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Pathogen associated molecular patterns ( PAMPS )

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220433/small-rna-and-mrna-profiling-of-arabidopsis-in-response-to-phytophthora-infection-and-pamp-treatment
#1
Yingnan Hou, Wenbo Ma
Small non-coding RNAs (smRNAs) regulate gene expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Well known for their roles in development, smRNAs have emerged as important regulators of plant immunity. Upon pathogen perception, accumulation of specific smRNAs are found to be altered, presumably as a host defense response. Therefore, identification of differentially accumulated smRNAs and their target genes would provide important insight into the regulation mechanism of immune responses. Here, we describe the detailed experimental procedure using Illumina sequencing to analyze the expression profiles of smRNAs and mRNAs in Arabidopsis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220429/stomatal-bioassay-to-characterize-bacterial-stimulated-pti-at-the-pre-invasion-phase-of-infection
#2
Jeanine Montano, Maeli Melotto
Bacterium-triggered stomatal closure is a functional output of plant immunity, also known as stomatal defense. This is an early response mediated by the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by the plant's pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs). Several approaches to analyzing stomatal movement in response to bacteria have been described, but difficulties in fine-tuning the experimental procedures still exist. Here we provide a detailed method for assessing stomatal defense via high-quality microscopic imaging and explain trouble-shooting steps to obtaining robust data...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220426/measuring-callose-deposition-an-indicator-of-cell-wall-reinforcement-during-bacterial-infection-in-arabidopsis
#3
Lin Jin, David M Mackey
The plant cell wall responds dynamically during interaction with various pathogens. Upon recognition of "nonself" components, plant cells deploy a variety of immune responses including cell wall fortification. Callose, a β-(1, 3)-D-glucan polymer, is a component of the material deposited at the site of infection between the plasma membrane and the preexisting cell wall that is hypothesized to serve as a physical barrier and platform for directed antimicrobial compound deposition. The defense-associated function of callose deposition is supported by its induction during pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and its inhibition by defense suppressing virulence effectors...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220421/analysis-of-pamp-triggered-ros-burst-in-plant-immunity
#4
Yuying Sang, Alberto P Macho
The plant perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns triggers a plethora of cellular immune responses. One of these responses is a rapid and transient burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated by plasma membrane-localized NADPH oxidases. The ROS burst requires a functional receptor complex and the contribution of several additional regulatory components. In laboratory conditions, the ROS burst can be detected a few minutes after the treatment with an immunogenic microbial elicitor. For these reasons, the elicitor-triggered ROS burst has been often exploited as readout to probe the contribution of plant components to early immune responses...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220419/bioinformatics-analysis-of-the-receptor-like-kinase-rlk-superfamily
#5
Otávio J B Brustolini, José Cleydson F Silva, Tetsu Sakamoto, Elizabeth P B Fontes
Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) play key roles during development and in responses to the environment. In plant immunity, some members of RLKs function as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which, upon recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP), are recruited into active complexes to induce pathogen-triggered immunity (PTI). In this chapter, we describe the bioinformatics tools and procedures for the identification and phylogenetic classification of RLKs from different plant species as a framework for understanding RLK function in signal transduction and immunity...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205292/verticillium-dahliae-manipulates-plant-immunity-by-glycoside-hydrolase-12-proteins-in-conjuction-with-carbohydrate-binding-module-1
#6
Yue-Jing Gui, Jie-Yin Chen, Dan-Dan Zhang, Nan-Yang Li, Ting-Gang Li, Wen-Qi Zhang, Xin-Yan Wang, Dylan P G Short, Lei Li, Wei Guo, Zhi-Qiang Kong, Yu-Ming Bao, Krishna V Subbarao, Xiao-Feng Dai
Glycoside hydrolase 12 (GH12) proteins act as virulence factors and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in oomycetes. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of fungal GH12 proteins have not been characterized. In this study, we demonstrated that two of the six GH12 proteins produced by the fungus Verticillium dahliae Vd991, VdEG1 and VdEG3 acted as PAMPs to trigger cell death and PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) independent of their enzymatic activity in Nicotiana benthamiana. A 63-amino-acid peptide of VdEG3 was sufficient for cell death-inducing activity, but this was not the case for the corresponding peptide of VdEG1...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192255/molecular-characterization-of-a-fish-specific-toll-like-receptor-22-tlr22-gene-from-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-l-evolutionary-relationship-and-induced-expression-upon-immune-stimulants
#7
Hua Li, Guiwen Yang, Fei Ma, Ting Li, Huiting Yang, Jan H W M Rombout, Liguo An
In the host innate immune system, various pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize conserved pathogens-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and represent an efficient first line of defense against invading pathogens. TLR22 is one of the fish-specific Toll-like receptors (TLRs), identified in a variety of fish species. In this study, we report the cloning and identification of a TLR22 cDNA from the gills of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The full-length CcTLR22 cDNA was 3301 bp long, including a 32 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), an open reading frame (ORF) of 2838 bp and a 432 bp 3'-UTR...
