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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774781/aging-and-lymphocyte-changes-by-immunomodulatory-therapies-impact-pml-risk-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#1
Elizabeth A Mills, Yang Mao-Draayer
New potent immunomodulatory therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) are associated with increased risk for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). It is unclear why a subset of treated patients develops PML, but patient age has emerged as an important risk factor. PML is caused by the JC virus and aging is associated with immune senescence, which increases susceptibility to infection. With the goal of improving PML risk stratification, we here describe the lymphocyte changes that occur with disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) associated with high or moderate risk toward PML in MS patients, how these changes compare to immune aging, and which measures best correlate with risk...
May 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754703/progression-of-a-series-of-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-treated-for-7-years-with-natalizumab-using-the-no-evidence-of-disease-activity-parameter
#2
A Pato Pato, E Costa Arpín, A Rodríguez Regal, I Rodríguez Constenla, I Cimas Hernando, I Muñoz Pousa, L Naya Ríos, J R Lorenzo González, M C Amigo Jorrín, J M Prieto González
INTRODUCTION: The safety and effectiveness of natalizumab in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) has been demonstrated in clinical trials. However, due to the limitations of these trials, it is important to know how the condition behaves under long-term clinical practice conditions. OBJECTIVE: To determine the long-term effectiveness of natalizumab in patients with RRMS by means of annual evaluation of the "no evidence of disease activity" (NEDA) parameter, which includes number of relapses, disability (measured with the Expanded Disability Status Scale), and brain MRI parameters...
May 10, 2018: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725611/fingolimod-associated-pml-with-mild-iris-in-ms-a-clinicopathologic-study
#3
Shuhei Nishiyama, Tatsuro Misu, Yukiko Shishido-Hara, Kazuo Nakamichi, Masayuki Saijo, Yoshiki Takai, Kentarou Takei, Naoki Yamamoto, Hiroshi Kuroda, Ryuta Saito, Mika Watanabe, Teiji Tominaga, Ichiro Nakashima, Kazuo Fujihara, Masashi Aoki
Objective: To clarify the clinical, neuropathologic, and virologic characteristics of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and its immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in a patient with fingolimod-treated MS. Methods: A case study. Results: A 34-year-old patient with MS using fingolimod for 4 years had a gradual progression of right hemiparesis and aphasia with a new subcortical white matter lesion in the precentral gyrus by initial MRI...
January 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724903/natural-history-of-gata2-deficiency-in-a-survey-of-79-french-and-belgian-patients
#4
Jean Donadieu, Marie Lamant, Claire Fieschi, Flore Sicre de Fontbrune, Aurélie Caye, Marie Ouachee, Blandine Beaupain, Jacinta Bustamante, Hélène A Poirel, Bertrand Isidor, Eric Van Den Neste, Antoine Neel, Stanislas Nimubona, Fabienne Toutain, Vincent Barlogis, Nicolas Schleinitz, Thierry Leblanc, Pierre Rohrlich, Felipe Suarez, Dana Ranta, Wahid Abou Chahla, Bénédicte Bruno, Louis Terriou, Sylvie Francois, Bruno Lioure, Guido Ahle, Françoise Bachelerie, Claude Preudhomme, Eric Delabesse, Hélène Cavé, Christine Bellanné-Chantelot, Marlène Pasquet
Heterozygous germline GATA2 mutations strongly predispose to leukaemia, immunodeficiency, and/or lymphoedema. We now describe a series of 79 patients (53 families) diagnosed since 2011, compiling all patients in France and Belgium, with a follow up of 2249 patients/years. Median age at first clinical symptoms was 18.6 years (range, 0-61 years). Severe infectious diseases (mycobacteria, fungus, and human papilloma virus) and haematological malignancies were the most common first manifestations. The probability of remaining symptom-free was 8% at 40 years old...
May 3, 2018: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710623/seasonal-and-spatial-dynamics-of-enteric-viruses-in-wastewater-and-in-riverine-and-estuarine-receiving-waters
#5
Kata Farkas, David M Cooper, James E McDonald, Shelagh K Malham, Alexis de Rougemont, Davey L Jones
Enteric viruses represent a global public health threat and are implicated in numerous foodborne and waterborne disease outbreaks. Nonetheless, relatively little is known of their fate and stability in the environment. In this study we used carefully validated methods to monitor enteric viruses, namely adenovirus (AdV), JC polyomavirus (JCV), noroviruses (NoVs), sapovirus (SaV) and hepatitis A and E viruses (HAV and HEV) from wastewater source to beaches and shellfish beds. Wastewater influent and effluent, surface water, sediment and shellfish samples were collected in the Conwy catchment (North Wales, UK) once a month for one year...
April 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710027/-two-patients-with-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-with-immune-response-against-jc-virus-showing-good-long-term-outcome-by-combination-therapy-of-mefloquine-mirtazapine-and-risperidone
#6
Yumi Akagawa, Akihiro Ueno, Junji Ikeda, Wataru Ishii, Yukiko Shishido-Hara, Yoshiki Sekijima
Patient 1 was a 59-year-old woman receiving prednisolone for idiopathic hypereosinophilia. Brain MRI of patient 1 disclosed slight gadolinium enhancement at lesions, indicating inflammation. Patient 2 was a 32-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus under immunosuppressive therapy. Brain biopsy of patient 2 showed balanced infiltration of CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes at the sites of lesions. Both subjects were diagnosed as having progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) shortly after the onset of neurological symptoms and were treated with a combination of mefloquine, mirtazapine, and risperidone...
