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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142146/inflammatory-natalizumab-associated-pml-baseline-characteristics-lesion-evolution-and-relation-with-pml-iris
#1
Mike P Wattjes, Martijn T Wijburg, Jeroen van Eijk, Stephan Frequin, Bernard M J Uitdehaag, Frederik Barkhof, Clemens Warnke, Joep Killestein
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (NTZ-PML) patients may show imaging signs suggestive of inflammation at diagnosis ('inflammatory PML'), reminiscent of PML-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (PML-IRIS). We investigated the imaging characteristics of inflammatory NTZ-PML lesions and PML-IRIS to determine differentiating and overlapping features. METHODS: We scored the presence, localisation and pattern of imaging characteristics of inflammation on brain MRI scans of inflammatory NTZ-PML patients...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139004/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-in-the-absence-of-immunosuppression
#2
Benjamin E Zucker, Sybil R L Stacpoole
A 69-year-old woman presented with a cortical hand syndrome progressing over several weeks. MRI brain showed characteristic appearances of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), confirmed by detection of the JC virus in CSF, despite the absence of any evidence of immunosuppression. Treatment with mirtazapine, mefloquine and cidofovir did not affect the progression of the disease, which was fatal within 7 months of presentation. This report adds to the small case literature that suggests that PML can occur in immunocompetent people, albeit extremely rarely...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120025/prevention-and-therapy-of-jc-polyomavirus-mediated-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-a-realistic-possibility
#3
Ivan Jelcic, Benoit Combaluzier, Ilijas Jelcic, Mireia Sospedra, Jan Grimm, Roland Martin
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a serious opportunistic infection of the brain caused by the JC polyomavirus (JCPyV). PML occurs when immune control of persistent infection with JCPyV fails, the virus mutates and changes its cellular tropism, enters the brain and infects astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and, in particular cases, also neurones. Currently, there is no therapy for this often fatal disease. A number of approaches have failed, and only the restoration of protective immunity, if possible, can lead to clearance of the virus once PML has occurred...
November 9, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108696/metagenomics-for-the-study-of-viruses-in-urban-sewage-as-a-tool-for-public-health-surveillance
#4
X Fernandez-Cassi, N Timoneda, S Martínez-Puchol, M Rusiñol, J Rodriguez-Manzano, N Figuerola, S Bofill-Mas, J F Abril, R Girones
The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques for the identification of viruses present in urban sewage has not been fully explored. This is partially due to a lack of reliable and sensitive protocols for studying viral diversity and to the highly complex analysis required for NGS data processing. One important step towards this goal is finding methods that can efficiently concentrate viruses from sewage samples. Here the application of a virus concentration method based on skimmed milk organic flocculation (SMF) using 10L of sewage collected in different seasons enabled the detection of many viruses...
November 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098656/virological-quality-of-irrigation-water-sources-and-pepper-mild-mottle-virus-and-tobacco-mosaic-virus-as-index-of-pathogenic-virus-contamination-level
#5
Sadhana Shrestha, Shankar Shrestha, Junko Shindo, Jeevan B Sherchand, Eiji Haramoto
Irrigation water is a doorway for the pathogen contamination of fresh produce. We quantified pathogenic viruses [human adenoviruses, noroviruses of genogroups I and II, group A rotaviruses, Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1), enteroviruses (EnVs), and salivirus (SaliV)] and examined potential index viruses [JC and BK polyomaviruses (JCPyVs and BKPyVs), pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)] in irrigation water sources in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. River, sewage, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, pond, canal, and groundwater samples were collected in September 2014, and in April and August 2015...
November 2, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068484/the-clinical-utility-of-jc-virus-antibody-index-measurements-in-the-context-of-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#6
REVIEW
A Q Reuwer, M Heron, D van der Dussen, T Schneider-Hohendorf, J L Murk
In natalizumab-treated patients without previous immunosuppressive treatment, the JCV antibody index is used to stratify PML risk. A high index value indicates that the risk to develop PML is significantly elevated, although probably about 99% of patients with this index value will not develop PML. This minireview aimed to provide an overview of the basic virology and immunology relevant to understanding JCV infections in MS patients, with a focus on what is presently known about antibodies to JCV and how they could be of use to predict and diagnose PML...
