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Evolutionary nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076653/recent-advances-in-primate-nutritional-ecology
#1
Nicoletta Righini
Nutritional ecology seeks to explain, in an ecological and evolutionary context, how individuals choose, acquire, and process food to satisfy their nutritional requirements. Historically, studies of primate feeding ecology have focused on characterizing diets in terms of the botanical composition of the plants consumed. Further, dietary studies have demonstrated how patch and food choice in relation to time spent foraging and feeding are influenced by the spatial and temporal distribution of resources and by social factors such as feeding competition, dominance, or partner preferences...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073472/the-interaction-between-cyanobacteria-and-zooplankton-in-a-more-eutrophic-world
#2
REVIEW
Kemal Ali Ger, Pablo Urrutia-Cordero, Paul C Frost, Lars-Anders Hansson, Orlando Sarnelle, Alan E Wilson, Miquel Lürling
As blooms of cyanobacteria expand and intensify in freshwater systems globally, there is increasing interest in their ecological effects. In addition to being public health hazards, cyanobacteria have long been considered a poor quality food for key zooplankton grazers that link phytoplankton to higher trophic levels. While past laboratory studies have found negative effects of nutritional constraints and defensive traits (i.e., toxicity and colonial or filamentous morphology) on the fitness of large generalist grazers (i...
April 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067952/plastomes-on-the-edge-the-evolutionary-breakdown-of-mycoheterotroph-plastid-genomes
#3
REVIEW
Sean W Graham, Vivienne K Y Lam, Vincent S F T Merckx
I. II. III. References SUMMARY: We examine recent evidence for ratchet-like genome degradation in mycoheterotrophs, plants that obtain nutrition from fungi. Initial loss of the NADH dehydrogenase-like (NDH) complex may often set off an irreversible evolutionary cascade of photosynthetic gene losses. Genes for plastid-encoded subunits of RNA polymerase and photosynthetic enzymes with secondary functions (Rubisco and ATP synthase) can persist initially, with nonsynchronous and quite broad windows in the relative timing of their loss...
January 9, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036149/social-dominance-alters-nutrition-related-gene-expression-immediately-transcriptomic-evidence-from-a-monomorphic-queenless-ant
#4
Yasukazu Okada, Yutaka Watanabe, Mandy M Y Tin, Kazuki Tsuji, Alexander S Mikheyev
Queen-worker differentiation in eusocial organisms may have originated from decoupling of maternal care and reproductive behaviors. Recent advances in sequencing techniques have begun to elucidate the molecular basis of queen-worker differentiation. However, current knowledge of the molecular basis of caste differentiation is limited, especially to species with morphological castes. It seems likely that at the dawn of eusociality morphologically undifferentiated, monomorphic females underwent physiological differentiation that yielded egg-laying and caretaking castes...
December 30, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032461/mixotrophy-everywhere-on-land-and-in-water-the-grand-%C3%A3-cart-hypothesis
#5
REVIEW
Marc-André Selosse, Marie Charpin, Fabrice Not
There is increasing awareness that many terrestrial and aquatic organisms are not strictly heterotrophic or autotrophic but rather mixotrophic. Mixotrophy is an intermediate nutritional strategy, merging autotrophy and heterotrophy to acquire organic carbon and/or other elements, mainly N, P or Fe. We show that both terrestrial and aquatic mixotrophs fall into three categories, namely necrotrophic (where autotrophs prey on other organisms), biotrophic (where heterotrophs gain autotrophy by symbiosis) and absorbotrophic (where autotrophs take up environmental organic molecules)...
December 28, 2016: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031282/tonb-dependent-heme-hemoglobin-utilization-by-caulobacter-crescentus-huta
#6
Heloise Balhesteros, Yan Shipelskiy, Noah Long, Aritri Majumdar, Benjamin B Katz, Naara M Santos, Laura Leaden, Salete M Newton, Marilis V Marques, Phillip E Klebba
: Siderophore nutrition tests with Caulobacter crescentus strain NA1000 revealed that it utilized a variety of ferric hydroxamate siderophores, including asperchromes, ferrichromes, ferrichrome A, malonichrome and ferric aerobactin, as well as hemin and hemoglobin. C. crescentus did not transport ferrioxamine B or ferric catecholates. Because it did not use ferric enterobactin, the catecholate aposiderophore was an effective agent for iron deprivation. We determined the kinetics and thermodynamics of [(59)Fe]-apoferrichrome and [(59)Fe]-citrate binding and transport by NA1000...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026884/making-a-queen-an-epigenetic-analysis-of-the-robustness-of-the-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-queen-developmental-pathway
#7
Xu Jiang He, Lin Bin Zhou, Qi Zhong Pan, Andrew B Barron, Wei Yu Yan, Zhi Jiang Zeng
Specialised castes are considered a key reason for the evolutionary and ecological success of the social insect lifestyle. The most essential caste distinction is between the fertile queen and the sterile workers. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers and queens are not genetically distinct, rather these different phenotypes are the result of epigenetically regulated divergent developmental pathways. This is an important phenomenon in understanding the evolution of social insect societies. Here we studied the genomic regulation of the worker and queen developmental pathways, and the robustness of the pathways by transplanting eggs or young larvae to queen cells...
