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JC Virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330826/antibody-response-to-polyomavirus-primary-infection-high-seroprevalence-of-merkel-cell-polyomavirus-and-lymphoid-tissue-involvement
#1
Carolina Cason, Lorenzo Monasta, Nunzia Zanotta, Giuseppina Campisciano, Iva Maestri, Massimo Tommasino, Michael Pawlita, Sonia Villani, Manola Comar, Serena Delbue
Human polyomaviruses (HPyVs) asymptomatically infect the human population establishing latency in the host, and their seroprevalence can reach 90% in healthy adults. Few studies have focused on the pediatric population, and there are no reports regarding the seroprevalence of all the newly isolated HPyVs among Italian children. Therefore, we investigated the frequency of serum antibodies against 12 PyVs in 182 immunocompetent children from Northeast Italy, by means of a multiplex antibody detection system. Additionally, secondary lymphoid tissues were collected to analyze the presence of HPyV DNA sequences using a specific real-time PCRs or PCRs...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323725/serum-igg-antibodies-from-healthy-subjects-up-to-100-years-old-react-to-jc-polyomavirus
#2
Ilaria Bononi, Elisa Mazzoni, Silvia Pietrobon, Marco Manfredini, Elena Trregiani, Marika Rossini, Francesca Lotito, Giovanni Guerra, Paola Rizzo, Fernanda Martini, Mauro Tognon
JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) was identified in 1971 in the brain tissue of a patient (J.C.) affected by the progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). JCPyV encodes for the oncoproteins large T antigen (Tag) and small t-antigen (tag). These oncoproteins are responsible of the cell transformation and tumorigenesis in experimental animals. JCPyV is ubiquitous in human populations. After the primary infection, which is usually asymptomatic, JCPyV remains lifelong in the host in a latent phase. Its reactivation may occur in heathy subjects and immunocompromised patients...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322824/detection-and-analysis-of-variants-of-jc-polyomavirus-in-urine-samples-from-hiv-1-infected-patients-in-china-s-zhejiang-province
#3
Caiqin Hu, Ying Huang, Junwei Su, Mengyan Wang, Qihui Zhou, Biao Zhu
Objectives Human JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) infection has an increased risk of developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Different JCPyV subtypes differ in the virulence with which they cause PML. Currently, the JCPyV infection status and subtype distribution in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) in China are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology and subtype distribution of JCPyV in HIV-1-infected patients in China. Methods Urine samples from 137 HIV-1-infected patients in Zhejiang Province in China were tested for the presence of JCPyV DNA...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321332/erk-is-a-critical-regulator-of-jc-polyomavirus-infection
#4
Jeanne K DuShane, Michael P Wilczek, Colleen L Mayberry, Melissa S Maginnis
The human JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) infects the majority of the population worldwide and presents as an asymptomatic, persistent infection in the kidney. In individuals who are immunocompromised, JCPyV can become reactivated and cause a lytic infection in the central nervous system resulting in the fatal, demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Infection is initiated by interactions between the capsid protein viral protein 1 (VP1) and the α2,6-linked sialic acid on LSTc, while JCPyV internalization is facilitated by 5-hydroxytryptamine 2 receptors (5-HT2Rs)...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243131/analysis-of-variability-of-urinary-excreted-jc-virus-strains-in-patients-infected-with-hiv-and-healthy-donors
#5
Danijela Karalic, Ivana Lazarevic, Ana Banko, Maja Cupic, Djordje Jevtovic, Tanja Jovanovic
In immunocompromised individuals, especially in patients with T cell immunodeficiency, reactivation of JCPyV can cause serious life-threatening diseases. Nowadays, HIV infection is one of the most important factor for reactivation of JCPyV and the development of of the progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Mutations in the outer loops of the VP1 region can lead to the selection of the viral variants with changed tropism and increased pathological potential. The aims of this study were to determine sequence variation and amino acid changes within VP1 loops and the structure of non-coding control region (NCCR) of urinary excreted JCPyV isolates among HIV-infected patients and healthy donors...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230221/editorial-immune-control-of-jc-virus-infection-and-immune-failure-during-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#6
EDITORIAL
Yassine Taoufik, Marie-Ghislaine de Goër de Herve
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220397/desethylamiodarone-a-metabolite-of-amiodarone-induces-apoptosis-on-t24-human-bladder-cancer-cells-via-multiple-pathways
#7
Zita Bognar, Katalin Fekete, Csenge Antus, Eniko Hocsak, Rita Bognar, Antal Tapodi, Arpad Boronkai, Nelli Farkas, Ferenc Gallyas, Balazs Sumegi, Arpad Szanto
Bladder cancer (BC) is a common malignancy of the urinary tract that has a higher frequency in men than in women. Cytostatic resistance and metastasis formation are significant risk factors in BC therapy; therefore, there is great interest in overcoming drug resistance and in initiating research for novel chemotherapeutic approaches. Here, we suggest that desethylamiodarone (DEA)-a metabolite of amiodarone-may have cytostatic potential. DEA activates the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (detected by JC-1 fluorescence), and induces cell death in T24 human transitional-cell bladder carcinoma cell line at physiologically achievable concentrations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191533/oncogenic-viruses-in-skull-base-chordomas
#8
Youssef Yakkioui, Ernst-Jan M Speel, Jacobus J Van Overbeeke, Merel J M Boderie, Sreedhar Pujari, Axel Zur Hausen, Petra F G Wolffs, Yasin Temel
BACKGROUND: Chordomas are rare tumors assumed to derive from notochordal remnants. We believe that a molecular switch is responsible for their malignant behaviour. However, the involvement of oncogenic viruses has not been studied. Thus, in the present study we investigate the presence of oncogenic viruses in chordomas. METHODS: DNA and RNA from 18 snap-frozen chordomas and 15 chondrosarcomas were isolated. Real-time PCR or RT-PCR was performed to assess the presence of multiple oncogenic viruses, including herpesviridea (HSV1, HSV2,EBV, CMV, HHV6, HHV7 and KSHV), polyomaviridea (PVB19, BK, JC, SV40, MCPyV, HPyV6 and HPyV7), papillomaviridae and respiratory viruses...
