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Evolutionary nutrition

Laurent Kamel, Michelle Keller-Pearson, Christophe Roux, Jean-Michel Ané
I. II. III. IV. V. References SUMMARY: Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi associate with the vast majority of land plants, providing mutual nutritional benefits and protecting hosts against biotic and abiotic stresses. Significant progress was made recently in our understanding of the genomic organization, the obligate requirements, and the sexual nature of these fungi through the release and subsequent mining of genome sequences. Genomic and genetic approaches also improved our understanding of the signal repertoire used by AM fungi and their plant hosts to recognize each other for the initiation and maintenance of this association...
October 25, 2016: New Phytologist
Katherine R Amato
Research examining the gut microbiota is currently exploding, and results are providing new perspectives on human biology. Factors such as host diet and physiology influence the composition and function of the gut microbiota, which in turn affects human nutrition, health, and behavior via interactions with metabolism, the immune system, and the brain. These findings represent an exciting new twist on familiar topics, and as a result, gut microbiome research is likely to provide insight into unresolved biological mechanisms driving human health...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Amanda M V Brown, Sulochana K Wasala, Dana K Howe, Amy B Peetz, Inga A Zasada, Dee R Denver
Wolbachia, one of the most widespread endosymbionts, is a target for biological control of mosquito-borne diseases (malaria and dengue virus), and antibiotic elimination of infectious filarial nematodes. We sequenced and analyzed the genome of a new Wolbachia strain (wPpe) in the plant-parasitic nematode Pratylenchus penetrans. Phylogenomic analyses placed wPpe as the earliest diverging Wolbachia, suggesting two evolutionary invasions into nematodes. The next branches comprised strains in sap-feeding insects, suggesting Wolbachia may have first evolved as a nutritional mutualist...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kavita R Pandey, Chetan Joshi, Babu V Vakil
Probiotics are microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer health benefits to the host. A leading pharmaceutical company producing Bacillus coagulans as a probiotic was facing the problem of recurring phage attacks. Two mutants viz. B. co PIII and B. co MIII that were isolated as phage resistant mutants after UV irradiation and MMS treatment of phage sensitive B. coagulans parental culture were characterized at functional and molecular level and were noted to have undergone interesting genetic changes...
2016: SpringerPlus
Didier Bouchon, Martin Zimmer, Jessica Dittmer
Bacterial symbionts represent essential drivers of arthropod ecology and evolution, influencing host traits such as nutrition, reproduction, immunity, and speciation. However, the majority of work on arthropod microbiota has been conducted in insects and more studies in non-model species across different ecological niches will be needed to complete our understanding of host-microbiota interactions. In this review, we present terrestrial isopod crustaceans as an emerging model organism to investigate symbiotic associations with potential relevance to ecosystem functioning...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kirsten M Ellegaard, Philipp Engel
Interactions with microbes affect many aspects of animal biology, including immune system development, nutrition and health. In vertebrates, the gut microbiota is dominated by a small subset of phyla, but the species composition within these phyla is typically not conserved. Moreover, several recent studies have shown that bacterial species in the gut are composed of a multitude of strains, which frequently co-exist in their host, and may be host-specific. However, since the study of intra-species diversity is challenging, particularly in the setting of complex, host-associated microbial communities, our current understanding of the distribution, evolution and functional relevance of intra-species diversity in the gut is scarce...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yiliang Wei, Rewatee H Gokhale, Anne Sonnenschein, Kelly Mone't Montgomery, Andrew Ingersoll, David N Arnosti
Insulin signaling plays key roles in development, growth and metabolism through dynamic control of glucose uptake, global protein translation and transcriptional regulation. Altered levels of insulin signaling are known to play key roles in development and disease, yet the molecular basis of such differential signaling remains obscure. Expression of the insulin receptor (InR) gene itself appears to play an important role, but the nature of the molecular wiring controlling InR transcription has not been elucidated...
