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Pathogen associated molecular patterns ( PAMPS )

Lorena Pizarro, Meirav Leibman-Markus, Silvia Schuster, Maya Bar, Tal Meltz, Adi Avni
Plants recognize microbial/pathogen associated molecular patterns (MAMP/PAMP) through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) triggering an immune response against pathogen progression. MAMP/PAMP triggered immune response requires PRR endocytosis and trafficking for proper deployment. LeEIX2 is a well-known Solanum lycopersicum RLP-PRR, able to recognize and respond to the fungal MAMP/PAMP ethylene-inducing xylanase (EIX), and its function is highly dependent on intracellular trafficking. Identifying protein machinery components regulating LeEIX2 intracellular trafficking is crucial to our understanding of LeEIX2 mediated immune responses...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Mei Zhang, Julian A Kim, Alex Yee-Chen Huang
Immunotherapy is revolutionizing cancer treatment. Recent clinical success with immune checkpoint inhibitors, chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy, and adoptive immune cellular therapies has generated excitement and new hopes for patients and investigators. However, clinically efficacious responses to cancer immunotherapy occur only in a minority of patients. One reason is the tumor microenvironment (TME), which potently inhibits the generation and delivery of optimal antitumor immune responses. As our understanding of TME continues to grow, strategies are being developed to change the TME toward one that augments the emergence of strong antitumor immunity...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Sangily Jayanthi, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Ramachandran Ishwarya, Sivashanmugam Karthikeyan, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Shine Kadaikunnan, Jamal M Khaled, Csaba Vágvölgyi
Prophenoloxidase is a conserved Cu-containing enzyme acting as a major defense molecule in the immune response of crustaceans. In the present research, we purified prophenoloxidase from the haemolymph of Portunus pelagicus (Pp-proPO) by Blue Sepharose CL-6B chromatography. Pp-proPO exhibited only one band with molecular weight of 75 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The purified Pp-proPO was characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Pp-proPO showed phagocytic activity on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as encapsulation on sepharose CL-6B beads associated with CM sepharose and beads of sodium alginate...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Althea Campuzano, Floyd L Wormley
Cryptococcus species, the etiological agents of cryptococcosis, are encapsulated fungal yeasts that predominantly cause disease in immunocompromised individuals, and are responsible for 15% of AIDS-related deaths worldwide. Exposure follows the inhalation of the yeast into the lung alveoli, making it incumbent upon the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of pulmonary phagocytes to recognize highly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) of fungi. The main challenges impeding the ability of pulmonary phagocytes to effectively recognize Cryptococcus include the presence of the yeast's large polysaccharide capsule, as well as other cryptococcal virulence factors that mask fungal PAMPs and help Cryptococcus evade detection and subsequent activation of the immune system...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Weilin Wang, Xiaorui Song, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
Self-nonself discrimination is a common theme for all of the organisms in different evolutionary branches, which is also the most fundamental step for host immune protection. Plenty of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) with great diversity have been identified from different organisms to recognize various pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in the last two decades, depicting a complicated scene of host-pathogen interaction. However, the detailed mechanism of the complicate PAMPs-PRRs interactions at the contacting interface between pathogens and hosts is still not well understood...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Louise Ritchie, Rothwell Tate, Luke H Chamberlain, Graham Robertson, Michele Zagnoni, Teresa Sposito, Selina Wray, John A Wright, Clare E Bryant, Nicholas J Gay, Trevor J Bushell
Toll like receptor 3 (TLR3) belongs to a family of pattern recognition receptors that recognise molecules found on pathogens referred to as pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Its involvement in innate immunity is well known but despite its presence in the central nervous system (CNS), our knowledge of its function is limited. Here, we have investigated whether TLR3 activation modulates synaptic activity in primary hippocampal cultures and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons. Synaptically driven spontaneous action potential (AP) firing was significantly reduced by the TLR3 specific activator, poly I:C, in a concentration-dependent manner following both short (5 min) and long exposures (1h) in rat hippocampal cultures...
