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Pathogen associated molecular patterns ( PAMPS )

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730145/prokaryotic-rna-associated-to-bacterial-viability-induces-polymorphonuclear-neutrophil-activation
#1
Nahuel Rodriguez-Rodrigues, Luis A Castillo, Verónica I Landoni, Daiana Martire-Greco, M Ayelén Milillo, Paula Barrionuevo, Gabriela C Fernández
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are the first cellular line of antibacterial host defense. They sense pathogens through recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by innate pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLR). The aim of this study was to investigate whether PMN sense bacterial viability and explore which viability factor could be involved in this phenomenon. For this purpose, different functions were evaluated in isolated human PMN using live Escherichia coli (Ec) and heat-killed Ec (HK-Ec)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722681/the-role-of-toll-like-receptor-4-in-tumor-microenvironment
#2
REVIEW
Jing Li, Fan Yang, Feng Wei, Xiubao Ren
Tumors are closely related to chronic inflammation, during which there are various changes in inflammatory sites, such as immune cells infiltration, pro-inflammation cytokines production, and interaction between immune cells and tissue cells. Besides, substances, released from both tissue cells attacked by exogenous etiologies, also act on local cells. These changes induce a dynamic and complex microenvironment favorable for tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is the first identified member of the toll-like receptor family that can recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMPs)...
July 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714877/alternative-pre-mrna-splicing-in-mammals-and-teleost-fish-a-effective-strategy-for-the-regulation-of-immune-responses-against-pathogen-infection
#3
REVIEW
Ming Xian Chang, Jie Zhang
Pre-mRNA splicing is the process by which introns are removed and the protein coding elements assembled into mature mRNAs. Alternative pre-mRNA splicing provides an important source of transcriptome and proteome complexity through selectively joining different coding elements to form mRNAs, which encode proteins with similar or distinct functions. In mammals, previous studies have shown the role of alternative splicing in regulating the function of the immune system, especially in the regulation of T-cell activation and function...
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709747/interaction-of-the-innate-immune-system-with-positive-strand-rna-virus-replication-organelles
#4
Enzo Maxim Scutigliani, Marjolein Kikkert
The potential health risks associated with (re-)emerging positive-strand RNA (+RNA) viruses emphasizes the need for understanding host-pathogen interactions for these viruses. The innate immune system forms the first line of defense against pathogenic organisms like these and is responsible for detecting pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Viral RNA is a potent inducer of antiviral innate immune signaling, provoking an antiviral state by directing expression of interferons (IFNs) and pro-inflammatory cytokines...
June 27, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704551/opposing-roles-of-toll-like-receptor-and-cytosolic-dna-sting-signaling-pathways-for-staphylococcus-aureus-cutaneous-host-defense
#5
Philip O Scumpia, Giovanni A Botten, Joshua S Norman, Kindra M Kelly-Scumpia, Roberto Spreafico, Amber R Ruccia, Prabhat K Purbey, Brandon J Thomas, Robert L Modlin, Stephen T Smale
Successful host defense against pathogens requires innate immune recognition of the correct pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) to trigger the appropriate gene program tailored to the pathogen. While many PRR pathways contribute to the innate immune response to specific pathogens, the relative importance of each pathway for the complete transcriptional program elicited has not been examined in detail. Herein, we used RNA-sequencing with wildtype and mutant macrophages to delineate the innate immune pathways contributing to the early transcriptional response to Staphylococcus aureus, a ubiquitous microorganism that can activate a wide variety of PRRs...
July 13, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701066/the-cell-wall-of-the-human-fungal-pathogen-aspergillus-fumigatus-biosynthesis-organization-immune-response-and-virulence
#6
Jean-Paul Latgé, Anne Beauvais, Georgios Chamilos
More than 90% of the cell wall of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus comprises polysaccharides. Biosynthesis of the cell wall polysaccharides is under the control of three types of enzymes: transmembrane synthases, which are anchored to the plasma membrane and use nucleotide sugars as substrates, and cell wall-associated transglycosidases and glycosyl hydrolases, which are responsible for remodeling the de novo synthesized polysaccharides and establishing the three-dimensional structure of the cell wall...
July 12, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699103/expansion-of-pathogen-recognition-specificity-in-plants-using-pattern-recognition-receptors-and-artificially-designed-decoys
#7
REVIEW
Lifan Sun, Jun Qin, Kailun Wang, Jie Zhang
Pathogen/microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs) are recognized by plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) localized on the cell surface to activate immune responses. This PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) confers resistance to a broad range of pathogenic microbes and, therefore, has a great potential for genetically engineering broad-spectrum resistance by transferring PRRs across plant families. Pathogenic effectors secreted by phytopathogens often directly target and inhibit key components of PTI signaling pathways via diverse biochemical mechanisms...
