directed at discussing concepts of immune regulation, and focuses on immunological tolerance. We first outline the major ideas we thought sufficiently plausible to provide a context for discussing more controversial issues around tolerance. We then report on our discussion of different experiments that appear paradoxical in terms of the different, contemporary models of CD4 T cell inactivation/activation, and how such observations might be resolved in terms of insights provided by these contemporary models...
November 25, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871901/the-immunomodulation-of-a-maternal-translationally-controlled-tumor-protein-tctp-in-zhikong-scallop-chlamys-farreri
#14
Zhihao Jia, Mengqiang Wang, Feng Yue, Xiudan Wang, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is initially described as a highly conserved protein implicated in cell growth, and it is subsequently confirmed to play important roles in mediating the innate immune response, especially the inflammatory. In the present study, the full-length cDNA sequence of a TCTP from Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri (designed as CfTCTP) was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique based on the expression sequence tag (EST) analysis. It was of 1230 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 543 bp encoding a polypeptide of 180 amino acids...
November 18, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851904/role-of-pathogen-associated-molecular-patterns-pamps-in-immune-responses-to-fungal-infections
#15
Mehdi Taghavi, Alireza Khosravi, Esmaeil Mortaz, Donya Nikaein, Seyyed Shamsadin Athari
Recent years have seen the rise of invasive fungal infections, which are mostly due to the increase in patients. Three major opportunistic fungal species in human are Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans that pose the biggest concern for these immunocompromised patients' mortality. The growing occurrence of opportunistic fungal infections has sparked the interest to understand defense mechanisms against pathogenic fungi. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), as a part of innate immune system, play an important role for recognizing the invading microorganisms and initiating sufficient immune responses...
November 13, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837097/cml8-an-arabidopsis-calmodulin-like-protein-plays-a-role-in-pseudomonas-syringae-plant-immunity
#16
Xiaoyang Zhu, Eugénie Robe, Lucile Jomat, Didier Aldon, Christian Mazars, Jean-Philippe Galaud
Calcium is a universal second messenger involved in various cellular processes including plant development and stress responses. Its conversion into biological responses requires the presence of calcium sensor relays such as calmodulin (CaM) and calmodulin-like (CML) proteins. While the role of CaM is well described, the functions CML proteins remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we show that Arabidopsis CML8 expression is strongly and transiently induced by Pseudomonas syringae, and reverse genetic approaches indicated that the overexpression of CML8 confers on plants a better resistance to pathogenic bacteria compared with wild-type, knock-down and knock-out lines, indicating that CML8 participates as a positive regulator in plant immunity...
November 10, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825479/xopn-t3ss-effector-of-xanthomonas-axonopodis-pv-punicae-localizes-to-the-plasma-membrane-and-modulates-ros-accumulation-events-during-blight-pathogenesis-in-pomegranate
#17
Rishikesh Kumar, Madhvi Soni, Kalyan K Mondal
Bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae (Xap) is a major disease of pomegranate. Xap secretes effector proteins via type III secretion system (T3SS) to suppress pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered plant immunity (PTI). Previously we reported that XopN, a conserved effector of Xap, modulate in planta bacterial growth, and blight disease. In continuation to that here we report the deletion of XopN from Xap caused higher accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including H2O2 and O2(-)...
December 2016: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824278/modulation-of-porcine-intestinal-epitheliocytes-immunetranscriptome-response-by-lactobacillus-jensenii-tl2937
#18
H Kobayashi, L Albarracin, N Sato, P Kanmani, A K M H Kober, W Ikeda-Ohtsubo, Y Suda, T Nochi, H Aso, S Makino, H Kano, S Ohkawara, T Saito, J Villena, H Kitazawa
In order to evaluate probiotic strains applicable for the beneficial immunomodulation of the porcine gut (immunobiotics), we previously developed a porcine intestinal epitheliocyte cell line (PIE cells). Here, transcriptomic studies using PIE cells were performed considering that this information would be valuable for understanding the mechanisms involved in the protective activity of the immunobiotic strain Lactobacillus jensenii TL2937 against intestinal inflammatory damage in pigs. In addition, those studies would provide criteria for selecting biomarkers for the screening of new immunobiotic strains...
November 30, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818661/the-role-of-purine-metabolites-as-damps-in-acute-graft-versus-host-disease
#19
REVIEW
Petya Apostolova, Robert Zeiser
Acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) causes high mortality in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. An early event in the classical pathogenesis of acute GvHD is tissue damage caused by the conditioning treatment or infection that consecutively leads to translocation of bacterial products [pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)] into blood or lymphoid tissue, as well as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), mostly intracellular components that act as pro-inflammatory agents, once they are released into the extracellular space...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816791/porphyromonas-gingivalis-stimulated-macrophage-subsets-exhibit-differential-induction-and-responsiveness-to-interleukin-10
#20
Andrew D Foey, Neama Habil, Khalid Al-Shaghdali, StJohn Crean
OBJECTIVES: Oral mucosal macrophages (Mϕs) determine immune responses; maintaining tolerance whilst retaining the capacity to activate defences against pathogens. Mϕ responses are determined by two distinct subsets; pro-inflammatory M1- and anti-inflammatory/regulatory M2-Mϕs. Tolerance induction is driven by M2 Mϕs, whereas M1-like Mϕs predominate in inflammation, such as that exhibited in chronic Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG) periodontal infection. Mϕ responses can be suppressed to benefit either the host or the pathogen...
January 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
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