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Pathogen associated molecular patterns ( PAMPS )

Tan A Nguyen, Ken C Pang, Seth L Masters
An effective innate immune response relies on the detection of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by various host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that result in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Viruses and bacteria have co-evolved with the immune system and developed multiple strategies to usurp or circumvent host machinery and blunt the innate immune response in infected cells. Recently, it has become apparent that infected or dying cells can transmit PAMPs and host PRR signalling proteins to uninfected bystander cells to thereby bypass pathogen evasion strategies, and potentiate innate immune signalling...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Michelle E Leslie, Sean W Rogers, Antje Heese
Callose deposition within the cell wall is a well-documented plant immune response to pathogenic organisms as well as to pathogen-/microbe- associated molecular patterns (P/MAMPs). However, the molecular mechanisms that modulate pathogen-induced callose deposition are less understood. We reported previously that Arabidopsis plants lacking the vesicle trafficking component DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN 2B (DRP2B) display increased callose deposition in response to the PAMP flg22. Here, we show that increased number of flg22-induced callose deposits in drp2b leaves is fully dependent on the callose synthase POWDERY MILDEW RESISTANT 4 (PMR4)...
October 17, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Bruno Sangiorgi, Rodrigo Alexandre Panepucci
In the last decade, the immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have attracted a lot of attention, due to their potential applicability in the treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a condition frequently associated with opportunistic infections. The present review addresses how Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPS) modulate the immunosuppressive phenotype of human MSCs by signaling through Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Overall, we observed that regardless of the source tissue, human MSCs express TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR9...
2016: Stem Cells International
Lei Li, Yufei Yu, Zhaoyang Zhou, Jian-Min Zhou
Plants are exposed to numerous potential pathogenic microbes. To counter the threat, plants have evolved diverse patternrecognition receptors (PRRs), which are receptor kinases (RKs) and receptor proteins (RPs) specialized to detect conserved pathogen/microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs). Although only a handful of RKs and RPs are known PRRs, they belong to the receptor-like kinase (RLK) and receptor-like protein (RLP) superfamilies that undergo lineagespecific expansion, suggesting that many of these RLKs and RLPs are potential PRRs...
October 12, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
Jiyeon Ko, Qiang Wan, S D N K Bathige, Jehee Lee
Lysozymes are a family of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of bacterial cell wall, acting as antimicrobial effectors of the innate immune system. In the present study, an ortholog of goose-type lysozyme (ShLysG) from the big-belly seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis) was identified and characterized structurally and functionally. The full-length cDNA sequence (1213 bp) of ShLysG is comprised of an open reading frame made up of 552 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 184 amino acid (aa) with a predicted molecular mass of 20 kDa...
October 11, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Cristina Maria de Barros, Emad Ibrahim Wafa, Khanidtha Chitphet, Kawther Ahmed, Sean M Geary, Aliasger K Salem
Immune adjuvants, such as ligands for pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), have been showing promise in boosting immune responses to tumor associated antigens, and delivering these adjuvants as discrete packages is considered advantageous over delivery in soluble form. Here we describe in detail, methods for independently loading a range of adjuvants into polymer-based biodegradable particles. We also describe the means by which to characterize these particles with respect to adjuvant loading and release kinetics as well as in terms of particle size, shape, and zeta-potential...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Masahiro Noshi, Daisuke Mori, Noriaki Tanabe, Takanori Maruta, Shigeru Shigeoka
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in chloroplasts have been proposed to act as signaling molecules for plant immunity through pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as flg22. To elucidate this process, we herein conducted genetic screening of flg22-sensitive mutants from T-DNA insertion lines lacking chloroplastic H2O2-responsive genes. The results obtained showed that knockout mutants lacking a clade IV TGA transcription factor, TGA10, were more sensitive to the flg22 treatment than wild-type plants...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Claire L Feerick, Declan P McKernan
NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are a family of 23 receptors known as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), they are expressed in many cell types and play a key role in the innate immune response. The NLRs are activated by pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) which include structurally conserved molecules present on the surfaces of bacteria. The activation of these NLRs by pathogens results in the downstream activation of signalling kinases and transcription factors, culminating in the transcription of genes coding for pro-inflammatory factors...
