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JC Virus

Linda Cook
Over the last 10 years, the number of identified polyomaviruses has grown to more than 35 subtypes, including 13 in humans. The polyomaviruses have similar genetic makeup, including genes that encode viral capsid proteins VP1, 2, and 3 and large and small T region proteins. The T proteins play a role in viral replication and have been implicated in viral chromosomal integration and possible dysregulation of growth factor genes. In humans, the Merkel cell polyomavirus has been shown to be highly associated with integration and the development of Merkel cell cancers...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Jiju Mani, Lei Wang, Angela G Hückelhoven, Anita Schmitt, Alma Gedvilaite, Nan Jin, Christian Kleist, Anthony D Ho, Michael Schmitt
Human JC and BK polyomaviruses (JCV/BKV) can establish a latent infection without any clinical symptoms in healthy individuals. In immunocompromised hosts infection or reactivation of JCV and BKV can cause lethal progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and hemorrhagic cystitis, respectively. Vaccination with JCV/BKV derived antigen epitope peptides or adoptive transfer of virus-specific T cells would constitute an elegant approach to clear virus-infected cells. Furthermore, donor leukocyte infusion (DLI) is another therapeutic approach which could be helpful for patients with JCV/BKV infections...
October 1, 2016: Oncotarget
Therese Högfeldt, Crystal Jaing, Kevin Mc Loughlin, James Thissen, Shea Gardner, Abeer A Bahnassy, Baback Gharizadeh, Joachim Lundahl, Anders Österborg, Anna Porwit, Abdel-Rahman N Zekri, Hussein M Khaled, Håkan Mellstedt, Ali Moshfegh
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in adults, accounts for approximately 30-40% of newly diagnosed lymphomas worldwide. Environmental factors, such as viruses and bacteria, may contribute to cancer development through chronic inflammation and the integration of oncogenes, and have previously been indicated in cervical cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric cancer and lymphoproliferative disorders. In the present study, the presence of microbial agents was analyzed in the lymphoma tissue of patients with activated B-cell like (ABC) DLBCL...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
J Comerlato, F Souza-Campos, T Souza-Arantes, M I Roos-Kulmann, M Trindade-Oliveira, F Rosado-Spilki, A P Guedes-Frazzon, P M Roehe, A C Franco
The human polyomaviruses JC and BK (JCPyV and BKPyV) are ubiquitous, species-specific viruses that belong to the family Polyomaviridae. These viruses are known to be excreted in human urine, and they are potential indicators of human wastewater contamination. In order to assess the distribution of both JCPyV and BKPyV in urban water samples collected from a sewage treatment plant (STP) and from a canalized water stream of Porto Alegre, Brazil, two nested-PCR assays were optimized and applied to the samples collected...
September 26, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
J Mallada, N Perez-Carmona, L Berenguer-Ruiz, R Sanchez-Perez, R Martin-Gonzalez, D Sola-Martinez, S Mola, J M Lopez-Arlandis, R Vela-Yebra, L Gabaldon-Torres, E Freire-Alvarez, A Garcia-Escriva, A P Sempere
INTRODUCTION: Post-authorisation studies are important to confirm whether the outcomes of clinical trials are reproduced in usual clinical practice. AIMS: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of fingolimod in clinical practice in the province of Alicante. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective multi-centre study was conducted with remitting multiple sclerosis patients treated with fingolimod. Demographic, clinical and pharmacological data were collected...
September 5, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
Eiichi Ohnuki, Shinya Asayama, Tomoko Asayama, Kazuo Nakamichi, Masayuki Saijo, Satoru Kosaka
An 83-year-old man with chronic renal failure was referred to our hospital because of subacute progressive right hemiparesis. A brain MRI showed high-intensity lesions in bilateral middle cerebellar peduncles and white matter of the left frontal lobe on T2-weighted images. The lesions increased gradually, so we suspected a brain tumor because (1)H-MRS images showed elevated Cho and decreased NAA, and also pathologic findings of the brain biopsy suggested glioblastoma. However, JC virus (JCV) in cerebrospinal fluid was revealed highly positive by PCR...
September 16, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Jahir Andres Miranda Acuña, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman
BACKGROUND: Natalizumab (NTZ) is an effective therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS). A common concern related to NTZ therapy is the risk of developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). CLINICAL CASE: A patient that after seven years on NTZ therapy, testing on every 3 months repeated evaluations negative for anti-JCV status became positive (>3 units) 4 weeks after receiving influenza vaccine. Despite continuous therapy on NTZ for additional 2 years her anti-JCV index progressively declined to a level 0...