April 28, 2018: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709947/a-punctate-magnetic-resonance-imaging-pattern-in-a-patient-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-is-an-early-sign-of-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-a-clinicopathological-study
#7
Junko Ishii, Yukiko Shishido-Hara, Michi Kawamoto, Satoru Fujiwara, Yukihiro Imai, Kazuo Nakamichi, Nobuo Kohara
A 37-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) presented with gait disturbance and cognitive dysfunction. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed small, punctate, T2-/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery-hyperintense and T1-hypointense lesions without gadolinium enhancement, which is atypical for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). On a pathological examination of biopsied brain tissues, JC virus-infected cells were hardly detected via immunohistochemistry but were certainly detected via in situ hybridization, conclusively verifying the PML diagnosis...
April 27, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682547/jc-virus-dna-detection-is-associated-with-cd8-effector-accumulation-in-peripheral-blood-of-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-under-natalizumab-treatment-independently-from-jc-virus-serostatus
#8
Maria A Zingaropoli, Marco Iannetta, Simona Pontecorvo, Elena Anzivino, Carla Prezioso, Donatella Maria Rodio, Manuela Morreale, Alessandra D'Abramo, Alessandra Oliva, Miriam Lichtner, Antonio Cortese, Marco Frontoni, Valeria Pietropaolo, Ada Francia, Claudio M Mastroianni, Vincenzo Vullo, Maria R Ciardi
Although natalizumab (anti- α 4 integrin) represents an effective therapy for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), it is associated with an increased risk of developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), caused by the polyomavirus JC (JCV). The aim of this study was to explore natalizumab-induced phenotypic changes in peripheral blood T-lymphocytes and their relationship with JCV reactivation. Forty-four patients affected by RRMS were enrolled. Blood and urine samples were classified according to natalizumab infusion number: 0 ( N 0), 1-12 ( N 12), 13-24 ( N 24), 25-36 ( N 36), and over 36 ( N > 36) infusions...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668077/jc-and-bk-virus-dna-detection-in-archival-slides-of-urine-cytospin-from-renal-transplant-patients
#9
Patricia Assis, Carlos Eduardo Carvalho, Marcelo Soares Silva, Bruna Ribeiro, Maria da Gloria Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Although identifying cytological viral inclusions (decoy cells) in the urine is relatively easy, distinguishing between Polyomaviruses BKV and JCV is not possible. Few studies have been published regarding JCV detection in kidney transplant recipients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of BKV and JCV DNA in archival slides of urine cytospin material from renal transplant patients. METHODS: A total of 44 urine specimens were evaluated cytologically for the presence of viral inclusions (decoy cells) and by nested polymerase chain reaction to differentiate between JCV and BKV in DNA isolated from archival slides of urine cytospin material...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661457/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-following-combined-rituximab-based-immune-chemotherapy-for-post-transplant-lymphoproliferative-disorder-in-a-renal-transplant-recipient-a-case-report
#10
M Windpessl, S Burgstaller, A Kronbichler, H Pieringer, O Kalev, A Karrer, M Wallner, J Thaler
BACKGROUND: Transplant recipients are at risk of developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), an opportunistic infection due to reactivation of JC virus. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) represent a common malignancy in this population, and antiCD20-therapy has become an established component of its treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the first case of a renal allograft transplant recipient with PTLD who received rituximab-based immune-chemotherapy and developed PML shortly thereafter...
April 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661424/intravenous-immunoglobulin-and-rituximab-in-hla-highly-sensitized-kidney-transplant-recipients
#11
S Querido, A Weigert, T Adragão, J Henriques, R Birne, P Matias, C Jorge, C Nascimento, M Bruges, D Machado
INTRODUCTION: HLA-sensitized patients are penalized both in the access to kidney transplantation (KT) and, once transplanted, in the incidence of rejections and long-term allograft survival despite aggressive induction and maintenance therapy. METHODS: This study retrospectively evaluates the impact of combining T- and B-cell-depleting agents and intravenous immunoglobulin for induction therapy in 45 highly sensitized KT patients (anti-panel reactive antibodies >60%, positive flow cytometry crossmatch or donor specific antibodies at the time of transplantation)...
April 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656742/pathogenesis-of-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-and-risks-associated-with-treatments-for-multiple-sclerosis-a-decade-of-lessons-learned
#12
REVIEW
Eugene O Major, Tarek A Yousry, David B Clifford
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare, devastating demyelinating disease of the CNS caused by the JC virus (JCV) that occurs in patients with compromised immune systems. Detection of PML in systemically immunocompetent patients with multiple sclerosis treated with natalizumab points to a role for this drug in the pathophysiology of PML. Emerging knowledge of the cellular and molecular biology of JCV infection and the pathogenesis of PML-including interplay of this common virus with the human immune system and features of natalizumab that might contribute to PML pathogenesis-provides new opportunities to monitor viral status and predict risk of JCV-associated disease...