October 5, 2016: Immunology
Yuntong Jiao, Weirong Xu, Dong Duan, Yuejin Wang, Peter Nick
Stilbenes are central phytoalexins in Vitis, and induction of the key enzyme stilbene synthase (STS) is pivotal for disease resistance. Here, we address the potential for breeding resistance using an STS allele isolated from Chinese wild grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata (VpSTS) by comparison with its homologue from Vitis vinifera cv. 'Carigane' (VvSTS). Although the coding regions of both alleles are very similar (>99% identity on the amino acid level), the promoter regions are significantly different. By expression in Arabidopsis as a heterologous system, we show that the allele from the wild Chinese grapevine can confer accumulation of stilbenes and resistance against the powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum, whereas the allele from the vinifera cultivar cannot...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
David Pulido, Maria Flor Garcia-Mayoral, Mohammed Moussaoui, Diego Velázquez, Marc Torrent, Marta Bruix, Ester Boix
Acute infection by Gram-negative pathogens can induce an exacerbated immune response that leads to lethal septic shock syndrome. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) molecule that can initiate massive and lethal immune system stimulation. Therefore, the development of new and effective LPS-neutralizing agents is a top priority. The eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is an antimicrobial protein secreted in response to infection, with a remarkable affinity for LPS...
October 3, 2016: FEBS Journal
Yun Zhou, Jianping Pan
Toll like receptors (TLRs) are expressed mainly on innate immunocytes such as dendritic cells and macrophages, and may have the potential to recognize and bind to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) from Candida albicans, thereby triggering the downstream signals. The genetic polymorphism of TLRs is associated with susceptibility to Candida albicans. The activation of TLRs by PAMPs from Candida albicans can induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines that play key roles in the anti-infection of Candida albicans...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
Ying-Chun Yeh, Ting-Yu Wang, Hsin-Yiu Chou, Han-You Lin, Tzong-Yueh Chen, Takashi Aoki, Han-Ching Wang
A novel grouper immune gene, EcVig was identified in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). We recently determined that EcVig expression can be induced by infection with nervous necrosis virus (NNV, an RNA virus), whereas NNV replication may be suppressed when EcVig was overexpressed. Although EcVig appeared to be involved in grouper antiviral activity, its immune effects have not been well characterized. In the present study, two PAMPs (pathogen-associated molecular patterns; lipopolysaccharides [LPS] and synthetic double-stranded RNA polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I:C)]), as well as fish DNA virus (red sea bream iridovirus, RSIV; grouper iridovirus, GIV), were used to study EcVig responses in orange-spotted grouper...
September 22, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Isabel Ferreira, Joana Liberal, João Martins, Ana Silva, Bruno M Neves, Maria Teresa Cruz
An intricate interplay between innate and adaptive immune cells is crucial for an effective immune response during disease, infection and vaccination. This interplay is manly performed by dendritic cells (DCs), which are professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) with unparalleled capacity to translate innate to adaptive immunity. They effectively recognize and uptake antigens, migrate to lymphoid tissues, and activate naïve T-cells. To enable rapid pathogen detection DCs utilize numerous germline encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRR) that recognize conserved pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)...
September 21, 2016: Current Drug Targets
Zhou Yun, Pan Jianping
Toll like receptors (TLRs) are expressed mainly on innate immunocytes such as dendritic cells and macrophages, and may have the potential to recognize and bind to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) from Candida albicans, thereby triggering the downstream signals. The genetic polymorphism of TLRs is associated with susceptibility to Candida albicans. The activation of TLRs by PAMPs from Candida albicans can induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines that play key roles in the anti-infection of Candida albicans...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
Qiu-Ning Liu, Zhao-Zhe Xin, Dai-Zhen Zhang, Sen-Hao Jiang, Xin-Yue Chai, Chao-Feng Li, Chun-Lin Zhou, Bo-Ping Tang
Lysozymes, innate immunity molecules, play a vital role in immune response to pathogens. The yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco (Siluriformes: Bagridae) is an economically important fish in China. The aim of this study was to quantify expression of the P. fulvidraco LysG gene (a g-type lysozyme) in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) challenge. First, the P. fulvidraco LysG gene (PfLysG) was cloned and characterized. The full-length cDNA of PfLysG is 1323 bp, including a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 131 bp, a 3'-UTR of 634 bp, and an open reading frame of 558 bp encoding a polypeptide of 185 amino acids, which contains a transglycosylase SLT domain (Pfam01464)...