July 10, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696275/a-lectin-receptor-like-kinase-mediates-pattern-triggered-salicylic-acid-signaling
#8
Xuming Luo, Ning Xu, Junkai Huang, Feng Gao, Huasong Zou, Marie Boudsocq, Gitta Laurel Coaker, Jun Liu
Plant surface-localized pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) perceive conserved microbial features, termed pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), resulting in disease resistance. PAMP perception leads to calcium influx, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated by RbohD, accumulation of the defense hormone salicylic acid (SA) and callose deposition. Lectin receptor-like kinases (LecRKs) belong to a specific PRR family and are important players in plant innate immunity...
July 10, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689639/regulation-of-inflammation-by-members-of-the-formyl-peptide-receptor-family
#9
REVIEW
Keqiang Chen, Zhiyao Bao, Wanghua Gong, Peng Tang, Teizo Yoshimura, Ji Ming Wang
Inflammation is associated with a variety of diseases. The hallmark of inflammation is leukocyte infiltration at disease sites in response to pathogen- or damage-associated chemotactic molecular patterns (PAMPs and MAMPs), which are recognized by a superfamily of seven transmembrane, Gi-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) on cell surface. Chemotactic GPCRs are composed of two major subfamilies: the classical GPCRs and chemokine GPCRs. Formyl-peptide receptors (FPRs) belong to the classical chemotactic GPCR subfamily with unique properties that are increasingly appreciated for their expression on diverse host cell types and the capacity to interact with a plethora of chemotactic PAMPs and MAMPs...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674530/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-sensor-ire1%C3%AE-enhances-il-23-expression-by-human-dendritic-cells
#10
Saioa Márquez, José Javier Fernández, Eli Terán-Cabanillas, Carmen Herrero, Sara Alonso, Alicia Azogil, Olimpio Montero, Takao Iwawaki, Juan R Cubillos-Ruiz, Nieves Fernández, Mariano Sánchez Crespo
Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) exposed to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) undergo bioenergetic changes that influence the immune response. We found that stimulation with PAMPs enhanced glycolysis in DCs, whereas oxidative phosphorylation remained unaltered. Glucose starvation and the hexokinase inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) modulated cytokine expression in stimulated DCs. Strikingly, IL23A was markedly induced upon 2-DG treatment, but not during glucose deprivation. Since 2-DG can also rapidly inhibit protein N-glycosylation, we postulated that this compound could induce IL-23 in DCs via activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640974/resistance-to-powdery-mildew8-1-boosts-pattern-triggered-immunity-against-multiple-pathogens-in-arabidopsis-and-rice
#11
Yan Li, Yong Zhang, Qing-Xia Wang, Ting-Ting Wang, Xiao-Long Cao, Zhi-Xue Zhao, Sheng-Li Zhao, Yong-Ju Xu, Zhi-Yuan Xiao, Jin-Lu Li, Jing Fan, Hui Yang, Fu Huang, Shunyuan Xiao, Wen-Ming Wang
The Arabidopsis gene RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW8.1 (RPW8.1) confers resistance to virulent fungal and oomycete pathogens that cause powdery mildew and downy mildew, respectively. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that ectopic expression of RPW8.1 boosts pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) resulting in enhanced resistance against different pathogens in both Arabidopsis and rice. In Arabidopsis, transcriptome analysis revealed that ectopic expression of RPW8.1-YFP constitutively up-regulates expression of many pathogen-associated molecular pattern-(PAMP-) inducible genes...
June 22, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637377/the-candidatus-liberibacter-host-interface-insights-into-pathogenesis-mechanisms-and-disease-control
#12
Nian Wang, Elizabeth A Pierson, João Carlos Setubal, Jin Xu, Julien G Levy, Yunzeng Zhang, Jinyun Li, Luiz Thiberio Rangel, Joaquim Martins
"Candidatus Liberibacter" species are associated with economically devastating diseases of citrus, potato, and many other crops. The importance of these diseases as well as the proliferation of new diseases on a wider host range is likely to increase as the insects vectoring the "Ca. Liberibacter" species expand their territories worldwide. Here, we review the progress on understanding pathogenesis mechanisms of "Ca. Liberibacter" species and the control approaches for diseases they cause. We discuss the Liberibacter virulence traits, including secretion systems, putative effectors, and lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), as well as other important traits likely to contribute to disease development, e...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630093/dendritic-cell-sensing-of-hydrophobic-di-and-triacylated-lipopeptides-self-assembled-within-synthetic-virus-like-particles
#13
Rajni Sharma, Arin Ghasparian, John A Robinson, Kenneth C McCullough
Dendritic cells (DCs) play critical roles in developing immune defenses. One important aspect is interaction with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)/danger-associated molecular patterns, including di- and triacylated lipopeptides. Isolated or synthetic lipopeptides are potent vaccine adjuvants, interacting with cell surface TLR2 heterodimers. In contrast, deep embedment within bacteria cell walls would impair lipopeptide interaction with cell surface TLR2, requiring degradation for PAMP recognition...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617654/function-discovery-and-exploitation-of-plant-pattern-recognition-receptors-for-broad-spectrum-disease-resistance
#14
Freddy Boutrot, Cyril Zipfel
Plants are constantly exposed to would-be pathogens and pests, and thus have a sophisticated immune system to ward off these threats, which otherwise can have devastating ecological and economic consequences on ecosystems and agriculture. Plants employ receptor kinases (RKs) and receptor-like proteins (RLPs) as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to monitor their apoplastic environment and detect non-self and damaged-self patterns as signs of potential danger. Plant PRRs contribute to both basal and non-host resistances, and treatment with pathogen-/microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs) or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) recognized by plant PRRs induces both local and systemic immunity...
