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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018769/significance-of-interviral-recombination-as-novel-mechanism-for-extending-viral-disease-repertoire
#1
Edward M Johnson, Dianne C Daniel
The recent observation of interviral recombination between members of two distinct classes of DNA viruses has opened the gates to a new field of human disease development. In all cases studied thus far interviral recombination is a rare event that requires special circumstances for intracellular interaction of participating viral genomes. The rarity and special requirements do not detract from the potential clinical significance of resulting recombinants, as exemplified by recombination between JC viral and Epstein-Barr viral genomes...
October 2016: Brain Disorders & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017915/natural-recombination-in-alphaherpesviruses-insights-into-viral-evolution-through-full-genome-sequencing-and-sequence-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Carlos A Loncoman, Paola K Vaz, Mauricio Jc Coppo, Carol A Hartley, Francisco J Morera, Glenn F Browning, Joanne M Devlin
Recombination in alphaherpesviruses was first described more than sixty years ago. Since then, different techniques have been used to detect recombination in natural (field) and experimental settings. Over the last ten years, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and bioinformatic analyses have greatly increased the accuracy of recombination detection, particularly in field settings, thus contributing greatly to the study of natural alphaherpesvirus recombination in both human and veterinary medicine...
December 22, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007703/immunohistochemistry-is-rarely-justified-for-the-diagnosis-of-viral-infections
#3
Isaac H Solomon, Jason L Hornick, Alvaro C Laga
OBJECTIVES: To determine the utility of immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the diagnosis of viral infections in surgical pathology specimens lacking characteristic viral cytopathic effects. METHODS: Five years of cases at an academic medical center were reviewed for the use of IHC to detect cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), adenovirus, or polyomavirus (ie, BK or JC). RESULTS: In total, 1,636 viral IHC stains were ordered on 1,099 specimens from 957 cases...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005037/-a-case-of-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-in-a-hiv-infected-female-patient
#4
E A Samotolkina, A V Pokrovskaya, E S Samotolkina, S L Voznesensky, E V Petrova
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) caused by JC virus is a severe central nervous lesion developing in the presence of obvious immunodeficiency. In most cases, the disease results in a fatal outcome within a few months. Antiretroviral therapy is currently considered to be the only method for the prevention and treatment of PML in HIV-infected patients. The paper describes a positive experience in treating the HIV-infected female patient with the established diagnosis of PML.
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003499/new-onset-seizure-in-hiv-infected-adult-zambians-a-search-for-causes-and-consequences
#5
Omar K Siddiqi, Melissa A Elafros, Christopher M Bositis, Igor J Koralnik, William H Theodore, Jason F Okulicz, Lisa Kalungwana, Michael J Potchen, Izukanji Sikazwe, Gretchen L Birbeck
OBJECTIVE: To identify the etiology of new-onset seizure in HIV-infected Zambian adults and identify risk factors for seizure recurrence. METHODS: A prospective cohort study enrolling HIV-infected adults with new-onset seizure within 2 weeks of index seizure obtained clinical, laboratory, and neuroimaging data to determine seizure etiology. Participants were followed to identify risk factors for seizure recurrence. Risk factors for mortality were examined as mortality rates were unexpectedly high...
December 21, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994897/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-in-a-multiple-sclerosis-patient-diagnosed-after-switching-from-natalizumab-to-fingolimod
#6
Tim Sinnecker, Jalal Othman, Marc Kühl, Imke Metz, Thoralf Niendorf, Annett Kunkel, Friedemann Paul, Jens Wuerfel, Juergen Faiss
Background. Natalizumab- (NTZ-) associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a severe and often disabling infectious central nervous system disease that can become evident in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients after NTZ discontinuation. Recently, novel diagnostic biomarkers for the assessment of PML risk in NTZ treated MS patients such as the anti-JC virus antibody index have been reported, and the clinical relevance of milky-way lesions detectable by MRI has been discussed. Case Presentation and Conclusion...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974546/copy-number-heterogeneity-of-jc-virus-standards
#7
Alexander L Greninger, Allen C Bateman, Ederlyn E Atienza, Sharon Wendt, Negar Makhsous, Keith R Jerome, Linda Cook
Quantitative PCR is a diagnostic mainstay of clinical virology, and accurate quantitation of viral load among labs requires the use of international standards. However, the use of multiple passages of viral isolates to obtain sufficient material for international standards may result in genomic changes that complicate their use as quantitative standards. We performed next-generation sequencing to gain single-nucleotide resolution and relative copy number of JC virus (JCV) clinical standards. Strikingly, the WHO international standard and Exact™ v1/v2 prototype standards for JCV showed 8-fold and 4-fold variation in genomic coverage between different loci in the viral genome, respectively, due to large deletions in the large T-antigen region...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965904/rituximab-associated-inflammatory-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#8
Chandra Punch, Christina Schofield, Penelope Harris
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare disease of the immunosuppression that results from neurotropic invasion of the JC virus which leads to demyelination of oligodendrocytes. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), on the other hand, is a condition of inflammation that develops as the immune system reconstitutes. This case report describes a case of a 35-year-old HIV-negative male who presented with three weeks of right lower extremity paresthesias as well as right upper extremity apraxia...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959350/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-associated-with-infliximab
#9
L Sammut, D Wallis, C Holroyd
A 69-year-old female with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis presented with progressive cognitive decline following treatment with infliximab and methotrexate. Cranial MRI showed non-enhancing white matter signal abnormality consistent with demyelination was seen in the antero-inferior left frontal lobe extending into the frontal opercular white matter and into the left temporal lobe white matter. Similar appearances were seen in the inferomedial right frontal lobe. Brain biopsy showed histological changes consistent with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy...