February 11, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178282/trypanosoma-cruzi-high-mobility-group-b-tchmgb-can-act-as-an-inflammatory-mediator-on-mammalian-cells
#8
Pamela Cribb, Virginia Perdomo, Victoria L Alonso, Romina Manarin, Jorge Barrios-Payán, Brenda Marquina-Castillo, Luis Tavernelli, Rogelio Hernández-Pando
BACKGROUND: High Mobility Group B (HMGB) proteins are nuclear architectural factors involved in chromatin remodeling and important nuclear events. HMGBs also play key roles outside the cell acting as alarmins or Damage-associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs). In response to a danger signal these proteins act as immune mediators in the extracellular milieu. Moreover, these molecules play a central role in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune and both infectious and sterile inflammatory chronic diseases...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165358/extending-immunological-profiling-in-the-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-by-enriched-cdna-library-analysis-microarray-design-and-initial-studies-upon-the-inflammatory-response-to-pamps
#9
Sebastian Boltaña, Barbara Castellana, Giles Goetz, Lluis Tort, Mariana Teles, Victor Mulero, Beatriz Novoa, Antonio Figueras, Frederick W Goetz, Cristian Gallardo-Escarate, Josep V Planas, Simon Mackenzie
This study describes the development and validation of an enriched oligonucleotide-microarray platform for Sparus aurata (SAQ) to provide a platform for transcriptomic studies in this species. A transcriptome database was constructed by assembly of gilthead sea bream sequences derived from public repositories of mRNA together with reads from a large collection of expressed sequence tags (EST) from two extensive targeted cDNA libraries characterizing mRNA transcripts regulated by both bacterial and viral challenge...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163301/homeostasis-altering-molecular-processes-as-mechanisms-of-inflammasome-activation
#10
REVIEW
Adrian Liston, Seth L Masters
The innate immune system uses a distinct set of germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to initiate downstream inflammatory cascades. This recognition system is in stark contrast to the adaptive immune system, which relies on highly variable, randomly generated antigen receptors. A key limitation of the innate immune system's reliance on fixed PRRs is its inflexibility in responding to rapidly evolving pathogens. Recent advances in our understanding of inflammasome activation suggest that the innate immune system also has sophisticated mechanisms for responding to pathogens for which there is no fixed PRR...
February 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158203/silymarin-suppresses-basal-and-stimulus-induced-activation-exhaustion-differentiation-and-inflammatory-markers-in-primary-human-immune-cells
#11
Erica S Lovelace, Nicholas J Maurice, Hannah W Miller, Chloe K Slichter, Robert Harrington, Amalia Magaret, Martin Prlic, Stephen De Rosa, Stephen J Polyak
Silymarin (SM), and its flavonolignan components, alter cellular metabolism and inhibit inflammatory status in human liver and T cell lines. In this study, we hypothesized that SM suppresses both acute and chronic immune activation (CIA), including in the context of HIV infection. SM treatment suppressed the expression of T cell activation and exhaustion markers on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from chronically-infected, HIV-positive subjects. SM also showed a trend towards modifying CD4+ T cell memory subsets from HIV+ subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140444/the-nlrp3-inflammasome-contributes-to-host-protection-during-sporothrix-schenckii-infection
#12
Amanda Costa Gonçalves, Lucas Souza Ferreira, Francine Alessandra Manente, Carolina Maria Quinello Gomes de Faria, Marisa Campos Polesi, Cleverton Roberto de Andrade, Dario Simões Zamboni, Iracilda Zeppone Carlos
Sporotrichosis is a mycosis caused by fungi from the Sporothrix schenckii species complex, whose prototypical member is Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize and respond to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and shape the following adaptive immune response. A family of PRRs most frequently associated with fungal recognition is the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR). After PAMP recognition, NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) binds to apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) and caspase-1 to form the NLRP3 inflammasome...
January 31, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138020/the-type-ii-secretion-system-of-legionella-pneumophila-dampens-the-myd88-and-tlr2-signaling-pathway-in-infected-human-macrophages
#13
Celeste A Mallama, Kessler McCoy-Simandle, Nicholas P Cianciotto
Previously, we reported that mutants of L. pneumophila lacking a type II secretion (T2S) system elicit higher levels of cytokines (e.g., IL-6) following infection of U937 cells, a human macrophage-like cell line. We now show that this effect of T2S is also manifest upon infection of human THP-1 cell macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes but does not occur during infection of murine macrophages. Supporting the hypothesis that T2S acts to dampen the triggering of an innate immune response, we observed that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) pathways are more highly stimulated upon infection with the T2S mutant compared to wild-type...
