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JC Virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723708/subclinical-herpesvirus-shedding-among-hiv-1-infected-men-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#1
Arcadio Agudelo-Hernandez, Yue Chen, Arlene Bullotta, William G Buchanan, Cynthia R Klamar-Blain, Luann Borowski, Sharon A Riddler, Charles R Rinaldo, Bernard Jc Macatangay
DESIGN: We evaluated the subclinical shedding of 6 different herpesviruses in antiretroviral drug-treated HIV(+) men who have sex with men (MSM), and determined how this is associated with markers of inflammation and immune activation. METHODS: We obtained blood, semen, throat washing, urine, and stool from 15 antiretroviral-treated HIV-1-infected MSM with CD4 T cell reconstitution, and 12 age-matched HIV(-) MSM from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study at 4 timepoints over 24 weeks to measure DNA levels of cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6), and HHV8...
July 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722139/structure-based-release-analysis-of-the-jc-virus-agnoprotein-regions-a-role-for-the-hydrophilic-surface-of-the-major-alpha-helix-domain-in-release
#2
A Sami Saribas, Martyn K White, Mahmut Safak
Agnoprotein (Agno) is an important regulatory protein of JC virus (JCV), BK virus (BKV) and simian virus 40 (SV40) and these viruses are unable to replicate efficiently in the absence of this protein. Recent 3D-NMR structural data revealed that Agno contains two alpha-helices (a minor and a major) while the rest of the protein adopts an unstructured conformation (Coric et al., 2017, J Cell Biochem). Previously, release of the JCV Agno from the Agno-positive cells was reported. Here, we have further mapped the regions of Agno responsible for its release by a structure-based systematic mutagenesis approach...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702160/bk-virus-associated-hemorrhagic-cystitis-in-patients-with-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-report-of-three-cases
#3
Duygu Mert, Hikmetullah Batgi, Alparslan Merdin, Sabahat Çeken, Mehmet Sinan Dal, Emre Tekgündüz, Fevzi Altuntaş, Mustafa Ertek
BK viras is a human polyoma viras. It is acquired in early childhood and remains life-long latent in the genitourinary system. BK virus replication is more common in receiving immunosuppressive therapy receiving patients and transplant patients. BK virus could cause hemorrhagic cystitis in patients with allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Hemorrhagic cystitis is a serious complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Hemorrhagic cystitis could cause morbidity and long stay in the hospital. Diagnosis is more frequently determined by the presence of BK virus DNA detected with quantitative or real-time PCR testing in serum or plasma and less often in urine...
June 1, 2017: Hematology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681343/detectable-cerebrospinal-fluid-jcv-dna-in-late-presenting-hiv-positive-patients-beyond-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#4
S Mornese Pinna, E Scarvaglieri, M G Milia, D Imperiale, V Ghisetti, S Audagnotto, A Prochet, F Lipani, S Bonora, G Di Perri, A Calcagno
In the absence of effective prophylaxis and treatment, therapeutic options in HIV-positive patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) are limited to antiretroviral therapy: nevertheless, outcome is poor. We conducted a retrospective study (2009-2015) describing the outcome of 25 HIV-positive patients with detectable cerebrospinal fluid JC virus DNA: 14 had a probable PML while the others had evidence of other inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) affecting disorders. In the former group, 6-month mortality was 45...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674518/brain-susceptibility-changes-in-a-patient-with-natalizumab-related-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-a-longitudinal-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-and-relaxometry-study
#5
Giuseppe Pontillo, Sirio Cocozza, Roberta Lanzillo, Pasquale Borrelli, Anna De Rosa, Vincenzo Brescia Morra, Enrico Tedeschi, Giuseppe Palma
BACKGROUND: Brain MRI plays an essential role in both diagnosis and follow-up of the JC virus infection of the brain. Recently, MR studies with susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) sequences have shown hypointensities in U-fibers adjacent to white matter (WM) lesions of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). This finding has been confirmed with the use of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), allowing to hypothesize a paramagnetic effect in these regions. Here, we report the first longitudinal assessment of QSM and R2* maps in natalizumab-associated PML to evaluate serial changes in susceptibility contrast images and their role in PML diagnosis and follow-up...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652923/jc-virus-granule-cell-neuronopathy-onset-two-months-after-chemotherapy-for-low-grade-lymphoma
#6
Kathryn B Holroyd, Elias S Sotirchos, Scott R DeBoer, Kelly A Mills, Scott D Newsome
BACKGROUND: Granule cell neuronopathy (GCN) is a rare disease caused by the JC virus, leading to degeneration of cerebellar granule cell neurons. Primarily described in patients with AIDS, it has also been diagnosed in patients with lymphoproliferative diseases and after long-term treatment with immune-suppressing medications such as natalizumab. CASE PRESENTATION: A 69 year old woman presented with progressive ataxia which began 2 months after initiation of treatment for follicular low-grade B cell lymphoma with rituximab/bendamustine, and progressed for 2 years prior to admission...