May 2018: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643238/jc-polyomavirus-let-s-please-respect-privacy
#13
Michael J Imperiale
JC polyomavirus was discovered in 1971, and its name was derived from the initials of the individual from whose brain tissue it was isolated. While most scientists refer to the virus properly, i.e., calling it JCV or JCPyV, there is a small but palpable number of scientists who refer to the virus by the full name of the patient from whom it was isolated. This practice should stop.
April 11, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642411/presence-of-human-enteric-viruses-protozoa-and-indicators-of-pathogens-in-the-bagmati-river-nepal
#14
Sarmila Tandukar, Jeevan B Sherchand, Dinesh Bhandari, Samendra P Sherchan, Bikash Malla, Rajani Ghaju Shrestha, Eiji Haramoto
Quantification of waterborne pathogens in water sources is essential for alerting the community about health hazards. This study determined the presence of human enteric viruses and protozoa in the Bagmati River, Nepal, and detected fecal indicator bacteria (total coliforms, Escherichia coli , and Enterococcus spp.), human-fecal markers (human Bacteroidales and JC and BK polyomaviruses), and index viruses (tobacco mosaic virus and pepper mild mottle virus). During a one-year period between October 2015 and September 2016, a total of 18 surface water samples were collected periodically from three sites along the river...
April 6, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560855/integrating-hepatitis-b-hepatitis-c-and-hiv-screening-into-tuberculosis-entry-screening-for-migrants-in-the-netherlands-2013-to-2015
#15
Janneke P Bil, Peter Ag Schrooders, Maria Prins, Peter M Kouw, Judith He Klomp, Maarten Scholing, Lutje Phm Huijbregts, Gerard Jb Sonder, Toos Chfm Waegemaekers, Henry Jc de Vries, Wieneke Meijer, Freke R Zuure, Alma Tostmann
We evaluated uptake and diagnostic outcomes of voluntary hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) screening offered during routine tuberculosis entry screening to migrants in Gelderland and Amsterdam, the Netherlands, between 2013 and 2015. In Amsterdam, HIV screening was also offered. Overall, 54% (461/859) accepted screening. Prevalence of chronic HBV infection (HBsAg-positive) and HCV exposure (anti-HCV-positive) in Gelderland was 4.48% (9/201; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.37-8.29) and 0.99% (2/203; 95% CI: 0...
March 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532061/association-of-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-lesion-volume-with-jc-virus-polymerase-chain-reaction-results-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-natalizumab-treated-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Martijn T Wijburg, Iris Kleerekooper, Birgit I Lissenberg-Witte, Marlieke de Vos, Clemens Warnke, Bernard M J Uitdehaag, Frederik Barkhof, Joep Killestein, Mike P Wattjes
Importance: The JC virus (JCV) was named after the first patient to be described with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), John Cunningham. Detection of JC virus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and of specific lesions by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are both considered essential for the diagnosis of natalizumab-associated PML (NTZ-PML) in patients with multiple sclerosis. However, strict pharmacovigilance by MRI can result in detection of patients with small lesions and undetectable JCV DNA in CSF...
March 12, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532060/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-lesions-and-jc-virus-the-limits-and-value-of-imaging
#17
Eugene O Major
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512846/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Cai Yuan, Candace Deberardinis, Rushang Patel, Seema M Shroff, Steven A Messina, Steven Goldstein, Shahram Mori
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare, yet typically fatal complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. It is caused by reactivation of the John Cunningham (JC) virus in an immunocompromised host. This report describes an unfortunate case of PML in a recipient of an allogeneic stem cell transplant for acute myelogenous leukemia. The JC virus was undetectable in the patient's cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction (PCR); however, a positive diagnosis was made after a brain biopsy...
March 7, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472141/t-cell-deficiencies-as-a-common-risk-factor-for-drug-associated-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#19
REVIEW
Dejan Pavlovic, Mayur A Patel, Andriani C Patera, Ilse Peterson
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a disease of the central nervous system caused by neuropathogenic prototypes of ubiquitous community-acquired JC virus (JCV). The disease became of particular concern following its association with certain therapies that modulate immune system function without heavy immunosuppression. Due to lack of prophylactic/treatment options and poor outcomes, which often include severe disability or death, PML is a considerable concern for development of new drugs that interfere with immune system functions...
June 2018: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460539/human-polyomavirus-in-tonsillar-microbiota-of-an-afghan-population-group
#20
F Ruggiero, D Carbone, R Mugavero, A Palmieri, D Lauritano, L Baggi, M Nardone, M Martinelli, F Carinci
Some studies have evidenced the role of human polyomaviruses in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. BK, JC and SV40 human polyoma viruses are widely recognized as etiological agents associated with malignancies. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of BK, IC and SV40 in tonsillar microbiota in a group of Afghan volunteers. A sample of the tonsillar microbiota was taken from a single site using a sterile oral swab paper stick. A fixed volume of purified DNA from each sample was tested by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions to evaluate the number of human cells and the number of viral genomes in each sample...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
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