June 15, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602683/a-c-type-lectin-nattectin-like-protein-cantc-in-qihe-crucian-carp-carassius-auratus-binding-ability-with-lps-pgn-and-various-bacteria-and-agglutinating-activity-against-bacteria
#15
Li Wang, Jie Zhang, Xianghui Kong, Xianliang Zhao, Chao Pei, Li Li
C-type lectins (CTLs), as the members of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), play the significant roles in innate immunity through binding with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on the surface of microbe. In the present study, a novel CTL, Nattectin-like protein (named as CaNTC), was investigated in Qihe crucian carp Carassius auratus. The full-length cDNA of CaNTC was composed of 776 bp, with a 152 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 492 bp ORF encoding a 163-aa protein, and a 132 bp 3'-UTR with a polyadenylation signal sequence AATAAA and a poly(A) tail...
August 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599247/inflammasomes-the-cardinal-pathology-mediators-are-activated-by-pathogens-allergens-and-mutagens-a-critical-review-with-focus-on-nlrp3
#16
REVIEW
Seema Patel
Inflammation is a pivotal defense system of body. Unfortunately, when homeostasis falters, the same inflammatory mechanism acts as a double-edged sword, and turns offensive, paving the path for a broad array of pathologies. A multi-protein complex termed as inflammasome perceives the PAMPs (pathogen associated molecular patterns) and DAMPs (danger associated molecular patterns), executing immune responses. This activation predominantly encompasses the elaboration of effector cytokines IL-1β, IL-18, and the cysteine proteases (caspase 1 and 11)...
August 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595359/intracellular-ca2-is-important-for-flagellin-triggered-defense-in-arabidopsis-and-involves-inositol-polyphosphate-signaling
#17
Yi Ma, Yichen Zhao, Gerald A Berkowitz
Cytosolic Ca2+ increase is a crucial and early step of plant immunity evoked by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as flagellin (flg). Components responsible for this increase are still not uncovered, although current models of plant immune signaling portray extracellular Ca2+ influx as paramount to flg activation of defense pathways. Work presented here provides new insights into cytosolic Ca2+ increase associated with flg-induced defense responses. We show that extracellular Ca2+ contributes more to immune responses evoked by plant elicitor peptide (Pep3) than that evoked by flg, indicating an intracellular Ca2+ source responsible for immune responses evoked by flg...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588486/potential-of-il-1-il-18-and-inflammasome-inhibition-for-the-treatment-of-inflammatory-skin-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Gabriele Fenini, Emmanuel Contassot, Lars E French
In 2002, intracellular protein complexes known as the inflammasomes were discovered and were shown to have a crucial role in the sensing of intracellular pathogen- and danger-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and DAMPs). Activation of the inflammasomes results in the processing and subsequent secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Several autoinflammatory disorders such as cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes and Familial Mediterranean Fever have been associated with mutations of genes encoding inflammasome components...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588308/a-four-biomarker-blood-signature-discriminates-systemic-inflammation-due-to-viral-infection-versus-other-etiologies
#19
D L Sampson, B A Fox, T D Yager, S Bhide, S Cermelli, L C McHugh, T A Seldon, R A Brandon, E Sullivan, J J Zimmerman, M Noursadeghi, R B Brandon
The innate immune system of humans and other mammals responds to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are conserved across broad classes of infectious agents such as bacteria and viruses. We hypothesized that a blood-based transcriptional signature could be discovered indicating a host systemic response to viral infection. Previous work identified host transcriptional signatures to individual viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytial virus and dengue, but the generality of these signatures across all viral infection types has not been established...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569730/inflammasomes-and-il-1-biology-in-the-pathogenesis-of-allograft-dysfunction
#20
REVIEW
S Samuel Weigt, Vyacheslav Palchevskiy, John A Belperio
Inflammasomes are high-molecular-weight cytosolic complexes that mediate the activation of caspases. There are many inflammasomes, and each is influenced by a unique pattern-recognition receptor response. Two signals are typically involved in the inflammasome pathways. Signal one involves recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as LPS or other colonizing/invading microbes, that interact with TLRs, which induce the downstream production of pro-IL-1β. This is followed by signal two, which involves recognition of PAMPs or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), such as uric acid or ATP, via NLRP3, which leads to caspase-1-dependent cleavage of pro-IL-1β to active IL-1β and pyroptosis...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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