2017: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638849/refractory-t-cell-anergy-and-rapidly-fatal-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-after-prolonged-ctla4-therapy
#7
Manon Dekeyser, Marie-Ghislaine de Goër de Herve, Houria Hendel-Chavez, Céline Labeyrie, David Adams, Ghaïdaa Adebs Nasser, Jacques Gasnault, Antoine Durrbach, Yassine Taoufik
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a deadly demyelinating disease due to central nervous system replication of the human polyomavirus JC virus (JCV) in immunosuppressed patients. The only effective therapeutic approach is to restore anti-JCV T-cell responses. In this study, we describe a case of rapidly fatal PML with JCV T-cell anergy in a renal transplant patient treated with CTLA4-Ig (belatacept, a CD28-B7 costimulation blocker and T-cell anergy inducer). T-cell anergy could not be reversed despite several therapeutic approaches...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637388/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-endemic-viruses-and-lethal-brain-disease
#8
Sheila A Haley, Walter J Atwood
In 1971, the first human polyomavirus was isolated from the brain of a patient who died from a rapidly progressing demyelinating disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The virus was named JC virus after the initials of the patient. In that same year a second human polyomavirus was discovered in the urine of a kidney transplant patient and named BK virus. In the intervening years it became clear that both viruses were widespread in the human population but only rarely caused disease. The past decade has witnessed the discovery of eleven new human polyomaviruses, two of which cause unusual and rare cancers...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634106/biology-evolution-and-medical-importance-of-polyomaviruses-an-update
#9
REVIEW
Ugo Moens, Andi Krumbholz, Bernhard Ehlers, Roland Zell, Reimar Johne, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Chris Lauber
The family Polyomaviridae encompasses non-enveloped viruses with a circular dsDNA genome that is typically approximately 5000bp in length. Originally isolated from mammals, polyomavirus sequences have now been detected in invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles and birds, although it remains to be determined whether all these animals are genuine hosts. The genomes of all polyomaviruses encode at least two regulatory proteins (large and small tumour antigen) and two structural proteins (capsid proteins VP1 and VP2) whose functions have been defined...
June 17, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623673/a-prominent-lactate-peak-as-a-potential-key-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-mrs-feature-of-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-pml-spectrum-pattern-observed-in-three-patients
#10
Duško Kozić, Mladen Bjelan, Jasmina Boban, Jelena Ostojić, Vesna Turkulov, Aleksandar Todorović, Slobodanka Lemajić-Komazec, Snežana Brkić
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare, often fatal, opportunistic infection, associated with demyelinating process. PML is caused by John Cunningham (JC) polyomavirus, and predominantly involves patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease or other immunocompromised conditions. The purpose of this report was to determine the role of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in establishing the diagnosis of PML. MRS with long and short echo time was performed in two patients with PML associated with HIV infection and in one PML patient associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia...
June 17, 2017: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591758/are-the-polyomaviruses-bk-and-jc-associated-with-opportunistic-infections-graft-versus-host-disease-or-worse-outcomes-in-adult-patients-receiving-their-first-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-with-low-dose-alemtuzumab
#11
Laila Schneidewind, Thomas Neumann, Florian Knoll, Kathrin Zimmermann, Sigrun Smola, Christian Andreas Schmidt, William Krüger
BACKGROUND: The association of polyomaviruses BK and JC with other opportunistic infections and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) in allogeneic stem cell transplantation is controversially discussed. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 64 adult patients who received their first allogeneic stem cell transplantation between March 2010 and December 2014; the follow-up time was 2 years. RESULTS: Acute leukemia was the most frequent underlying disease (45...
June 8, 2017: Acta Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551683/jc-virus-and-lung-adenocarcinoma-fact-or-myth
#12
Emanuele Sinagra, Dario Raimondo, Elena Gallo, Mario Stella, Mario Cottone, Francesca Rossi, Marco Messina, Massimiliano Spada, Giovanni Tomasello, Giuseppe Ferrara, Aroldo Gabriele Rizzo
BACKGROUND/AIM: An association has been reported between lung cancer and John Cunningham (JC) virus infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of JC virus in a small cohort of patients with lung adenocarcinoma and assess its presence in nodal metastasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive samples of 13 surgically-removed lung tumors and 13 surrounding normal cancer-free tissues were selected. Five cases included metastatic lymph nodes. JC virus infection was assessed through nested PCR...
