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Evolutionary nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883816/modulation-of-zinc-homeostasis-in-acanthamoeba-castellanii-as-a-possible-antifungal-strategy-against-cryptococcus-gattii
#1
Nicole S Ribeiro, Francine M Dos Santos, Ane W A Garcia, Patrícia A G Ferrareze, Laura F Fabres, Augusto Schrank, Livia Kmetzsch, Marilise B Rott, Marilene H Vainstein, Charley C Staats
Cryptococcus gattii is a basidiomycetous yeast that can be found in the environment and is one of the agents of cryptococcosis, a life-threatening disease. During its life cycle, cryptococcal cells take hold inside environmental predators such as amoebae. Despite their evolutionary distance, macrophages and amoebae share conserved similar steps of phagocytosis and microbial killing. To evaluate whether amoebae also share other antifungal strategies developed by macrophages, we investigated nutritional immunity against cryptococcal cells...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864990/exploitation-of-non-mammalian-model-organisms-in-epigenetic-research
#2
William V Holt
Model organisms are widely used in research that is ultimately aimed at understanding the causes and consequences of human disease. It may seem counterintuitive to expect clinically useful information to be obtained from species as diverse as fishes and insects, but because fundamental biological mechanisms share evolutionary origins they transcend species barriers. Epigenetic mechanisms fulfil this expectation admirably as more and more is discovered about the basic operational rules of inheritance, which are much more elaborate than formerly thought...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854926/single-molecule-sequencing-and-hi-c-based-proximity-guided-assembly-of-amaranth-amaranthus-hypochondriacus-chromosomes-provide-insights-into-genome-evolution
#3
D J Lightfoot, D E Jarvis, T Ramaraj, R Lee, E N Jellen, P J Maughan
BACKGROUND: Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) was a food staple among the ancient civilizations of Central and South America that has recently received increased attention due to the high nutritional value of the seeds, with the potential to help alleviate malnutrition and food security concerns, particularly in arid and semiarid regions of the developing world. Here, we present a reference-quality assembly of the amaranth genome which will assist the agronomic development of the species...
August 31, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836724/sleeper-cells-the-stringent-response-and-persistence-in-the-borreliella-borrelia-burgdorferi-enzootic-cycle
#4
REVIEW
Felipe C Cabello, Henry P Godfrey, Julia V Bugrysheva, Stuart A Newman
Infections with tick-transmitted Borreliella (Borrelia) burgdorferi, the cause of Lyme disease, represent an increasingly large public health problem in North America and Europe. The ability of these spirochetes to maintain themselves for extended periods of time in their tick vectors and vertebrate reservoirs is crucial for continuance of the enzootic cycle as well as for the increasing exposure of humans to them. The stringent response mediated by the alarmone (p)ppGpp has been determined to be a master regulator in B...
August 24, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823016/de-novo-synthesis-of-linoleic-acid-in-multiple-collembola-species
#5
Miriama Malcicka, Joachim Ruther, Jacintha Ellers
Many ecological interactions in communities take place between consumers and the organisms they feed on. Continuous surplus of specific nutritional compounds in the diet may lead to evolutionary changes in the metabolic capacity of the consumer, leaving the biosynthesis of such compounds prone to genetic decay and render organisms auxotrophic. A nutrient that is essential to many organisms is the unsaturated fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6), which is important in the maintenance of cell membrane fluidity and as a precursor for signaling molecules...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820115/six-key-traits-of-fungi-their-evolutionary-origins-and-genetic-bases
#6
László G Nagy, Renáta Tóth, Enikő Kiss, Jason Slot, Attila Gácser, Gábor M Kovács
The fungal lineage is one of the three large eukaryotic lineages that dominate terrestrial ecosystems. They share a common ancestor with animals in the eukaryotic supergroup Opisthokonta and have a deeper common ancestry with plants, yet several phenotypes, such as morphological, physiological, or nutritional traits, make them unique among all living organisms. This article provides an overview of some of the most important fungal traits, how they evolve, and what major genes and gene families contribute to their development...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805640/nutritional-endocrine-and-social-influences-on-reproductive-physiology-at-the-origins-of-social-behavior
#7
REVIEW
Karen M Kapheim
Understanding the evolutionary origins of social behavior in insects requires understanding the physiological basis for reproductive plasticity. Solitary bees and wasps or those living in small, flexible societies will be key to understanding how conserved pathways have evolved to give rise to reproductive castes. Nutrient-sensing and endocrine pathways are decoupled from reproduction in some life stages of social insects. Heterochrony, particularly as it is related to diapause physiology, may be an important mechanism by which this decoupling occurs...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805631/bumble-bee-ecophysiology-integrating-the-changing-environment-and-the-organism
#8
REVIEW
S Hollis Woodard
Bumble bees are among the most ecologically and economically important pollinators worldwide, yet many of their populations are being threatened by a suite of interrelated, human-mediated environmental changes. Here, I discuss recent progress in our understanding of bumble bee ecophysiology, including advances related to thermal biology in light of global warming; nutritional biology in the context of declining food resources; and the capacity for bumble bees to exhibit physiological plasticity or adaptations to novel or extreme environments, with reference to their evolutionary history and current biogeography...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792413/human-reproduction-and-health-an-evolutionary-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Grazyna Jasienska, Richard G Bribiescas, Anne-Sofie Furberg, Samuli Helle, Alejandra Núñez-de la Mora
According to life history theory, increased investment in reproductive function (physiology and behaviour) at different times throughout the life course affects the risk of many diseases and, ultimately, longevity. Although genetic factors contribute to interindividual and interpopulation variation in reproductive traits, the dominant source of variability is phenotypic plasticity during development and adult life. Reproductive traits in both sexes evolved sensitivity to ecological conditions, as reflected in contemporary associations of hormone concentrations with geographical setting, nutritional status, and physical activity level...