September 2016: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938314/sequential-onset-of-varicella-zoster-virus-encephalomeningitis-and-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-in-an-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipient
#10
Yukiko Yamashita, Shinsuke Kusakabe, Jun Toda, Kenji Ohshima, Hiroaki Masaie, Toshinari Yagi, Hitoshi Yoshida, Jun Ishikawa
Here, we describe a case of sequential varicella-zoster virus encephalomeningitis and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy following an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant procedure. A 37-year-old male patient presented with fever, incomplete paralysis of bilateral legs, and bullous eruptions 8 months after allogeneic transplant. Polymerase chain reaction assays of cerebrospinal fluid samples for varicella-zoster virus were positive. Bullous eruptions and incomplete paralysis of bilateral legs improved after administration of acyclovir...
December 12, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925194/sv40-infection-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-from-wharton-s-jelly-drives-the-production-of-inflammatory-and-tumoral-mediators
#11
Carolina Cason, Giuseppina Campisciano, Nunzia Zanotta, Erica Valencic, Serena Delbue, Ramona Bella, Manola Comar
The Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from umbilical cord Wharton's jelly (WJSCs) are a source of cells with high potentiality for the treatment of human immunological disorders. Footprints of the oncogenic viruses Simian Virus 40 (SV40) and JC Virus (JCPyV) have been recently detected in human WJSCs specimens. The aim of this study is to evaluate if WJSCs can be efficiently infected by these Polyomaviruses and if they can potentially exert tumoral activity. Cell culture experiments indicated that WJSCs could sustain both SV40 and JCPyV infections...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921221/safety-and-efficacy-of-natalizumab-in-japanese-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-open-label-extension-study-of-a-phase-2-trial
#12
Takahiko Saida, Jun-Ichi Kira, Shuji Kishida, Takashi Yamamura, Nobuhisa Ohtsuka, Yan Ling, Shinichi Torii, Nisha Lucas, Geoffrey Kuesters, Deb Steiner, J T Tibung
INTRODUCTION: The efficacy of natalizumab was evaluated in Japanese patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) in a 24-week, phase 2 bridging study. An open-label, 2-year extension study from this trial was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of natalizumab treatment in Japanese patients. METHODS: A total of 97 patients (43 previously on placebo; 54 previously on natalizumab) who had completed the bridging study were treated with 300 mg natalizumab every 4 weeks...
December 5, 2016: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826043/the-interaction-between-human-papillomavirus-and-other-viruses
#13
REVIEW
J T Guidry, R S Scott
The etiological role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in anogenital tract and head and neck cancers is well established. However, only a low percentage of HPV-positive women develop cancer, indicating that HPV is necessary but not sufficient in carcinogenesis. Several biological and environmental cofactors have been implicated in the development of HPV-associated carcinoma that include immune status, hormonal changes, parity, dietary habits, tobacco usage, and co-infection with other sexually transmissible agents...
November 5, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823624/antitumor-lignanamides-from-the-aerial-parts-of-corydalis-saxicola
#14
Bin Zhang, Rizhen Huang, Jing Hua, Hong Liang, Yingming Pan, Lumei Dai, Dong Liang, Hengshan Wang
BACKGROUND: Cancer is one of the leading cause of unnatural death globally. There is still a great need for effective anticancer agents from plant sources. Corydalis saxicola Bunting is a medicinal plant that is traditionally used to treat various diseases in southwest China. Previous phytochemical investigations of C. saxicola have focused on isoquinoline alkaloids that have been isolated, which have activity against anti-hepatitis B virus and inhibit DNA topoisomerase I. However, the exploration of other classes of constituents and their bioactivities needs further study...
