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Pathogen associated molecular patterns ( PAMPS )

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782215/detection-of-a-vita-pamp-stings-cells-into-reticulophagy
#1
Julien Moretti, J Magarian Blander
Phagocytes cope with the threat of living bacteria via detection of vita-PAMPs, a specific class of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that denotes microbial viability and trigger a commensurate innate response. Prokaryotic mRNA and cyclic-di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) serve as vita-PAMPs for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively, and elicit heightened proinflammatory responses not warranted for dead bacteria. The innate sensor TMEM173/STING detects c-di-AMP produced by internalized live Gram-positive bacteria, and quickly mobilizes interdependent pre-formed cell-autonomous responses including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, MTOR inactivation, and reticulophagy...
May 21, 2018: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772494/effects-of-ceftriaxone-induced-intestinal-dysbacteriosis-on-regulatory-t-cells-validated-by-anaphylactic-mice
#2
Xia Luo, Zengfeng Pan, Shuang Luo, Qi Liu, Shaowei Huang, Guanghua Yang, Feifei Nong, Yajun Fu, Xiangliang Deng, Lian Zhou
Both probiotics and pathogens in the human gut express pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and die with the release of endotoxin and bacterial DNA, which can stimulate our immune system and cause immune reaction. However, it's interesting and fascinating to address why the normal intestinal flora will not generate immunological rejection like the pathogen does. By investigating the changes in cells and molecules relevant to immune tolerance in mice with ceftriaxone-induced dysbacteriosis, our study discovered that both the Evenness indexes and Shannon Wiener index of intestinal flora showed a decrease in dysbacteriosis mice...
May 14, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772373/a-novel-c-type-lectin-from-the-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus-ajctl-2-with-preferential-binding-of-d-galactose
#3
Hui Wang, Zhuang Xue, Zhaoqun Liu, Weilin Wang, Feifei Wang, Ying Wang, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
C-type lectins (CTLs) are Ca2+ dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins that share structural homology in their carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs). In the present study, a novel CTL was identified from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (named as AjCTL-2). The deduced amino acid sequence of AjCTL-2 was homologous to CTLs from other animals with the identities ranging from 33% to 40%. It contained a canonical signal peptide at the N-terminus, a low density lipoprotein receptor class A (LDLa), a C1r/C1s/Uegf/bone morphogenetic protein 1 (CUB), and a CRD with two motif Glu-Pro-Asn (EPN) and Trp-Asn-Asp (WND) in Ca2+ binding site 2...
May 14, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769346/porcine-deltacoronavirus-accessory-protein-ns6-antagonizes-ifn-%C3%AE-production-by-interfering-with-the-binding-of-rig-i-mda5-to-double-stranded-rna
#4
Puxian Fang, Liurong Fang, Jie Ren, Yingying Hong, Xiaorong Liu, Yunyang Zhao, Dang Wang, Guiqing Peng, Shaobo Xiao
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) has recently emerged as an enteric pathogen that can cause serious vomiting and diarrhea in suckling piglets. The first outbreak of PDCoV occurred in the United States in 2014 and was followed by reports of PDCoV in South Korea, China, Thailand, Lao people's Democratic Republic, and Vietnam, leading to economic losses for pig farms and posing considerable threat to the swine industry worldwide. Our previous studies have shown that PDCoV encodes three accessory proteins, NS6, NS7, and NS7a, but the functions of these proteins in viral replication, pathogenesis, and immune regulation remain unclear...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766569/differential-roles-of-melatonin-in-plant-host-resistance-and-pathogen-suppression-in-cucurbits
#5
Mihir Kumar Mandal, Haktan Suren, Brian Ward, Arezue Boroujerdi, Chandrasekar Kousik
Since the 1950s, research on the animal neurohormone melatonin, has focused on its multi-regulatory effect on patients suffering from insomnia, cancer, and Alzheimer's. In plants, melatonin plays major role in plant growth and development, and is inducible in response to diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. However, studies on the direct role of melatonin in disease suppression and as a signaling molecule in host-pathogen defense mechanism are lacking. This study provides insight on the predicted biosynthetic pathway of melatonin in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and how application of melatonin, an environmental-friendly immune inducer, can boost plant immunity and suppress pathogen growth where fungicide resistance and lack of genetic resistance are major problems...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760696/podosomes-but-not-the-maturation-status-determine-the-protease-dependent-3d-migration-in-human-dendritic-cells
#6
Céline Cougoule, Claire Lastrucci, Romain Guiet, Rémi Mascarau, Etienne Meunier, Geanncarlo Lugo-Villarino, Olivier Neyrolles, Renaud Poincloux, Isabelle Maridonneau-Parini
Dendritic cells (DC) are professional Antigen-Presenting Cells scattered throughout antigen-exposed tissues and draining lymph nodes, and survey the body for pathogens. Their ability to migrate through tissues, a 3D environment, is essential for an effective immune response. Upon infection, recognition of Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMP) by Toll-like receptors (TLR) triggers DC maturation. Mature DC (mDC) essentially use the protease-independent, ROCK-dependent amoeboid mode in vivo , or in collagen matrices in vitro ...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738808/a-hypervariable-immunoglobulin-superfamily-member-from-crassostrea-gigas-functions-as-pattern-recognition-receptor-with-opsonic-activity
#7
Dongyang Liu, Qilin Yi, Yichen Wu, Guangxia Lu, Changhao Gong, Xiaorui Song, Jiejie Sun, Chen Qu, Conghui Liu, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
Immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), an extensive collection of proteins possessing at least one immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) domain, performs a wide range of functions in recognition, binding or adhesion process of cells. In the present study, a cysteine-rich motif associated immunoglobulin domain containing protein (designated CgCAICP-1) was identified in Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The deduced protein sequence of CgCAICP-1 contained 534 amino acid residues, with three Ig domains which were designated as IG1, IG2 and IG3, and a cysteine-rich motif between the first and second Ig domain...