March 2, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Kang Li, Bo Zhong
The initiation of cellular antiviral signaling depends on host pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs)-mediated recognition of viral nucleic acids that are known as classical pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). PRRs recruit adaptor proteins and kinases to activate transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers to regulate transcription of hundreds of genes, the products of which collaborate to elicit antiviral responses. In addition, PRRs-triggered signaling induces activation of various inflammasomes which leads to the release of IL-1β and inflammation...
February 2018: Immune Network
Gagandeep Kaur, Prathyusha Bagam, Rakeysha Pinkston, Dhirendra P Singh, Sanjay Batra
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive, life-threatening disease that causes irreversible lung damage. Cigarette smoking is the chief etiologic factor for the commencement of this condition. Despite constant efforts to develop therapeutic interventions and to ascertain the molecular mechanism leading to the pathophysiology of this disease, much remains unknown. However, pattern recognition receptor (PRRs), i.e., Toll-like-receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are believed to play important roles in this disease and could serve as effective therapeutic targets...
February 28, 2018: Toxicology
Lara Ajamian, Luca Melnychuk, Patrick Jean-Pierre, Gerasimos J Zaharatos
Flagellin's potential as a vaccine adjuvant has been increasingly explored over the last three decades. Monomeric flagellin proteins are the only known agonists of Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5). This interaction evokes a pro-inflammatory state that impacts upon both innate and adaptive immunity. While pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) like flagellin have been used as stand-alone adjuvants that are co-delivered with antigen, some investigators have demonstrated a distinct advantage to incorporating antigen epitopes within the structure of flagellin itself...
February 27, 2018: Viruses
Xiaoyuan Wei, Limin Wang, Wanwei Sun, Ming Zhang, Hongyu Ma, Yueling Zhang, Xinxu Zhang, Shengkang Li
As pattern recognition receptors, C-type lectins (CTLs) play important roles in immune system of crustaceans through identifying and binding to the conservative pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on pathogen surfaces. In this study, a new CTL, SpCTL-B, was identified from the hemocytes of mud crab Scylla paramamosain. The full-length of SpCTL-B cDNA was 1278 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 348 bp. The predicted SpCTL-B protein contains a single carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD). SpCTL-B transcripts were distributed in all examined tissues with the highest levels in hepatopancreas...
February 21, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Marybeth Langer, Alanson W Girton, Narcis I Popescu, Tarea Burgett, Jordan P Metcalf, K Mark Coggeshall
Peptidoglycan (PGN), a major component of bacterial cell walls, is a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) that causes innate immune cells to produce inflammatory cytokines that escalate the host response during infection. In order to better understand the role of PGN in infection, we wanted to gain insight into the cellular receptor for PGN. Although the receptor was initially identified as Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), this receptor has remained controversial and other PGN receptors have been reported...
2018: PloS One
Shu Shun Li, Henry Ogbomo, Michael K Mansour, Richard F Xiang, Lian Szabo, Fay Munro, Priyanka Mukherjee, Roy A Mariuzza, Matthias Amrein, Jatin M Vyas, Stephen M Robbins, Christopher H Mody
Natural killer (NK) cells use the activating receptor NKp30 as a microbial pattern-recognition receptor to recognize, activate cytolytic pathways, and directly kill the fungi Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans. However, the fungal pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) that triggers NKp30-mediated killing remains to be identified. Here we show that β-1,3-glucan, a component of the fungal cell wall, binds to NKp30. We further demonstrate that β-1,3-glucan stimulates granule convergence and polarization, as shown by live cell imaging...
February 21, 2018: Nature Communications
Tao Gong, Yanqing Yang, Tengchuan Jin, Wei Jiang, Rongbin Zhou
The assembly of the NLRP3 inflammasome can promote the release of IL-1β/IL-18 and initiate pyroptosis. Accordingly, the dysregulation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation is involved in a variety of human diseases, including gout, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. NLRP3 can sense a variety of structurally unrelated pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) to trigger inflammation, but the unifying mechanism of NLRP3 activation is still poorly understood. Increasing evidence suggests that intracellular ions, such as K + , Ca 2+ , and Cl - , have a significant role in NLRP3 inflammasome activation...