December 1, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817117/differences-in-t-cell-cytotoxicity-and-cell-death-mechanisms-between-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis-and-cytomegalovirus-encephalitis
#15
Susanne Laukoter, Helmut Rauschka, Anna R Tröscher, Ulrike Köck, Etsuji Saji, Kurt Jellinger, Hans Lassmann, Jan Bauer
During the appearance of human immunodeficiency virus infection in the 1980 and the 1990s, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a viral encephalitis induced by the JC virus, was the leading opportunistic brain infection. As a result of the use of modern immunomodulatory compounds such as Natalizumab and Rituximab, the number of patients with PML is once again increasing. Despite the presence of PML over decades, little is known regarding the mechanisms leading to death of infected cells and the role the immune system plays in this process...
November 5, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807073/archetype-and-rearranged-non-coding-control-regions-in-urothelial-bladder-carcinoma-of-immunocompetent-individuals
#16
Elena Anzivino, Maria Antonella Zingaropoli, Marco Iannetta, Valeria Antonietta Pietropaolo, Alessandra Oliva, Francesco Iori, Antonio Ciardi, Donatella Maria Rodio, Francesca Antonini, Cesare Giovanni Fedele, Alessandra D'Abramo, Claudio Maria Mastroianni, Vincenzo Vullo, Maria Rosa Ciardi
BACKGROUND: Polyomaviruses (PyVs) are potential transforming viruses. Despite their involvement in human tumours still being debated, there is evidence to suggest a role for PyVs in bladder carcinoma (BC). Therefore, a possible association between PyVs and BC was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urine, blood and fresh bladder tissue specimens were collected from 29 patients with BC. PyV prevalence, non-coding control region (NCCR) organization and genotypic analysis were assessed...
November 2016: Cancer Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800693/45-years-after-the-discovery-of-human-polyomaviruses-bk-and-jc-time-to-speed-up-the-understanding-of-associated-diseases-and-treatment-approaches
#17
Heidi Barth, Morgane Solis, Quentin Lepiller, Charlotte Sueur, Eric Soulier, Sophie Caillard, Françoise Stoll-Keller, Samira Fafi-Kremer
Nearly 45 years after the discovery of the first two human polyomaviruses BK and JC, their life-long persistence and mechanisms of pathogenesis remain poorly understood and efficient antiviral treatments are severely lacking. In this review, we sought to provide an update on recent advances in understanding the life cycle of these two viruses, particularly focusing on their interaction with the host immune system and pathogenesis. We have also discussed novel treatment approaches and highlighted areas of future research...
November 1, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795410/deep-sequence-identification-and-role-in-virus-replication-of-a-jc-virus-quasispecies-in-patients-with-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#18
Kenta Takahashi, Tsuyoshi Sekizuka, Hitomi Fukumoto, Kazuo Nakamichi, Tadaki Suzuki, Yuko Sato, Hideki Hasegawa, Makoto Kuroda, Harutaka Katano
: JC virus (JCV) is a DNA virus causing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in immunodeficient patients. In the present study, 22 genetic quasispecies with more than 1.5% variant frequency were detected in JCV genomes from six clinical samples of PML by next-generation sequencing. A mutation from A to C at nucleotide (nt) 3495 in JCV Mad1 resulting in a V-to-G amino acid substitution at amino acid (aa) position 392 of the large T antigen (TAg) was identified in all six cases of PML at 3% to 19% variant frequencies...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772622/bk-and-other-polyomaviruses-in-kidney-transplantation
#19
REVIEW
Jennifer Trofe-Clark, Deirdre Sawinski
For more than 40 years, polyomaviruses (BK virus and JC virus) have been known to cause disease in human beings. Recently, 11 new polyomaviruses were discovered. However, the majority of these viruses are rare in renal transplant recipients and BK and JC viruses remain the most important polyomaviruses to impact this population. BK virus presents as BK virus nephropathy and has, in rare instances, been associated with hemorrhagic cystitis or ureteral strictures. JC virus can cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy or nephropathy in this population as well, but is uncommon...
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726799/polyomaviruses
#20
Linda Cook
Over the last 10 years, the number of identified polyomaviruses has grown to more than 35 subtypes, including 13 in humans. The polyomaviruses have similar genetic makeup, including genes that encode viral capsid proteins VP1, 2, and 3 and large and small T region proteins. The T proteins play a role in viral replication and have been implicated in viral chromosomal integration and possible dysregulation of growth factor genes. In humans, the Merkel cell polyomavirus has been shown to be highly associated with integration and the development of Merkel cell cancers...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
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