November 27, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159704/neuroimmune-regulation-of-jc-virus-by-intracellular-and-extracellular-agnoprotein
#9
Michael Craigie, Stephanie Cicalese, Ilker Kudret Sariyer
JC virus (JCV) is a human polyomavirus and the etiologic agent of the demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). PML is observed in patients with underlying immunocompromising conditions, suggesting that neuro-immune interactions between peripheral immune cells and neuro-glia play an important role in controlling viral reactivation in the brain. There is little known about the immunobiology of JCV reactivation in glial cells and the role of immune, glial, and viral players in this regulation...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152583/inhibition-of-retrograde-transport-limits-polyomavirus-infection-in-vivo
#10
Saumya Maru, Ge Jin, Dhimant Desai, Shantu Amin, Shwetank, Matthew D Lauver, Aron E Lukacher
Polyomaviruses (PyVs) silently infect most humans, but they can cause life-threatening diseases in immunocompromised individuals. The JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) induces progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, a severe demyelinating disease in multiple sclerosis patients receiving immunomodulatory therapy, and BK polyomavirus (BKPyV)-associated nephropathy is a major cause of kidney allograft failure. No effective anti-PyV agents are available. Several compounds have been reported to possess anti-PyV activity in vitro, but none have shown efficacy in clinical trials...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142146/inflammatory-natalizumab-associated-pml-baseline-characteristics-lesion-evolution-and-relation-with-pml-iris
#11
Mike P Wattjes, Martijn T Wijburg, Jeroen van Eijk, Stephan Frequin, Bernard M J Uitdehaag, Frederik Barkhof, Clemens Warnke, Joep Killestein
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (NTZ-PML) patients may show imaging signs suggestive of inflammation at diagnosis ('inflammatory PML'), reminiscent of PML-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (PML-IRIS). We investigated the imaging characteristics of inflammatory NTZ-PML lesions and PML-IRIS to determine differentiating and overlapping features. METHODS: We scored the presence, localisation and pattern of imaging characteristics of inflammation on brain MRI scans of inflammatory NTZ-PML patients...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139004/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-in-the-absence-of-immunosuppression
#12
Benjamin E Zucker, Sybil R L Stacpoole
A 69-year-old woman presented with a cortical hand syndrome progressing over several weeks. MRI brain showed characteristic appearances of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), confirmed by detection of the JC virus in CSF, despite the absence of any evidence of immunosuppression. Treatment with mirtazapine, mefloquine and cidofovir did not affect the progression of the disease, which was fatal within 7 months of presentation. This report adds to the small case literature that suggests that PML can occur in immunocompetent people, albeit extremely rarely...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120025/prevention-and-therapy-of-jc-polyomavirus-mediated-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-a-realistic-possibility
#13
Ivan Jelcic, Benoit Combaluzier, Ilijas Jelcic, Mireia Sospedra, Jan Grimm, Roland Martin
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a serious opportunistic infection of the brain caused by the JC polyomavirus (JCPyV). PML occurs when immune control of persistent infection with JCPyV fails, the virus mutates and changes its cellular tropism, enters the brain and infects astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and, in particular cases, also neurones. Currently, there is no therapy for this often fatal disease. A number of approaches have failed, and only the restoration of protective immunity, if possible, can lead to clearance of the virus once PML has occurred...