July 29, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792412/evolutionary-public-health-introducing-the-concept
#10
REVIEW
Jonathan C K Wells, Randolph M Nesse, Rebecca Sear, Rufus A Johnstone, Stephen C Stearns
The emerging discipline of evolutionary medicine is breaking new ground in understanding why people become ill. However, the value of evolutionary analyses of human physiology and behaviour is only beginning to be recognised in the field of public health. Core principles come from life history theory, which analyses the allocation of finite amounts of energy between four competing functions-maintenance, growth, reproduction, and defence. A central tenet of evolutionary theory is that organisms are selected to allocate energy and time to maximise reproductive success, rather than health or longevity...
July 29, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771698/molecular-and-functional-genetics-of-the-proopiomelanocortin-gene-food-intake-regulation-and-obesity
#11
REVIEW
Marcelo Rubinstein, Malcolm J Low
A specter is haunting the world, the specter of obesity. During the last decade, this pandemia has skyrocketed threatening children, adolescents and lower income families worldwide. Although driven by an increase in the consumption of ultraprocessed edibles of poor nutritional value, the obesogenic changes in contemporary human lifestyle affect people differently, revealing that some individuals are more prone to develop increased adiposity. During the last years, we performed a variety of genetic, evolutionary, biochemical and behavioral experiments that allowed us to understand how a group of neurons present in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus regulate the expression of the proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) gene and induce satiety...
August 3, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770836/the-evolution-of-the-host-microbiome-as-an-ecosystem-on-a-leash
#12
Kevin R Foster, Jonas Schluter, Katharine Z Coyte, Seth Rakoff-Nahoum
The human body carries vast communities of microbes that provide many benefits. Our microbiome is complex and challenging to understand, but evolutionary theory provides a universal framework with which to analyse its biology and health impacts. Here we argue that to understand a given microbiome feature, such as colonization resistance, host nutrition or immune development, we must consider how hosts and symbionts evolve. Symbionts commonly evolve to compete within the host ecosystem, while hosts evolve to keep the ecosystem on a leash...
August 2, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743231/genome-wide-comparative-analysis-of-putative-pth11-related-g-protein-coupled-receptors-in-fungi-belonging-to-pezizomycotina
#13
Xihui Xu, Guopeng Li, Lu Li, Zhenzhu Su, Chen Chen
BACKGROUND: G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors in fungi, where they play important roles in signal transduction. Among them, the Pth11-related GPCRs form a large and divergent protein family, and are only found in fungi in Pezizomycotina. However, the evolutionary process and potential functions of Pth11-related GPCRs remain largely unknown. RESULTS: Twenty genomes of fungi in Pezizomycotina covering different nutritional strategies were mined for putative Pth11-related GPCRs...
July 25, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743172/modelling-nutritional-mutualisms-challenges-and-opportunities-for-data-integration
#14
REVIEW
Teresa J Clark, Colleen A Friel, Emily Grman, Yair Shachar-Hill, Maren L Friesen
Nutritional mutualisms are ancient, widespread, and profoundly influential in biological communities and ecosystems. Although much is known about these interactions, comprehensive answers to fundamental questions, such as how resource availability and structured interactions influence mutualism persistence, are still lacking. Mathematical modelling of nutritional mutualisms has great potential to facilitate the search for comprehensive answers to these and other fundamental questions by connecting the physiological and genomic underpinnings of mutualisms with ecological and evolutionary processes...