May 5, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736304/the-contrasting-roles-of-inflammasomes-in-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Qin He, Yu Fu, Dean Tian, Wei Yan
Chronic inflammation plays a decisive role at different stages of cancer development. Inflammasomes are oligomeric protein complexes activated in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). PAMPs and DAMPs are released from infected cells, tumors and damaged tissues. Inflammasomes activate and release inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-18. The various inflammasomes and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines play contrasting roles in cancer development and progression...
2018: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734021/a-novel-peptidoglycan-recognition-protein-involved-in-the-prophenoloxidase-activation-system-and-antimicrobial-peptide-production-in-antheraea-pernyi
#9
Siqi Zhao, Xialu Wang, Siyu Cai, Siqiang Zhang, Hao Luo, Chunfu Wu, Rong Zhang, Jinghai Zhang
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are employed in insects to defend against infectious pathogens by triggering various immune responses. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs), a vital family of PRRs, are widely distributed and highly conserved from vertebrates to invertebrates. To date, five PGRP genes have been identified in Antheraea pernyi, but their biochemical roles still remain unknown. In this study, we focused on the immune functions of PGRP-SA in A. pernyi (ApPGRP-SA), which was confirmed to be immune-related according to its significantly up-regulated expression level post microbial injection...
April 11, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730580/toll-like-receptors-in-immunity-and-inflammatory-diseases-past-present-and-future
#10
REVIEW
Kumar Vijay
The immune system is a very diverse system of the host that evolved during evolution to cope with various pathogens present in the vicinity of environmental surroundings inhabited by multicellular organisms ranging from achordates to chordates (including humans). For example, cells of immune system express various pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that detect danger via recognizing specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and mount a specific immune response. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are one of these PRRs expressed by various immune cells...
May 3, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728859/up-regulation-of-hmgb1-and-tlr4-in-skin-lesions-of-lichen-planus
#11
Gabriel Costa de Carvalho, Fabiana Yasumoto Araujo Hirata, Rosana Domingues, Cristina Adelaide Figueiredo, Mariana Colombini Zaniboni, Naiura Vieira Pereira, Mirian Nacagami Sotto, Valéria Aoki, Alberto José da Silva Duarte, Maria Notomi Sato
Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic, mucocutaneous inflammatory disease of an unknown aetiology. The disease has been associated with certain viruses, and the factors such as DAMPs (damage-associated molecular patterns) and PAMPs (pathogen-associated molecular patterns) may also contribute to the inflammatory response in LP. HMGB1 (high mobility group box 1 protein) is one of the major DAMPs that induces inflammation and could trigger LP disease. The present study was aimed to examine TLR4, RAGE and HMGB1 production in epidermis or dermis by immunohistochemistry and the respective expression of these targets in the skin lesions of patients with LP...
May 4, 2018: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724212/molecular-characterization-and-expression-patterns-of-a-non-mammalian-toll-like-receptor-gene-tlr21-in-larvae-ontogeny-of-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-l-and-upon-immune-stimulation
#12
Hua Li, Ting Li, Yujie Guo, Yujun Li, Yan Zhang, Na Teng, Fumiao Zhang, Guiwen Yang
BACKGROUND: In the host innate immune system, various pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and represent an efficient first line of defense against invading pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a major class of PRRs, which are able to recognize a wide range of PAMPs and play a central role in initiating innate immune responses. TLR21 is one of the non-mammalian TLRs identified in some bird and fish species. RESULTS: In the present study, we reported the cloning and identification of a TLR21 cDNA from the head kidney of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L...