December 27, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005948/the-jujube-genome-provides-insights-into-genome-evolution-and-the-domestication-of-sweetness-acidity-taste-in-fruit-trees
#8
Jian Huang, Chunmei Zhang, Xing Zhao, Zhangjun Fei, KangKang Wan, Zhong Zhang, Xiaoming Pang, Xiao Yin, Yang Bai, Xiaoqing Sun, Lizhi Gao, Ruiqiang Li, Jinbo Zhang, Xingang Li
Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) belongs to the Rhamnaceae family and is a popular fruit tree species with immense economic and nutritional value. Here, we report a draft genome of the dry jujube cultivar 'Junzao' and the genome resequencing of 31 geographically diverse accessions of cultivated and wild jujubes (Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa). Comparative analysis revealed that the genome of 'Dongzao', a fresh jujube, was ~86.5 Mb larger than that of the 'Junzao', partially due to the recent insertions of transposable elements in the 'Dongzao' genome...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000570/structural-functional-and-evolutionary-aspects-of-seed-globulins
#9
Pooja Kesari, Neetu, Anchal Sharma, Madhusudhanarao Katiki, Pramod Kumar, Bhola R Gurjar, Shailly Tomar, Ashwani Kumar Sharma, Pravindra Kumar
Globulins are a major class of seed storage proteins which were thought to be enzymatically inactive. These proteins belong to the most ancient cupin superfamily. They can be graded into 11S legumin types and 7S vicilin types based on their sedimentation coefficients. Members from both classes share structural homology are thought to have evolved from either one-domain germin predecessor by duplication or by horizontal gene transfer of two-domain gene from bacteria to eukaryotes. Globulins are known to define the nutritional quality of the seeds, however, they are also involved in sucrose binding, desiccation, defense against microbes, hormone binding and oxidative stress etc...
20, 2016: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956844/helminth-infection-during-pregnancy-insights-from-evolutionary-ecology
#10
REVIEW
Aaron D Blackwell
Helminths are parasitic nematodes and trematodes, grouped together because of morphological similarities and commonalities in the effects infections have on hosts. These include complications such as anemia and biasing of immune responses, which can alter susceptibility for other diseases. For pregnant women, these complications might have implications for pregnancy outcomes or neonatal health. Here, I review studies of helminth infections during pregnancy, and ask the following questions: Do helminths affect maternal health or pregnancy outcomes? Are there consequences of maternal infection for infants? What are the effects of antihelminth treatment during pregnancy? The evidence suggests that the answers to these questions depend on the particular helminth species in question, maternal nutritional status, and the presence or absence of comorbid infection with other species, such as malaria...
2016: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923131/mates-with-benefits-when-and-how-sexual-cannibalism-is-adaptive
#11
Marlene Zuk
Sexual cannibalism occurs in several arthropod taxa, but its evolutionary significance has long been debated. A new study shows how females that eat their mates benefit in ways that go well beyond caloric nutrition.
December 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905882/plasticity-in-growth-of-farmed-and-wild-atlantic-salmon-is-the-increased-growth-rate-of-farmed-salmon-caused-by-evolutionary-adaptations-to-the-commercial-diet
#12
Alison Catherine Harvey, Monica Favnebøe Solberg, Eva Troianou, Gary Robert Carvalho, Martin Ian Taylor, Simon Creer, Lise Dyrhovden, Ivar Helge Matre, Kevin Alan Glover
BACKGROUND: Domestication of Atlantic salmon for commercial aquaculture has resulted in farmed salmon displaying substantially higher growth rates than wild salmon under farming conditions. In contrast, growth differences between farmed and wild salmon are much smaller when compared in the wild. The mechanisms underlying this contrast between environments remain largely unknown. It is possible that farmed salmon have adapted to the high-energy pellets developed specifically for aquaculture, contributing to inflated growth differences when fed on this diet...
December 1, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901032/from-the-past-to-future-from-energy-expenditure-to-energy-intake-to-energy-expenditure
#13
REVIEW
M J Müller, C Geisler
Although most recent research on energy balance focusses on energy intake (EI) there is still need to think about both sides of the energy balance. Current research on energy expenditure (EE) relates to metabolic adaptation to negative energy balance, mitochondrial metabolism associated with aging, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the role of EE in hunger and appetite control, non-shivering thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue activity, cellular bioenergetics as a target of obesity treatment and the evolutionary and ecological determinants of EE in humans and other primates...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891602/cannabimimetic-phytochemicals-in-the-diet-an-evolutionary-link-to-food-selection-and-metabolic-stress-adaptation
#14
REVIEW
Jürg Gertsch
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a major lipid signaling network that plays important pro-homeostatic (allostatic) roles not only in the nervous system but in peripheral organs. Increasing evidence points towards a dietary component in the modulation of the ECS. Cannabinoid receptors in hominids co-evolved with diet and the ECS constitutes a feedback loop for food selection and energy metabolism. Here it is postulated that the mismatch of ancient lipid genes of hunter-gatheres and pastoralists with the high carbohydrate diet introduced by agriculture could be compensated via dietary modulation of the ECS...