June 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502942/brain-biopsy-is-more-reliable-than-the-dna-test-for-jc-virus-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-for-the-diagnosis-of-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#13
Junji Ikeda, Akira Matsushima, Wataru Ishii, Tetuya Goto, Kenta Takahashi, Kazuo Nakamichi, Masayuki Saijo, Yoshiki Sekijima, Shu-Ichi Ikeda
The current standard diagnostic approach for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is to perform a DNA test to identify the presence of the JC virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A 32-year-old woman with a 5-year history of systemic lupus erythematosus developed right hemiplegia and motor aphasia. MRI revealed a large white matter lesion in the left frontal lobe. JC virus DNA was undetectable in the CSF, but a brain biopsy showed typical histopathology and a high DNA load of the JC virus. The patient was treated with mefloquine and mirtazapine, and is currently alive at 24 months after onset...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502940/pet-imaging-of-18-f-fdg-11-c-methionine-11-c-flumazenil-and-11-c-4dst-in-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#14
Kenji Ishibashi, Yoshiharu Miura, Ken Matsumura, Yusuke Kanemasa, Kazuo Nakamichi, Masayuki Saijo, Jun Toyohara, Kenji Ishii
The use of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) has rarely been reported. We herein report a set of PET images in a 63-year-old patient with PML. In PML lesions, the uptake of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose, (11)C-methionine, (11)C-flumazenil, and [methyl-(11)C]4'-thiothymidine was decreased, increased, decreased, and unchanged, respectively. These results suggest that glucose metabolism decreased, protein synthesis increased, neuronal integrity decreased, and the DNA synthesis and cellular proliferation of host cells were not activated in PML lesions...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493815/the-biology-of-jc-polyomavirus
#15
REVIEW
Benedetta Assetta, Walter J Atwood
JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) is the causative agent of a fatal central nervous system demyelinating disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). PML occurs in people with underlying immunodeficiency or in individuals being treated with potent immunomodulatory therapies. JCPyV is a DNA tumor virus with a double-stranded DNA genome and encodes a well-studied oncogene, large T antigen. Its host range is highly restricted to humans and only a few cell types support lytic infection in vivo or in vitro...
July 26, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473916/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-after-heart-transplantation-4-years-of-clinically-stable-infection-on-low-dose-immunosuppressive-therapy
#16
Per Sundbom, Laila Hubbert, Lena Serrander
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), caused by reactivation of JC-virus is a relatively rare complication seen in patients with compromised immune system. There are no evidence-based treatment available and prognosis is poor. Withdrawal of immunosuppressant can result in further neurological deterioration and for patients with solid organ transplantations, fatal graft rejection. We report a 52-year-old women that presented with seizures within 1 month after heart transplantation. Initial diagnosis was vascular disease...
February 2017: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463406/cpt11-prevents-virus-replication-in-jci-cells-persistently-infected-with-jc-polyomavirus
#17
Souichi Nukuzuma, Chiyoko Nukuzuma, Masanori Kameoka, Shigeki Sugiura, Kazuo Nakamichi, Takafumi Tasaki, Tsutomu Takegami
JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) is the causative agent of the demyelinating disease in the central nervous system, known as PML in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, PML occurred in patients treated with natalizumab for MS or Crohn's disease as natalizumab-related PML. Many antiviral agents are being investigated due to the lack of drugs currently available for PML. The previous study demonstrated that the topoisomerase I inhibitors topotecan and β-lapachone have inhibitory effects on JCPyV replication in IMR-32 cells...
May 2, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462542/clinical-profile-and-outcome-of-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-in-hiv-infected-indian-patients
#18
Vipul Shah, Harsh Toshniwal, Manoj Shevkani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a fatal demyelinating disease of the Central nervous system (CNS) caused by the human polyoma virus JC (JCV). Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection predisposes to PML. Very sparse data is available regarding the effect of Highly Active Anti Retroviral Therapy (HAART) on clinical outcome of PML in Indian settings. This study was carried out to look into clinical profile, survival and neurological outcome of HIV infected PML patients in HAART era...
March 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445498/metabolic-profiles-by-1h-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-natalizumab-associated-post-pml-lesions-of-multiple-sclerosis-patients-who-survived-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-pml
#19
Ruth Schneider, Barbara Bellenberg, Robert Hoepner, Eva-Maria Kolb, Gisa Ellrichmann, Aiden Haghikia, Ralf Gold, Carsten Lukas
PURPOSE: Early diagnosis and treatment of multiple sclerosis-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) significantly improve clinical outcomes. However, there is a lack of information regarding the restart of immunomodulatory therapy in the post-PML setting, when multiple sclerosis activity reappears. We aimed at the examination of metabolic differences using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in multiple sclerosis patients at various post-PML stages and at the exploration of differences according to their disease and JC virus (JCV) status...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439420/an-unusual-cause-of-fatal-rapid-onset-ataxia-plus-syndrome
#20
Ivan Kmezic, Jan Weinberg, Dan Hauzenberger, Farouk Hashim, Evangelia Kollia, Monika Klimkowska, Inger Nennesmo, Martin Paucar
BACKGROUND: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system caused by reactivation of the JC-virus and is in most cases associated with underlying immunosuppression. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and hematological malignancies are well-known predisposing factors for PML. However, in the past ten years, various pharmacological agents have been associated with increased risk of PML. Based on the phenomenology PML can be divided into the cerebral form and the rare cerebellar form...
2017: Cerebellum & Ataxias
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