February 13, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Haojie Yan, Yaofei Zhao, Hua Shi, Juan Li, Yingchun Wang, Dingzhong Tang
Arabidopsis immune receptor FLAGELLIN SENSING2 (FLS2) rapidly forms a complex to activate pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) upon perception of the bacterial protein flagellin. The receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase BRASSINOSTEROID-SIGNALINGKINASE1 (BSK1) interacts with FLS2 and is critical for the activation of PTI. However, it is unknown how BSK1 transduces signals to activate downstream immune responses. We identified Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase5 (MAPKKK5) as a potential substrate of BSK1 by whole-genome phosphorylation analysis...
February 12, 2018: Plant Physiology
Gabriela Peron, Livia de Lima Thomaz, Larissa Camargo da Rosa, Rodolfo Thomé, Liana Maria Cardoso Verinaud
Dendritic cells (DCs) are essential players in the activation of T cells and in the development of adaptive immune response towards invading pathogens. Upon antigen (Ag) recognition of Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) by their receptors (PRRs), DCs are activated and acquire an inflammatory profile. DCs have the ability to direct the profile of helper T (Th) cells towards Th1, Th2, Th17, Th9 and regulatory (Treg) cells. Each subset of Th cells presents a unique gene expression signature and is endowed with the ability to conduct or suppress effector cells in inflammation...
February 7, 2018: Immunology Letters
Uwe Rudolf Max Reuter, Ralf Oettmeier, Uwe Hobohm
William Coley, between 1895 and 1936, treated hundreds of cancer patients using infusions of fever inducing bacerial extracts. Similar experiments were done by Klyuyeva and co-workers in the 1940ies in Russia using trypanosoma extracts. Many remissions and cures were reported. We have conjectured that pathogen associated molecular pattern substances (PAMP) are the molecular explanation for the beneficial treatments in both groups. We could show that a combination of PAMP can eradicate solid tumours in cancer mice if applied several times...
February 6, 2018: Translational Oncology
David Angelo V Guanzon, Mary Beth B Maningas
There is a continuing debate on whether an antiviral immunity similar to vertebrate interferon response exists in invertebrates. Recent advances in penaeid immunology identified several new members of the Toll receptor family and one of these is LvToll3 (Litopenaeus vannamei Toll3). It is hypothesized in this study that LvToll3 responds to pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as dsRNA, which then activates certain antiviral pathways in penaeids. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to determine differences in the expression levels of specific genes putatively involved in the antiviral response through qPCR...
February 5, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Waqar Islam, Ali Noman, Muhammad Qasim, Liande Wang
Small RNAs (sRNA) are a significant group of gene expression regulators for multiple biological processes in eukaryotes. In plants, many sRNA silencing pathways produce extensive array of sRNAs with specialized roles. The evidence on record advocates for the functions of sRNAs during plant microbe interactions. Host sRNAs are reckoned as mandatory elements of plant defense. sRNAs involved in plant defense processes via different pathways include both short interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) that actively regulate immunity in response to pathogenic attack via tackling pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and other effectors...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jun Kong, Meisheng Wei, Guifen Li, Rong Lei, Yanhong Qiu, Chenguang Wang, Zhi-Hong Li, Shuifang Zhu
Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) has a small RNA genome that encodes a limited number of proteins, but can infect many plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana. Virus proteins thus have multiple means of conferring their pathogenicity during the infection process. However, the pathogenic mechanism of CMV remains unclear. Here we discovered that the expression of the CMV movement protein (MP) in A. thaliana and N. benthamiana can suppress reactive oxygen species (ROS) production triggered by multiple pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as bacteria-derived peptide flg22, elf18, and fungal-derived chitin...
February 3, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Hideki Mori, Masamoto Murakami, Teruko Tsuda, Kenji Kameda, Ryo Utsunomiya, Kana Masuda, Ken Shiraishi, Xiuju Dai, Mikiko Tohyama, Hiroki Nakaoka, Koji Sayama
BACKGROUND: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein that stabilizes DNA and facilitates gene transcription. Additionally, cell stress or death induces the release of HMGB1 outside the cell membrane, where HMGB1 functions as an alarmin, causing an inflammatory response in combination with other cytokines, damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of reduced-HMGB1 (previously termed chemoattractive-HMGB1) on polyinosine-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)]-induced inflammation in normal human keratinocytes (NHKs)...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Science
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