September 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740638/nutritional-physiology-and-ecology-of-wildlife-in-a-changing-world
#15
Kim Birnie-Gauvin, Kathryn S Peiman, David Raubenheimer, Steven J Cooke
Over the last century, humans have modified landscapes, generated pollution and provided opportunities for exotic species to invade areas where they did not evolve. In addition, humans now interact with animals in a growing number of ways (e.g. ecotourism). As a result, the quality (i.e. nutrient composition) and quantity (i.e. food abundance) of dietary items consumed by wildlife have, in many cases, changed. We present representative examples of the extent to which vertebrate foraging behaviour, food availability (quantity and quality) and digestive physiology have been modified due to human-induced environmental changes and human activities...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696940/multiple-selective-events-at-the-prdm16-functional-pathway-shaped-adaptation-of-western-european-populations-to-different-climate-conditions
#16
Andrea Quagliariello, Sara De Fanti, Cristina Giuliani, Paolo Abondio, Patrizia Serventi, Stefania Sarno, Marco Sazzini, Donata Luiselli
Several studies highlighted the role of climate in shaping many human evolutionary processes. This occurred even in relatively recent times, having affected various human phenotypic traits, among which metabolic processes that orchestrate absorption and accumulation of substances to maintain energy homeostasis, that is critical for the survival of individuals in high energy-expenditure environments. To date, most researches have focalized on detection of climatic influence on SNPs' frequency in populations exposed to extreme environmental conditions or by comparing variation patterns between populations from different continents...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673909/physiological-mechanisms-underlying-animal-social-behaviour
#17
Frank Seebacher, Jens Krause
Many species of animal live in groups, and the group represents the organizational level within which ecological and evolutionary processes occur. Understanding these processes, therefore, relies on knowledge of the mechanisms that permit or constrain group formation. We suggest that physiological capacities and differences in physiology between individuals modify fission-fusion dynamics. Differences between individuals in locomotor capacity and metabolism may lead to fission of groups and sorting of individuals into groups with similar physiological phenotypes...
August 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673078/nutritional-and-metabolic-programming-during-the-first-thousand-days-of-life
#18
Massimo Agosti, Francesco Tandoi, Laura Morlacchi, Angela Bossi
The latest scientific acquisitions are demonstrating what has already been hypothesized for more than twenty years about the development of the state of health/illness of individuals. Indeed, certain stimuli, if applied to a sensible phase of development, are able to modify, through epigenetic mechanisms, gene expression of DNA, resulting in adaptive modifications of phenotype to the environment, which may reflect negatively on the health of every individual. This concept, applied to nutrition, has opened up important prospects for research in this area...
June 28, 2017: La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica: Medical and Surgical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664982/host-specific-associations-affect-the-microbiome-of-philornis-downsi-an-introduced-parasite-to-the-gal%C3%A3-pagos-islands
#19
Michael Ben-Yosef, Doron S Y Zaada, Rachael Y Dudaniec, Zohar Pasternak, Edouard Jurkevitch, Renee J Smith, Charlotte E Causton, M Piedad Lincango, Shanan S Tobe, James G Mitchell, Sonia Kleindorfer, Boaz Yuval
The composition and diversity of bacteria forming the microbiome of parasitic organisms have implications for differential host pathogenicity and host-parasite co-evolutionary interactions. The microbiome of pathogens can therefore have consequences that are relevant for managing disease prevalence and impact in affected hosts. Here we investigate the microbiome of an invasive parasitic fly Philornis downsi, recently introduced to the Galápagos Islands, where it poses extinction threat to Darwin's finches and other land birds...
June 30, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657495/in-silico-structural-studies-and-molecular-docking-analysis-of-delta6-desaturase-in-hufa-biosynthetic-pathway
#20
Suvra Roy, Hirak Jyoti Chakraborty, Vikash Kumar, B K Behera, R S Rana, Gireesh Babu
Fish are an important source of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) such as eicosapentaenoic acid EPA (20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid DHA (22:6 n-3) and play a significant role in human nutrition. The fatty acyl delta6-desaturase (Δ6 desaturase) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) that converts polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as linoleic (18:2n-6) and α-linolenic (18:3n-3) acids into HUFA. In this study, fatty acyl Δ6 desaturase was identified from pangasius (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and further analyzed for sequenced-based characterization and 3D structural conformation...
June 28, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
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