September 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Asha Rani, Ravi Ranjan, Halvor S McGee, Ahmed Metwally, Zahraa Hajjiri, Daniel C Brennan, Patricia W Finn, David L Perkins
Recent studies have established that the human urine contains a complex microbiome, including a virome about which little is known. Following immunosuppression in kidney transplant patients, BK polyomavirus (BKV) has been shown to induce nephropathy (BKVN), decreasing graft survival. In this study we investigated the urine virome profile of BKV+ and BKV- kidney transplant recipients. Virus-like particles were stained to confirm the presence of VLP in the urine samples. Metagenomic DNA was purified, and the virome profile was analyzed using metagenomic shotgun sequencing...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jyoti Malhotra, Tim Waterboer, Michael Pawlita, Angelika Michel, Qiuyin Cai, Wei Zheng, Yu-Tang Gao, Qing Lan, Nathaniel Rothman, Hilde Langseth, Tom K Grimsrud, Jian-Min Yuan, Woon-Puay Koh, Renwei Wang, Alan A Arslan, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Paolo Boffetta
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer in never smokers is a significant contributor of cancer mortality worldwide. In this analysis, we explored the role of nine human polyomaviruses, including JC virus (JCV), BK virus (BKV) and Merkel cell virus (MCV), in lung cancer development in never smokers as there are data to support that polyomaviruses are potentially carcinogenic in the human lung. METHODS: We used multiplex serology to detect serum antibodies to polyomaviruses in a nested case-control design combining lung cancer cases and controls from four cohort studies - NYU Women's Health Study (NYU-WHS), Janus Serum Bank, Shanghai Women's Health Study and Singapore Chinese Health Study (SCHS)...
September 15, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Yuanyuan Qiu, Bonita E Lee, Norma J Ruecker, Norman Neumann, Nicholas Ashbolt, Xiaoli Pang
A one-step centrifugal ultrafiltration method was developed to enhance rapid detection of human enteric viruses and co-occurring viruses in wastewater. Samples were collected pre- and post-UV treatment at two full-scale tertiary municipal wastewater treatment plants in Calgary, Canada. Viruses were concentrated from 100mL wastewater samples through direct centrifugation using the Centricon Plus-70 ultrafilter. Seven viruses, including norovirus, rotavirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, enterovirus, adenovirus and JC virus, were tested using real-time quantitative PCR (rt-qPCR) and cell culture...
November 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
E N Broeders, A Hamade, F El Mountahi, J Racapé, J-M Hougardy, A Le Moine, P Vereerstraeten
BACKGROUND: Polyomavirus (PV) is a major cause of kidney graft disease. Monitoring by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on blood is currently recommended. In order to avoid irreversible lesions, we investigated the clinical impact of preemptive reduction of immunosuppression (IS) in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) upon detection of high urinary PV (Upv) load, including BK virus and JC virus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 2000 to 2011, in our single center, 789 consecutive KTR were distributed into 4 groups, according to the maximal Upv levels (by PCR) during the first year and the therapeutic option: (A) Upv <10(4) copies (cp)/mL (n = 573), (B) ≥10(4) Upv <10(7) cp/mL (n = 100), and (C) Upv ≥ 10(7) cp/mL (n = 116); in group C, the IS drug doses were reduced in sub-group Ca (n = 102) only, as 14 patients (sub-group Cb) were at risk for graft rejection...
September 12, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
María José Martínez, Claudia Moreno, Jorge Levican, Mónica Peña, Aldo Gaggero, Jonás Chnaiderman
INTRODUCTION: Polyomavirus BK (BKPyV) and JC (JCPyV) are persistent pathogens able to reactivate in im-munocompromised patients, involving mostly urinary and central nervous system. There are no Chilean studies in HIV positive patients. OBJECTIVE: To detect BKPyV and JCPyV in blood of Chilean HIV positive adult patients and to correlate these results with clinical-related variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 96 stored blood samples from HIV patients belonging to the north area of Santiago were analyzed...
June 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Francesca Elia, Sonia Villani, Federico Ambrogi, Lucia Signorini, Simone Dallari, Sandro Binda, Valeria Primache, Laura Pellegrinelli, Pasquale Ferrante, Serena Delbue
JC virus (JCV) is a widespread member of the Polyomaviridae family. Following primary infection, which occurs asymptomatically during childhood, JCV establishes latency in the host. JCV seroprevalence can reach 80 % in healthy adults, but the age of viral exposure has not been yet characterized. This study was conducted to define JCV seroprevalence in Italian infants and to estimate the date of primary infection. A JCV viral protein 1 (VP1)-GST fusion protein was used in conjunction with a homemade indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to test for the presence of IgG antibodies to JCV in 981 serum samples collected from 644 Italian infants of different ages (1 day to 3 years old) and in 102 breast milk samples...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Md Shamim Akhter, Sachin Ashok Bhor, Ngcebo Hlalele, Masahiro Nao, Ken-Taro Sekine, Takashi Yaeno, Naoto Yamaoka, Masamichi Nishiguchi, Augustine Gubba, Kappei Kobayashi
The complete nucleotide sequences of Beet pseudoyellows virus (BPYV)-MI (cucumber isolate; Matsuyama, Idai) genomic RNAs 1 and 2 were determined and compared with the previously sequenced Japanese cucumber strain (BPYV-JC) and a strawberry strain (BPYV-S). The RNA 2 of BPYV-MI showed 99 % nucleotide sequence identity with both BPYV-JC and -S having highly conserved eight ORFs. In contrast, the RNA1 of BPYV-MI showed sequence identities of 98 and 86 % with BPYV-JC and -S, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) coding sequences from three fully sequenced BPYV strains and five partially sequenced cucurbit-infecting BPYV strains from Japan and South Africa has shown that cucurbit-infecting strains are closer to each other than to BPYV-S...