November 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067097/highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-a-virus-h5n1-non-structural-protein-1-is-associated-with-apoptotic-activation-of-the-intrinsic-mitochondrial-pathway
#7
Qian Bian, Jing Lu, Li Zhang, Ying Chi, Yan Li, Hongxiong Guo
Outbreaks of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection have significant health and economic consequences. Non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is an essential virulence factor of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus and of the apoptosis associated with the pathogenesis of H5N1. Previous studies have revealed that the NS1 protein is able to induce apoptosis via an extrinsic pathway. However, it remains unclear whether the intrinsic pathway is also associated with this apoptosis. The present study used a clone of the NS1 gene from avian influenza A/Jiangsu/1/2007 and observed the localization of the NS1 protein and cytochrome c release from mitochondria and the change of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in lung cancer cells...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064575/dna-detection-of-jc-and-bk-virus-in-archival-urine-cytospin-slides
#8
Patricia Gioia de Assis, Carlos Eduardo de Souza Carvalho, Marcelo Soares da Mota E Silva, Maria da Gloria da Costa Carvalho
INTRODUCTION: To identify decoy cells, cytological examination was performed in urine cytospin slides. Decoy cells are related to Polyomaviruses (JC virus [JCV] and BK virus [BKV]), which are recognized worldwide due to potential infection and morbidity in kidney transplantrecipients. Cytologically, it is difficult to evaluate the cytopathic effect of JC and BK virus in urine of patients with urothelial neoplasia. For this reason, there is a need for molecular approaches. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of BKV and JCV DNA in archival slides of urine cytospin material with benign and malignant characteristics...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055444/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-pml-iris-in-liver-transplant-recipient
#9
J Avsenik, A Horvat Ledinek, K Šurlan Popovič
65-year-old liver transplant recipient presented with progressive neurologic dysfunction. CSF analysis revealed high JC virus load and MRI findings suggested the diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Cidofovir and mirtazapine were initiated and patient's regular immunosuppressants were reduced. Subsequently patient developed left sided hemiplegia, drowsiness and severe neglect syndrome. MRI revealed enlargement of PML lesions with contrast enhancement and worsening of oedema, consistent with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS)...
October 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044559/discovery-and-characterization-of-novel-trans-spliced-products-of-human-polyoma-jc-virus-late-transcripts-from-pml-patients
#10
A Sami Saribas, Julia DeVoto, Akhil Golla, Hassen S Wollebo, Martyn K White, Mahmut Safak
Although the human neurotropic polyomavirus, JC virus (JCV), was isolated almost a half century ago, understanding the molecular mechanisms governing its biology remains highly elusive. JCV infects oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) and causes a fatal brain disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in immunocompromised individuals including AIDS. It has a small circular DNA genome (∼ 5 kb) and generates two primary transcripts from its early and late coding regions, producing several predicted alternatively spliced products mainly by cis-splicing...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034436/natalizumab-therapy-is-associated-with-changes-in-serum-jc-virus-antibody-indices-over-time
#11
John Peters, Eric Williamson
To examine changes in anti-JC Virus (JCV) index measurements over time in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients to better understand this test, which is used in assessing risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) with natalizumab. We aim to describe and compare seroconversion rates, variability of JCV antibody index values, and changes in index values over time between patients on natalizumab therapy and patients naïve to natalizumab. Anti-JCV index values are used to help decide whether to start, continue, or stop treatment...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991708/post-cart-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-era-in-a-brazilian-center
#12
Marco A Lima, Marcus Tulius T Silva, Livia A Afonso, Beatriz J P Vaz
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is lytic infection of oligodendrocytes caused by JC virus (JCV). While PML incidence in developing countries has decreased after the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), data in developing countries is scarce and limited to few cohorts. We described the epidemiological and clinical profile of a group of Brazilian HIV infected patients with PML in the cART era. A total of 27 patients were included in the study. The median age at PML onset was 42years (range: 27-67years) and 18 (66...
October 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989857/jc-polyomavirus-attachment-and-entry-potential-sites-for-pml-therapeutics
#13
Colleen L Mayberry, Christian D S Nelson, Melissa S Maginnis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) is a significant human pathogen that causes an asymptomatic infection in the kidney in the majority of the population. In immunosuppressed individuals, the virus can become reactivated and spread to the brain, causing the fatal, demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). There are currently limited treatment options for this fatal disease. Attachment to receptors and entry into host cells are the initiating events in JCPyV infection and therefore an attractive target for therapeutics to prevent or treat PML...