October 1, 2016: Development
Sabrice Guerrier, Helmut Plattner, Elizabeth H Richardson, Joel B Dacks, Aaron P Turkewitz
As most of eukaryotic diversity lies in single-celled protists, they represent unique opportunities to ask questions about the balance of conservation and innovation in cell biological features. Among free-living protists the ciliates offer ease of culturing, a rich array of experimental approaches, and versatile molecular tools, particularly in Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetraurelia. These attributes have been exploited by researchers to analyze a wealth of cellular structures in these large and complex cells...
October 3, 2016: Traffic
Zhengfei Wang, Shixia Xu, Kexing Du, Fang Huang, Zhuo Chen, Kaiya Zhou, Wenhua Ren, Guang Yang
Although cetaceans (whales, porpoises, and dolphins) have multi-chambered stomachs, feeding habits of modern cetaceans have dramatically changed from herbivorous to carnivorous. However, the genetic basis underlying this dietary switch remains unexplored. Here, we present the first systematic investigation of 10 digestive enzymes genes (i.e., CYP7A1, CTRC, LIPC, LIPF, PNLIP, PGC, PRSS1, SI, SLC5A1, and TMPRSS15) of representative cetaceans, and the evolutionary trajectory of RNASE1 in cetartiodactylans. Positive selections were detected with proteinases (i...
September 20, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Hayley Estrem, Britt F Pados, Jinhee Park, Kathleen A Knafl, Suzanne M Thoyre
AIM: To report an analysis of the concept of pediatric feeding problems. BACKGROUND: Reviews of the literature on pediatric feeding problems and disorders repeatedly reference the lack of a shared conceptualization of feeding problems. It is difficult to track etiology, prevalence and incidence of a phenomena when available definitions and diagnoses lack practical utility. DESIGN: An evolutionary concept analysis. DATA SOURCES: A search was conducted in October 2014 of Google Scholar, CINAHL, PubMed and Web of Science databases, with MeSH terms and key words including: failure to thrive, feeding disorder/difficulty/problems, infantile anorexia, oral aversion, mealtime behavior and dysphagia...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Iliona Wolfowicz, Sebastian Baumgarten, Philipp A Voss, Elizabeth A Hambleton, Christian R Voolstra, Masayuki Hatta, Annika Guse
Symbiosis, defined as the persistent association between two distinct species, is an evolutionary and ecologically critical phenomenon facilitating survival of both partners in diverse habitats. The biodiversity of coral reef ecosystems depends on a functional symbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the highly diverse genus Symbiodinium, which reside in coral host cells and continuously support their nutrition. The mechanisms underlying symbiont selection to establish a stable endosymbiosis in non-symbiotic juvenile corals are unclear...
2016: Scientific Reports
Carolin Boehlke, Sandra Pötschke, Verena Behringer, Christian Hannig, Oliver Zierau
Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana) are herbivore generalists; however, Asian elephants might ingest a higher proportion of grasses than Africans. Although some studies have investigated nutrition-specific morphological adaptations of the two species, broader studies on salivary enzymes in both elephant species are lacking. This study focuses on the comparison of salivary enzymes activity profiles in the two elephant species; these enzymes are relevant for protective and digestive functions in humans...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Simon Heilbronner, Ian R Monk, Jeremy R Brozyna, David E Heinrichs, Eric P Skaar, Andreas Peschel, Timothy J Foster
Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a coagulase negative bacterial pathogen that is particularly associated with severe cases of infectious endocarditis. Unique amongst the coagulase-negative staphylococci, S. lugdunensis harbors an iron regulated surface determinant locus (isd). This locus facilitates the acquisition of heme as a source of nutrient iron during infection and allows iron limitation caused by "nutritional immunity" to be overcome. The isd locus is duplicated in S. lugdunensis HKU09-01 and we show here that the duplication is intrinsically unstable and undergoes accordion-like amplification and segregation leading to extensive isd copy number variation...