January 30, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126263/treponema-pallidum-flagellins-elicit-proinflammatory-cytokines-from-human-monocytes-via-tlr5-signaling-pathway
#14
Man Xu, Yafeng Xie, Chuanhao Jiang, Yongjian Xiao, Xingxing Kuang, Yating Wen, Yuan Tan, Manyi Tan, Feijun Zhao, Tiebing Zeng, Yimou Wu
The tissue damage caused by syphilis infection may be associated with inflammation. However, the virulence factors of Treponema pallidum are still unclear, nor are the molecular mechanisms for leading to the productions of proinflammatory cytokines. Flagellin, a classic pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), is a potent immunogen that induces inflammation. In the present study, we have demonstrated that stimulations of human monocytes with Treponema pallidum FlaB1, FlaB2, and FlaB3 result in the up regulation of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8...
January 21, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115287/microbial-recognition-and-danger-signals-in-sepsis-and-trauma
#15
REVIEW
Steven L Raymond, David C Holden, Juan C Mira, Julie A Stortz, Tyler J Loftus, Alicia M Mohr, Lyle L Moldawer, Frederick A Moore, Shawn D Larson, Philip A Efron
Early host recognition of microbial invasion or damaged host tissues provides an effective warning system by which protective immune and inflammatory processes are initiated. Host tissues responsible for continuous sampling of their local environment employ cell surface and cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that provide redundant and overlapping identification of both microbial and host alarmins. Microbial products containing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), as well as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) serve as principle ligands for recognition by these PRRs...
January 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111288/oscerk1-mediated-chitin-perception-and-immune-signaling-requires-receptor-like-cytoplasmic-kinase-185-to-activate-a-mapk-cascade-in-rice
#16
Chao Wang, Gang Wang, Chi Zhang, Pinkuan Zhu, Huiling Dai, Nan Yu, Zuhua He, Ling Xu, Ertao Wang
Conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as chitin, are perceived by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) located at the host cell surface and trigger rapid activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, which is required for plant resistance to pathogens. However, the direct link from PAMP perception to MAPK activation in plants is elusive. Here, we found that the PRR-associated receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase Oryza sativa RLCK185 transmits immune signaling from the PAMP receptor OsCERK1 to a MAPK signaling cascade through interaction with a MAPK kinase kinase, OsMAPKKKε, which is the initial kinase of the MAPK cascade...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108375/the-role-of-pattern-recognition-receptors-in-lung-sarcoidosis
#17
Esmaeil Mortaz, Ian M Adcock, Atefhe Abedini, Arda Kiani, Mehdi Kazempour-Dizaji, Masoud Movassaghi, Johan Garssen
Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disorder of unknown etiology. Infection, genetic factors, autoimmunity and an aberrant innate immune system have been explored as potential causes of sarcoidosis. The etiology of sarcoidosis remains unknown, and it is thought that it might be caused by an infectious agent in a genetically predisposed, susceptible host. Inflammation results from recognition of evolutionarily conserved structures of pathogens (Pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMPs) and/or from reaction to tissue damage associated patterns (DAMPs) through recognition by a limited number of germ line-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)...
January 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095323/pattern-recognitions-receptors-in-immunodeficiency-disorders
#18
Esameil Mortaz, Ian M Adcock, Payam Tabarsi, Ilad Alavi Darazam, Masoud Movassaghi, Johan Garssen, Hamidreza Jamaati, Aliakbar Velayati
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize common microbial or host-derived macromolecules and have important roles in early activation and response of the immune system. Initiation of the innate immune response starts with the recognition of microbial structures called pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Recognition of PAMPs is performed by germline-encoded receptors expressed mainly on immune cells termed pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Several classes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are involved in the pathogenesis of diseases, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), and Nod-like receptors (NLRs)...
January 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093357/are-the-innate-and-adaptive-immune-systems-setting-hypertension-on-fire
#19
REVIEW
Gisele F Bomfim, Fernanda Luciano Rodrigues, Fernando S Carneiro
Hypertension is the most common chronic cardiovascular disease and is associated with several pathological states, being an important cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Low-grade inflammation plays a key role in hypertension and the innate and adaptive immune systems seem to contribute to hypertension development and maintenance. Hypertension is associated with vascular inflammation, increased vascular cytokines levels and infiltration of immune cells in the vasculature, kidneys and heart. However, the mechanisms that trigger inflammation and immune system activation in hypertension are completely unknown...
January 16, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088582/ripk1-protects-hepatocytes-from-kupffer-cells-mediated-tnf-induced-apoptosis-in-mouse-models-of-pamp-induced-hepatitis
#20
Aveline Filliol, Claire Piquet-Pellorce, Céline Raguénès-Nicol, Sarah Dion, Muhammad Farooq, Catherine Lucas-Clerc, Peter Vandenabeele, Mathieu J M Bertrand, Jacques Le Seyec, Michel Samson
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The severity of liver diseases is exacerbated by the death of hepatocytes, which can be induced by the sensing of Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) derived from the gut microbiota. The molecular mechanisms regulating these cell death pathways are poorly documented. In this study, we investigated the role of the Receptor Interacting Protein Kinase 1 (RIPK1), a protein known to regulate cell fate decisions, in the death of hepatocytes using two in vivo models of PAMP-induced hepatitis...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
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