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Evolutionary nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340696/comments-on-the-history-of-medical-biological-studies-of-aging-the-birth-of-scientific-gerontology
#1
L Robert, J Labat-Robert
Recent books (Immunity. How Elie Metchnikoff changed the course of modern medicine and Expectations of Life) reviewed the important contribution of Metchnikoff to the emergence of gerontology as a new branch of biomedical sciences. Here, we insist on Metchnikoff's contribution and pivotal role in the emergence of nutrition as a science and its importance for health and longevity. The discovery of phagocytosis by Metchnikoff and of its evolutionary ancestry are at the origin of the emergence of cellular immunity as an independent science besides humoral immunity...
January 2017: Current Research in Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336178/symbiont-acquisition-and-replacement-as-a-source-of-ecological-innovation
#2
REVIEW
Sailendharan Sudakaran, Christian Kost, Martin Kaltenpoth
Nutritional symbionts play a major role in the ecology and evolution of insects. The recent accumulation of knowledge on the identity, function, genomics, and phylogenetic relationships of insect-bacteria symbioses provides the opportunity to assess the effects of symbiont acquisitions and replacements on the shift into novel ecological niches and subsequent lineage diversification. The megadiverse insect order Hemiptera presents a particularly large diversity of symbiotic associations that has frequently undergone shifts in symbiont localization and identity, which have contributed to the exploitation of nutritionally imbalanced diets such as plant saps or vertebrate blood...
March 20, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333344/probing-the-evolutionary-history-of-human-bitter-taste-receptor-pseudogenes-by-restoring-their-function
#3
Davide Risso, Maik Behrens, Eduardo Sainz, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Dennis Drayna
Lineage-specific gene losses can be driven by selection or environmental adaptations. However, a lack of studies on the original function of species-specific pseudogenes leaves a gap in our understanding of their role in evolutionary histories. Pseudogenes are of particular relevance for taste perception genes, which encode for receptors that confer the ability to both identify nutritionally valuable substances and avoid potentially harmful substances. To explore the role of bitter taste pseudogenization events in human origins, we restored the open reading frames of the three human-specific pseudogenes and synthesized the reconstructed functional hTAS2R2, hTAS2R62 and hTAS2R64 receptors...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250807/the-darwin-cure-for-apiculture-natural-selection-and-managed-honeybee-health
#4
Peter Neumann, Tjeerd Blacquière
Recent major losses of managed honeybee, Apis mellifera, colonies at a global scale have resulted in a multitude of research efforts to identify the underlying mechanisms. Numerous factors acting singly and/or in combination have been identified, ranging from pathogens, over nutrition to pesticides. However, the role of apiculture in limiting natural selection has largely been ignored. This is unfortunate, because honeybees are more exposed to environmental stressors compared to other livestock and management can severely compromise bee health...
March 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243823/role-of-phospholipid-flux-during-milk-secretion-in-the-mammary-gland
#5
REVIEW
Michał Smoczyński
Lipids are a complex group of chemical compounds that are a significant component of the human diet and are one of the main constituents of milk. In mammals, lipids are produced in the milk-secreting cells in the form of milk fat globules. The chemical properties of these compounds necessitate developing separate processes for effective management of non-polar substances in the polar environment of the cell, not only during their biosynthesis and accumulation in the cell interior and secretion of intracytoplasmic lipid droplets outside the cell, but also during digestion in the offspring...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216663/the-importance-of-pollen-chemistry-in-evolutionary-host-shifts-of-bees
#6
Maryse Vanderplanck, Nicolas J Vereecken, Laurent Grumiau, Fabiana Esposito, Georges Lognay, Ruddy Wattiez, Denis Michez
Although bee-plant associations are generally maintained through speciation processes, host shifts have occurred during evolution. Understanding shifts between both phylogenetically and morphologically unrelated plants (i.e., host-saltation) is especially important since they could have been key processes in the origin and radiation of bees. Probably far from being a random process, such host-saltation might be driven by hidden constraints associated with plant traits. We selected two clades of oligolectic bees (i...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129048/physical-inactivity-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-an-evolutionary-perspective
#7
S Boyd Eaton, Stanley B Eaton
Physical inactivity (and unhealthy nutrition) has distorted body composition and, in turn, reordered the proportions of myocyte and adipocyte insulin receptors. Insulin acting on adipocyte receptors produces less glucose uptake than does comparable interaction with myocyte receptors. Accordingly, in individuals with disproportionate muscle/fat composition, any given glucose load requires greater-than-normal pancreatic insulin secretion for adequate disposal. This hyperinsulinemia then becomes the leading cause of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as insulin-sensitive tissues become desensitized...
March 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105723/current-views-on-hunter-gatherer-nutrition-and-the-evolution-of-the-human-diet
#8
Alyssa N Crittenden, Stephanie L Schnorr
Diet composition and food choice are not only central to the daily lives of all living people, but are consistently linked with turning points in human evolutionary history. As such, scholars from a wide range of fields have taken great interest in the role that subsistence has played in both human cultural and biological evolution. Central to this discussion is the diet composition and nutrition of contemporary hunters and gatherers, who are frequently conscripted as model populations for ancestral human nutrition...