August 2016: PLoS Genetics
Trina J Lapis, Michael H Penner, Juyun Lim
It is widely accepted that humans can taste mono- and disaccharides as sweet substances, but they cannot taste longer chain oligo- and polysaccharides. From the evolutionary standpoint, the ability to taste starch or its oligomeric hydrolysis products would be highly adaptive, given their nutritional value. Here, we report that humans can taste glucose oligomer preparations (average degree of polymerization 7 and 14) without any other sensorial cues. The same human subjects could not taste the corresponding glucose polymer preparation (average degree of polymerization 44)...
August 23, 2016: Chemical Senses
Jonathan Z Shik, Ernesto B Gomez, Pepijn W Kooij, Juan C Santos, William T Wcislo, Jacobus J Boomsma
Attine ants evolved farming 55-60 My before humans. Although evolutionarily derived leafcutter ants achieved industrial-scale farming, extant species from basal attine genera continue to farm loosely domesticated fungal cultivars capable of pursuing independent reproductive interests. We used feeding experiments with the basal attine Mycocepurus smithii to test whether reproductive allocation conflicts between farmers and cultivars constrain crop yield, possibly explaining why their mutualism has remained limited in scale and productivity...
September 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kaspar Staub, Nicole Bender, Joël Floris, Christian Pfister, Frank J Rühli
OBJECTIVE: The global obesity epidemic continues, new approaches are needed to understand the causes. We analyzed data from an evolutionary perspective, stressing developmental plasticity. METHODS: We present diachronical height, weight, and BMI data for 702,902 Swiss male conscripts aged 18-20 years, a representative, standardized and unchanged data source. RESULTS: From 1875 to 1879, the height distribution was slightly left-skewed; 12.1% of the conscripts were underweight, overweight and obesity were rare...
2016: Obesity Facts
Kevin D Kohl, M Denise Dearing
The microbial communities inhabiting the alimentary tracts of mammals, particularly those of herbivores, are estimated to be one of the densest microbial reservoirs on Earth. The significance of these gut microbes in influencing the physiology, ecology and evolution of their hosts is only beginning to be realized. To understand the microbiome of herbivores with a focus on nutritional ecology, while evaluating the roles of host evolution and environment in sculpting microbial diversity, we have developed an experimental system consisting of the microbial communities of several species of herbivorous woodrats (genus Neotoma) that naturally feed on a variety of dietary toxins...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Larissa Balabanova, Olga Nedashkovskaya, Anna Podvolotskaya, Lubov Slepchenko, Vasily Golotin, Alexey Belik, Ludmila Shevchenko, Oksana Son, Valery Rasskazov
Data is presented in support of functionality of hyper-diverse protein families encoded by the Cobetia amphilecti KMM 296 (formerly Cobetia marina KMM 296) genome ("The genome of the marine bacterium Cobetia marina KMM 296 isolated from the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus (Dunker, 1853)" [1]) providing its nutritional versatility, adaptability and biocontrol that could be the basis of the marine bacterium evolutionary and application potential. Presented data include the information of growth and biofilm-forming properties of the food-associated isolates of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Listeria, Salmonella and Staphylococcus under the conditions of their co-culturing with C...
September 2016: Data in Brief
Jeremy D Hogan, Amanda D Melin, Krisztina N Mosdossy, Linda M Fedigan
OBJECTIVES: Our goal is to investigate flower foraging by capuchin monkeys, a behavior rarely studied in wild primates. We ask what drives seasonal variation in florivory rates: flower quality and abundance or fluctuations in fruit and invertebrate abundances. We explore how capuchins affect the reproductive success of flower food species by quantifying the potential pollination rate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We followed capuchin groups from dawn to dusk and recorded all flower foraging bouts...
August 5, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Jennifer Alcaíno, Marcelo Baeza, Víctor Cifuentes
Carotenoids are naturally occurring red, orange and yellow pigments that are synthesized by plants and some microorganisms and fulfill many important physiological functions. This chapter describes the distribution of carotenoid in microorganisms, including bacteria, archaea, microalgae, filamentous fungi and yeasts. We will also focus on their functional aspects and applications, such as their nutritional value, their benefits for human and animal health and their potential protection against free radicals...
2016: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
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