September 2017: Current Clinical Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933173/-cytomegalovirus-and-polyomavirus-infection-after-renal-transplantation
#14
Jana Machová, Tomáš Reischig
Viral infections are among the most common infectious complications affecting transplant recipients. Due to immunosuppressive therapy predominantly affecting cellular immunity and thus successfully reducing the incidence of acute rejection, there is a higher incidence of viral infections. Herpesviruses and polyomaviruses are ubiquitous pathogens which have the ability to persist in a state of latent infection. In addition to post-transplant reactivation, donor-induced primoinfection can also occur, leading to increased morbidity and contributing to decreased survival of patients...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927823/t-cell-therapies-for-human-polyomavirus-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Sarah I Davies, Pawel Muranski
Rapid restoration of virus-specific T immunity via adoptive transfer of ex vivo generated T cells has been proven as a powerful therapy for patients with advanced cancers and refractory viral infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). BK virus (BKV), John Cunningham virus (JCV), and Merkel cell carcinoma virus (MCV) are the members of the rapidly growing human polyomavirus (hPyV) family that commonly infects most healthy humans. These viruses have a clearly established potential for causing severe end-organ damage or malignant transformation, especially in individuals with weakened immunity who are unable to mount or regain endogenous T-cell responses as a result of underlying leukemia or iatrogenic immunosuppression in autoimmunity, bone marrow and solid organ transplant settings...
September 15, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913726/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-associated-with-multiple-sclerosis-therapies
#16
REVIEW
Eric M L Williamson, Joseph R Berger
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare, but serious, complication encountered in patients treated with a select number of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) utilized in treating multiple sclerosis (MS). PML results from a viral infection in the brain for which the only demonstrated effective therapy is restoring the perturbed immune system-typically achieved in the patient with MS by removing the offending therapeutic agent or, in the case of HIV-associated PML, treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapies...
September 14, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912987/cerebellar-involvement-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-presenting-with-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#17
Rafael Garcia-Carretero, Blanca San Jose Montano
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease caused by the JC virus, a polyomavirus that can be reactivated under certain immunosuppressive conditions, such as AIDS, immunomodulatory therapy, and haematological malignancies. However, a few cases of immunocompetent patients have been reported in which no immunodeficiency was present. We describe the case of an 83-year-old immunocompetent man who presented with severe cerebellar symptoms with an MRI scan suggestive of severe demyelinating disease...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912770/infectious-agents-as-markers-of-human-migration-toward-the-amazon-region-of-brazil
#18
REVIEW
Ricardo Ishak, Luiz F A Machado, Izaura Cayres-Vallinoto, Marluísa de O Guimarães Ishak, Antonio C R Vallinoto
Infectious agents are common companions of humans and since ancient times they follow human migration on their search for a better place to live. The study of paleomicrobiology was significantly improved in its accuracy of measurement with the constant development of better methods to detect and analyze nucleic acids. Human tissues are constantly used to trace ancient infections and the association of anthropological evidences are important to confirm the microbiological information. Infectious agents which establish human persistent infections are particularly useful to trace human migrations...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900866/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-11%C3%A2-years-after-liver-transplantation-a-case-report
#19
Ana Moreno-Estébanez, Javier Almeida Velasco, Tomás Pérez-Concha, Tirso González-Pinto, Iñigo Gabilondo
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is an opportunistic infection of the central nervous system caused by JC virus. Only ten cases of PML have been reported so far in liver transplant recipients. We present a case of liver posttransplantation PML with characteristic clinical and brain MRI findings, but with an atypical late onset, developed 11 years after transplantation and after single-drug, long-term (8 years), and low-dose (750 mg twice a day) immunosuppression with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884263/efficient-propagation-of-archetype-jc-polyomavirus-in-cos-7-cells-evaluation-of-rearrangements-within-the-nccr-structural-organization-after-transfection
#20
Carla Prezioso, Daniela Scribano, Anna Bellizzi, Elena Anzivino, Donatella Maria Rodio, Maria Trancassini, Anna Teresa Palamara, Valeria Pietropaolo
John Cunningham virus (JCPyV) is an ubiquitous human pathogen that causes disease in immunocompromised patients. The JCPyV genome is composed of an early region and a late region, which are physically separated by the non-coding control region (NCCR). The DNA sequence of the NCCR distinguishes two forms of JCPyV, the designated archetype and the prototype, which resulted from a rearrangement of the archetype sequence. To date, the cell culture systems for propagating JCPyV archetype have been very limited in their availability and robustness...
December 2017: Archives of Virology
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