July 26, 2016: Virus Genes
Bradley W Schmitz, Masaaki Kitajima, Maria E Campillo, Charles P Gerba, Ian L Pepper
The present study investigated wastewater treatment for the removal of 11 different virus types (pepper mild mottle virus; Aichi virus; genogroup I, II, and IV noroviruses; enterovirus; sapovirus; group-A rotavirus; adenovirus; and JC and BK polyomaviruses) by two wastewater treatment facilities utilizing advanced Bardenpho technology and compared the results with conventional treatment processes. To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing full-scale treatment processes that all received sewage influent from the same region...
September 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Shelley A Grubman, Jong Shin, Paul J Phelan, Aaron Gong, Hande Can, Ryan Dilworth, Sandeep Kuntadi Kini, David Gagnon, Jacques Archambault, Gretchen Meinke, Andrew Bohm, Douglas M Jefferson, Peter A Bullock
Within immunocompromised populations, the JC polyomavirus is the cause of the often-fatal disease Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML). JC virus encodes a protein, termed T-antigen (T-ag), which is essential for its replication and pathogenicity. Previous studies of JCV T-ag have, in general, used antibodies raised against SV40 T-ag. Unfortunately, SV40 T-ag is also detected in humans and therefore there have been concerns about cross-reactivity. To address this issue, we have isolated a monoclonal antibody that binds to the JCV, but not the SV40, T-ag origin-binding domain (OBD)...
October 2016: Virology
David N Soleimani-Meigooni, Katherine E Schwetye, Maria Reyes Angeles, Caroline F Ryschkewitsch, Eugene O Major, Xin Dang, Igor J Koralnik, Robert E Schmidt, David B Clifford, F Matthew Kuhlmann, Robert C Bucelli
JC virus (JCV) is a human polyomavirus that infects the central nervous system (CNS) of immunocompromised patients. JCV granule cell neuronopathy (JCV-GCN) is caused by infection of cerebellar granule cells, causing ataxia. A 77-year-old man with iatrogenic lymphopenia presented with severe ataxia and was diagnosed with JCV-GCN. His ataxia and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) improved with intravenous immunoglobulin, high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone, mirtazapine, and mefloquine. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) therapy reconstituted his lymphocytes and reduced his CSF JCV load...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Yvan Jamilloux, Sébastien Kerever, Tristan Ferry, Christiane Broussolle, Jérôme Honnorat, Pascal Sève
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare, JC-virus-mediated, demyelinating disease with a high mortality rate. As no recommended treatment exists, mirtazapine, a potential blocker of virus entry into cells, has been empirically used. METHODS: We analysed existing data on mirtazapine's efficacy to treat PML by systematically reviewing the literature since 2005, when it was first used. RESULTS: Searches in PubMed, EBSCO, SCOPUS and Google Scholar between January 2005 and December 2015, identified five cohort studies and 74 case reports...
October 2016: Clinical Drug Investigation
Roderick P P W M Maas, Annemarie H G Muller-Hansma, Rianne A J Esselink, Jean-Luc Murk, Clemens Warnke, Joep Killestein, Mike P Wattjes
The implementation of a variety of immunosuppressive therapies has made drug-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) an increasingly prevalent clinical entity. The purpose of this study was to investigate its diagnostic characteristics and to determine whether differences herein exist between the multiple sclerosis (MS), neoplasm, post-transplantation, and autoimmune disease subgroups. Reports of possible, probable, and definite PML according to the current diagnostic criteria were obtained by a systematic search of PubMed and the Dutch pharmacovigilance database...
October 2016: Journal of Neurology
Sayyedeh Rahmaneh Atyabi, Majid Bouzari, Mohammad Taghi Kardi
In healthy individuals John Cunningham virus is latent without any clinical signs, but in the cases of the use of immunosuppressive drugs in graft recipients, autoimmune diseases and also increasing of age, that the immune system is suppressed it may cause disease in reactivation. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is the well-known disease caused by the virus. It has also been associated with nephropathy and tumorogensis. At present, based on vp1 capsid gene 7 genotypes have been detected. Genetic variations of JC virus in different geographical areas and the presence of different subtypes is a useful tool for reconstructing of the genetic information of JC virus and understanding of its evolution...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
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