May 3, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706953/conserved-bacterial-binding-peptides-of-the-scavenger-like-human-lymphocyte-receptor-cd6-protect-from-mouse-experimental-sepsis
#13
Mario Martínez-Florensa, Cristina Català, María Velasco-de Andrés, Olga Cañadas, Víctor Fraile-Ágreda, Sergi Casadó-Llombart, Noelia Armiger-Borràs, Marta Consuegra-Fernández, Cristina Casals, Francisco Lozano
Sepsis is an unmet clinical need constituting one of the most important causes of death worldwide, a fact aggravated by the appearance of multidrug resistant strains due to indiscriminate use of antibiotics. Host innate immune receptors involved in pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) recognition represent a source of broad-spectrum therapies alternative or adjunctive to antibiotics. Among the few members of the ancient and highly conserved scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily (SRCR-SF) sharing bacterial-binding properties there is CD6, a lymphocyte-specific surface receptor...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705949/a-network-map-of-il-33-signaling-pathway
#14
Sneha M Pinto, Yashwanth Subbannayya, D A B Rex, Rajesh Raju, Oishi Chatterjee, Jayshree Advani, Aneesha Radhakrishnan, T S Keshava Prasad, Mohan R Wani, Akhilesh Pandey
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines that play a central role in the regulation of immune responses. Its release from epithelial and endothelial cells is mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, cell damage and by recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The activity of IL-33 is mediated by binding to the IL-33 receptor complex (IL-33R) and activation of NF-κB signaling via the classical MyD88/IRAK/TRAF6 module. IL-33 also induces the phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/2, JNK, p38 and PI3K/AKT signaling modules resulting in the production and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686833/natural-products-with-toll-like-receptor-4-antagonist-activity
#15
REVIEW
Monica Molteni, Annalisa Bosi, Carlo Rossetti
Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) are the innate immunity receptors that play an activating role when interacting with molecules released by bacteria and viruses (PAMPs, pathogen-associated molecular patterns) or with molecules released by injured cells and tissues (DAMPs, danger-associated molecular patterns). TLR triggering leads to the induction of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, driving the activation of both innate and adaptive immunity. In particular, Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) has been described to be involved in the inflammatory processes observed in several pathologies (such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, neuropathic pain, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer)...
2018: International Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686176/association-between-arg753gln-and-arg677trp-polymorphisms-of-tlr2-gene-with-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-an-indonesian-population
#16
Arto Yuwono Soeroto, Zulkarnain Dahlan, Cissy B Kartasasmita, Ida Parwati
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptor is a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that recognize pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) in a microorganism. Macrophages recognize the presence of mycobacteria through Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) and signaling further lead to the production of cytokines, both proinflammatory TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, IL-15, IL-18 and IFN-γ, as well as anti-inflammatory IL4, IL-10 and TGF-β. TLR2 gene polymorphism is strongly determined by ethnicity and geography...
January 2018: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678793/characterisation-and-functional-comparison-of-single-crd-and-multidomain-containing-galectins-cggal-2-and-cggal-3-from-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#17
Mengmeng Huang, Tao Zhou, Yuehong Wu, Hui Fei, Gaoyang Wang, Zhi Li, Yutong Lei, Qian Liu, Cong Sun, Zhengbing Lv, Xue-Wei Xu
Galectins are β-galactoside binding lectins that play crucial roles in innate immunity in vertebrates and invertebrates through their conserved carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs). In the present study, single- and four-CRD-containing galectins were identified in oyster Crassostrea gigas (designated CgGal-2 and CgGal-3). The open reading frames (ORFs) of CgGal-2 and CgGal-3 encode polypeptides of 200 and 555 amino acids, respectively. All CRDs of CgGal-3 include two consensus motifs essential for ligand-binding, and a novel motif is present in CgGal-2...
April 17, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677479/rig-i-and-other-rna-sensors-in-antiviral-immunity
#18
Kwan T Chow, Michael Gale, Yueh-Ming Loo
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) survey intra- and extracellular spaces for pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) within microbial products of infection. Recognition and binding to cognate PAMP ligand by specific PRRs initiates signaling cascades that culminate in a coordinated intracellular innate immune response designed to control infection. In particular, our immune system has evolved specialized PRRs to discriminate viral nucleic acid from host. These are critical sensors of viral RNA to trigger innate immunity in the vertebrate host...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669840/arenaviral-nucleoproteins-suppress-pact-induced-augmentation-of-rig-i-function-to-inhibit-type-i-interferon-production
#19
Junjie Shao, Qinfeng Huang, Xiaoying Liu, Da Di, Yuying Liang, Hinh Ly
RIG-I is a major cytoplasmic sensor of viral pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) RNA and induces the production of type I interferon (IFN) upon viral infection. A dsRNA-binding protein PACT plays an important role in potentiating RIG-I function. We have previously shown that arenaviral nucleoproteins (NPs) suppress type I IFN production via its exoribonuclease (RNase) activity to degrade PAMP RNA. We report here that NPs of arenaviruses block PACT-induced enhancement of RIG-I function to mediate type I IFN production and that the inhibition is dependent on the NP's RNase function, which is different than a known mechanism of other viral proteins to disrupt PACT and RIG-I interaction...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660239/the-population-genetic-test-tajima-s-d-identifies-genes-encoding-pathogen-associated-molecular-patterns-and-other-virulence-related-genes-in-ralstonia-solanacearum
#20
Noam Eckshtain-Levi, Alexandra J Weisberg, Boris A Vinatzer
Detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by plant pattern receptors (PRRs) is an essential part of plant immunity. Until recently, elf18, an epitope of elongation factor tu (EF-Tu), was the sole confirmed PAMP of Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt disease, limiting our understanding of R. solanacearum - plant interactions. Therefore, we set out to identify additional R. solanacearum PAMPs based on the hypothesis that genes encoding PAMPs are under selection to avoid recognition by plant PRRs...
April 16, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
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