November 9, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108696/metagenomics-for-the-study-of-viruses-in-urban-sewage-as-a-tool-for-public-health-surveillance
#14
X Fernandez-Cassi, N Timoneda, S Martínez-Puchol, M Rusiñol, J Rodriguez-Manzano, N Figuerola, S Bofill-Mas, J F Abril, R Girones
The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques for the identification of viruses present in urban sewage has not been fully explored. This is partially due to a lack of reliable and sensitive protocols for studying viral diversity and to the highly complex analysis required for NGS data processing. One important step towards this goal is finding methods that can efficiently concentrate viruses from sewage samples. Here the application of a virus concentration method based on skimmed milk organic flocculation (SMF) using 10L of sewage collected in different seasons enabled the detection of many viruses...
November 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098656/virological-quality-of-irrigation-water-sources-and-pepper-mild-mottle-virus-and-tobacco-mosaic-virus-as-index-of-pathogenic-virus-contamination-level
#15
Sadhana Shrestha, Shankar Shrestha, Junko Shindo, Jeevan B Sherchand, Eiji Haramoto
Irrigation water is a doorway for the pathogen contamination of fresh produce. We quantified pathogenic viruses [human adenoviruses, noroviruses of genogroups I and II, group A rotaviruses, Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1), enteroviruses (EnVs), and salivirus (SaliV)] and examined potential index viruses [JC and BK polyomaviruses (JCPyVs and BKPyVs), pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)] in irrigation water sources in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. River, sewage, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, pond, canal, and groundwater samples were collected in September 2014, and in April and August 2015...
November 2, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068484/the-clinical-utility-of-jc-virus-antibody-index-measurements-in-the-context-of-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#16
REVIEW
A Q Reuwer, M Heron, D van der Dussen, T Schneider-Hohendorf, J L Murk
In natalizumab-treated patients without previous immunosuppressive treatment, the JCV antibody index is used to stratify PML risk. A high index value indicates that the risk to develop PML is significantly elevated, although probably about 99% of patients with this index value will not develop PML. This minireview aimed to provide an overview of the basic virology and immunology relevant to understanding JCV infections in MS patients, with a focus on what is presently known about antibodies to JCV and how they could be of use to predict and diagnose PML...
November 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067097/highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-a-virus-h5n1-non-structural-protein-1-is-associated-with-apoptotic-activation-of-the-intrinsic-mitochondrial-pathway
#17
Qian Bian, Jing Lu, Li Zhang, Ying Chi, Yan Li, Hongxiong Guo
Outbreaks of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection have significant health and economic consequences. Non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is an essential virulence factor of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus and of the apoptosis associated with the pathogenesis of H5N1. Previous studies have revealed that the NS1 protein is able to induce apoptosis via an extrinsic pathway. However, it remains unclear whether the intrinsic pathway is also associated with this apoptosis. The present study used a clone of the NS1 gene from avian influenza A/Jiangsu/1/2007 and observed the localization of the NS1 protein and cytochrome c release from mitochondria and the change of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in lung cancer cells...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064575/dna-detection-of-jc-and-bk-virus-in-archival-urine-cytospin-slides
#18
Patricia Gioia de Assis, Carlos Eduardo de Souza Carvalho, Marcelo Soares da Mota E Silva, Maria da Gloria da Costa Carvalho
INTRODUCTION: To identify decoy cells, cytological examination was performed in urine cytospin slides. Decoy cells are related to Polyomaviruses (JC virus [JCV] and BK virus [BKV]), which are recognized worldwide due to potential infection and morbidity in kidney transplantrecipients. Cytologically, it is difficult to evaluate the cytopathic effect of JC and BK virus in urine of patients with urothelial neoplasia. For this reason, there is a need for molecular approaches. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of BKV and JCV DNA in archival slides of urine cytospin material with benign and malignant characteristics...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055444/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-pml-iris-in-liver-transplant-recipient
#19
J Avsenik, A Horvat Ledinek, K Šurlan Popovič
65-year-old liver transplant recipient presented with progressive neurologic dysfunction. CSF analysis revealed high JC virus load and MRI findings suggested the diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Cidofovir and mirtazapine were initiated and patient's regular immunosuppressants were reduced. Subsequently patient developed left sided hemiplegia, drowsiness and severe neglect syndrome. MRI revealed enlargement of PML lesions with contrast enhancement and worsening of oedema, consistent with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS)...
October 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044559/discovery-and-characterization-of-novel-trans-spliced-products-of-human-polyoma-jc-virus-late-transcripts-from-pml-patients
#20
A Sami Saribas, Julia DeVoto, Akhil Golla, Hassen S Wollebo, Martyn K White, Mahmut Safak
Although the human neurotropic polyomavirus, JC virus (JCV), was isolated almost a half century ago, understanding the molecular mechanisms governing its biology remains highly elusive. JCV infects oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) and causes a fatal brain disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in immunocompromised individuals including AIDS. It has a small circular DNA genome (∼ 5 kb) and generates two primary transcripts from its early and late coding regions, producing several predicted alternatively spliced products mainly by cis-splicing...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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