September 16, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Arielle Klepper, Francis J Eng, Erin H Doyle, Ahmed El-Shamy, Adeeb H Rahman, M Isabel Fiel, Gonzalo Carrasco Avino, Moonju Lee, Fei Ye, Sasan Roayaie, Meena B Bansal, Margaret R MacDonald, Thomas D Schiano, Andrea D Branch
: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is unique among RNA viruses in its ability to establish chronic infection in the majority of exposed adults. HCV persists in the liver despite interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) induction; robust induction actually predicts treatment failure and viral persistence. It is unclear which forms of HCV RNA are associated with ISG induction and interferon resistance during natural infections. To thoroughly delineate HCV RNA populations, we developed conditions that fully separate the strands of long double-stranded (ds)RNA and allow the released RNAs to be quantified in reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction (qRT/PCR) assays...
September 19, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Perla Villani Borges, Katelim Hottz Moret, Raghavendra Nulgumnalli Manjunathaiah, Thadeu Estevam Maramaldo Costa, Ana Paula Monteiro, Alan Brito Carneiro, Patrícia Pacheco, Jairo Ramos Temerozo, Dumith Chequer Bou-Habib, Maria das Graças Henriques, Carmen Penido
Activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) triggers an innate immune response, via cytokine production and inflammasome activation. Herein, we have investigated the modulatory effect of the natural limonoid gedunin on TLR activation in vitro and in vivo. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) pre- and post-treatments of C57BL/6 mouse with gedunin impaired the influx of mononuclear cells, eosinophils and neutrophils, as well as the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and nitric oxide (NO), triggered by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mouse pleura...
September 15, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Ru Jiang-Ying, Xu Hai-Dong, Shi Dai, Pan Jun-Bo, Pan Xiao-Jin, Wang Yan-Fen
Ulinastatin(UTI), is widely used to clinically treat LPS-related inflammatory disorders recently. <br />Adherent pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs),of which LPS is the best-studied<br /> and classical endotoxin produced by Gram-titanium particles in cell culture and animal models of implant loosening.This study was designed to explore the inhibitory effect of UTI on osteoclas-togenesis and inflammatory osteolysis in LPS/PMMA-mediated Raw 264.7 cells and murine osteolysis models ,and investigate the potential mechanism...
September 16, 2016: Bioscience Reports
Alyssa L Siefert, Allison Ehrlich, María Jesús Corral, Karen Goldsmith-Pestana, Diane McMahon-Pratt, Tarek M Fahmy
Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis (L. (V.) panamensis) is a species of protozoan parasites that causes New World leishmaniasis, which is characterized by a hyper-inflammatory response. Current treatment strategies, mainly chemotherapeutic, are suboptimal due to adverse effects, long treatment regimens, and increasing drug resistance. Recently, immunotherapeutic approaches have shown promise in preclinical studies of leishmaniasis. As NPs may enable broad cellular immunomodulation through internalization in phagocytic and antigen-presenting cells, we tested the therapeutic efficacy of biodegradable NPs encapsulating a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), CpG-rich oligonucleotide (CpG; NP-CpG), in mice infected with L...
November 2016: Biomaterials
Xiaoyu Dong, Baofeng Su, Shun Zhou, Mei Shang, Hao Yan, Fengqiao Liu, Chengbin Gao, Fenghua Tan, Chao Li
Mucosal immune system is one of the most important components in the innate immunity and constitutes the front line of host defense against infection, especially for teleost, which are living in the pathogen-rich aquatic environment. The pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), which can recognize the conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of bacteria, are considered as one of the most important component for pathogen recognition and immune signaling pathways activation in mucosal immunity. In this regard, we sought to identify TLR8 and TLR9 in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), as well as their mucosal expression patterns following different bacterial infection in mucosal tissues for the first time...
September 12, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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