November 27, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883220/how-long-does-the-volumizing-effect-of-a-zingiber-officinale-based-lip-plumper-last
#15
V Mazzarello, G Solinas, P Bandiera, V Pomponi, G Piu, M Ferrari, A Montella
OBJECTIVE: Lip plumpers should enhance lip volume. It has been shown that no noticeable result was obtained after long term use of these products. The present study has been carried out to assess lip plumpers' short term effectiveness within 2 h from application. METHODS: Effectiveness was assessed using non-invasive techniques. The effect on vascularisation was analyzed with the Mexameter MX 16(®) , and the volume enhancing effect was assessed by anthropometric measures and profilometry analysis from 3D scanning electron microscope (SEM) images using Alicona's MEX software...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878094/host-mediated-shift-in-the-cold-tolerance-of-an-invasive-insect
#16
Amy C Morey, Robert C Venette, Erica C Nystrom Santacruz, Laurel A Mosca, W D Hutchison
While many insects cannot survive the formation of ice within their bodies, a few species can. On the evolutionary continuum from freeze-intolerant (i.e., freeze-avoidant) to freeze-tolerant insects, intermediates likely exist that can withstand some ice formation, but not enough to be considered fully freeze tolerant. Theory suggests that freeze tolerance should be favored over freeze avoidance among individuals that have low relative fitness before exposure to cold. For phytophagous insects, numerous studies have shown that host (or nutrition) can affect fitness and cold-tolerance strategy, respectively, but no research has investigated whether changes in fitness caused by different hosts of polyphagous species could lead to systematic changes in cold-tolerance strategy...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871231/transcriptomic-and-proteomic-insights-into-innate-immunity-and-adaptations-to-a-symbiotic-lifestyle-in-the-gutless-marine-worm-olavius-algarvensis
#17
Juliane Wippler, Manuel Kleiner, Christian Lott, Alexander Gruhl, Paul E Abraham, Richard J Giannone, Jacque C Young, Robert L Hettich, Nicole Dubilier
BACKGROUND: The gutless marine worm Olavius algarvensis has a completely reduced digestive and excretory system, and lives in an obligate nutritional symbiosis with bacterial symbionts. While considerable knowledge has been gained of the symbionts, the host has remained largely unstudied. Here, we generated transcriptomes and proteomes of O. algarvensis to better understand how this annelid worm gains nutrition from its symbionts, how it adapted physiologically to a symbiotic lifestyle, and how its innate immune system recognizes and responds to its symbiotic microbiota...
November 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862974/phenotypic-variation-in-food-utilization-in-an-outbreak-insect-herbivore
#18
Roberto Quezada-García, Álvaro Fuentealba, Éric Bauce
The effects of nutrition may have subtantial impact on insect evolution by shaping different components of phenotypes. The key to undestanding this evolutionary process is to know how nutritional condition affects additive and non-additive components of the phenotype. However, this is poorly understood in outbreaking insects. We investigated the additive and non-additive variation present in food utilization traits in spruce budworm individuals subjected to chronic nutritional stress. 160 full-sib families of spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clem...
November 8, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835655/a-transcriptome-meta-analysis-proposes-novel-biological-roles-for-the-antifungal-protein-anafp-in-aspergillus-niger
#19
Norman Paege, Sascha Jung, Paul Schäpe, Dirk Müller-Hagen, Jean-Paul Ouedraogo, Caroline Heiderich, Johanna Jedamzick, Benjamin M Nitsche, Cees A van den Hondel, Arthur F Ram, Vera Meyer
Understanding the genetic, molecular and evolutionary basis of cysteine-stabilized antifungal proteins (AFPs) from fungi is important for understanding whether their function is mainly defensive or associated with fungal growth and development. In the current study, a transcriptome meta-analysis of the Aspergillus niger γ-core protein AnAFP was performed to explore co-expressed genes and pathways, based on independent expression profiling microarrays covering 155 distinct cultivation conditions. This analysis uncovered that anafp displays a highly coordinated temporal and spatial transcriptional profile which is concomitant with key nutritional and developmental processes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814031/coccolithophore-cell-biology-chalking-up-progress
#20
Alison R Taylor, Colin Brownlee, Glen Wheeler
Coccolithophores occupy a special position within the marine phytoplankton because of their production of intricate calcite scales, or coccoliths. Coccolithophores are major contributors to global ocean calcification and long-term carbon fluxes. The intracellular production of coccoliths requires modifications to cellular ultrastructure and metabolism that are surveyed here. In addition to calcification, which appears to have evolved with a diverse range of functions, several other remarkable features that likely underpin the ecological and evolutionary success of coccolithophores have recently been uncovered...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
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