January 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097055/comprehensive-transcriptome-analysis-provides-new-insights-into-nutritional-strategies-and-phylogenetic-relationships-of-chrysophytes
#9
Daniela Beisser, Nadine Graupner, Christina Bock, Sabina Wodniok, Lars Grossmann, Matthijs Vos, Bernd Sures, Sven Rahmann, Jens Boenigk
BACKGROUND: Chrysophytes are protist model species in ecology and ecophysiology and important grazers of bacteria-sized microorganisms and primary producers. However, they have not yet been investigated in detail at the molecular level, and no genomic and only little transcriptomic information is available. Chrysophytes exhibit different trophic modes: while phototrophic chrysophytes perform only photosynthesis, mixotrophs can gain carbon from bacterial food as well as from photosynthesis, and heterotrophs solely feed on bacteria-sized microorganisms...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095328/an-integrated-proteomic-and-transcriptomic-analysis-of-perivitelline-fluid-proteins-in-a-freshwater-gastropod-laying-aerial-eggs
#10
Huawei Mu, Jin Sun, Horacio Heras, Ka Hou Chu, Jian-Wen Qiu
Proteins of the egg perivitelline fluid (PVF) that surrounds the embryo are critical for embryonic development in many animals, but little is known about their identities. Using an integrated proteomic and transcriptomic approach, we identified 64 proteins from the PVF of Pomacea maculata, a freshwater snail adopting aerial oviposition. Proteins were classified into eight functional groups: major multifunctional perivitellin subunits, immune response, energy metabolism, protein degradation, oxidation-reduction, signaling and binding, transcription and translation, and others...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076653/recent-advances-in-primate-nutritional-ecology
#11
Nicoletta Righini
Nutritional ecology seeks to explain, in an ecological and evolutionary context, how individuals choose, acquire, and process food to satisfy their nutritional requirements. Historically, studies of primate feeding ecology have focused on characterizing diets in terms of the botanical composition of the plants consumed. Further, dietary studies have demonstrated how patch and food choice in relation to time spent foraging and feeding are influenced by the spatial and temporal distribution of resources and by social factors such as feeding competition, dominance, or partner preferences...
April 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073472/the-interaction-between-cyanobacteria-and-zooplankton-in-a-more-eutrophic-world
#12
REVIEW
Kemal Ali Ger, Pablo Urrutia-Cordero, Paul C Frost, Lars-Anders Hansson, Orlando Sarnelle, Alan E Wilson, Miquel Lürling
As blooms of cyanobacteria expand and intensify in freshwater systems globally, there is increasing interest in their ecological effects. In addition to being public health hazards, cyanobacteria have long been considered a poor quality food for key zooplankton grazers that link phytoplankton to higher trophic levels. While past laboratory studies have found negative effects of nutritional constraints and defensive traits (i.e., toxicity and colonial or filamentous morphology) on the fitness of large generalist grazers (i...
April 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067952/plastomes-on-the-edge-the-evolutionary-breakdown-of-mycoheterotroph-plastid-genomes
#13
REVIEW
Sean W Graham, Vivienne K Y Lam, Vincent S F T Merckx
Contents 48 I. 48 II. 50 III. 53 54 References 54 SUMMARY: We examine recent evidence for ratchet-like genome degradation in mycoheterotrophs, plants that obtain nutrition from fungi. Initial loss of the NADH dehydrogenase-like (NDH) complex may often set off an irreversible evolutionary cascade of photosynthetic gene losses. Genes for plastid-encoded subunits of RNA polymerase and photosynthetic enzymes with secondary functions (Rubisco and ATP synthase) can persist initially, with nonsynchronous and quite broad windows in the relative timing of their loss...
April 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036149/social-dominance-alters-nutrition-related-gene-expression-immediately-transcriptomic-evidence-from-a-monomorphic-queenless-ant
#14
Yasukazu Okada, Yutaka Watanabe, Mandy M Y Tin, Kazuki Tsuji, Alexander S Mikheyev
Queen-worker differentiation in eusocial organisms may have originated from decoupling of maternal care and reproductive behaviours. Recent advances in sequencing techniques have begun to elucidate the molecular basis of queen-worker differentiation. However, current knowledge of the molecular basis of caste differentiation is limited, especially to species with morphological castes. It seems likely that at the dawn of eusociality morphologically undifferentiated, monomorphic females underwent physiological differentiation that yielded egg-laying and caretaking castes...
December 30, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032461/mixotrophy-everywhere-on-land-and-in-water-the-grand-%C3%A3-cart-hypothesis
#15
REVIEW
Marc-André Selosse, Marie Charpin, Fabrice Not
There is increasing awareness that many terrestrial and aquatic organisms are not strictly heterotrophic or autotrophic but rather mixotrophic. Mixotrophy is an intermediate nutritional strategy, merging autotrophy and heterotrophy to acquire organic carbon and/or other elements, mainly N, P or Fe. We show that both terrestrial and aquatic mixotrophs fall into three categories, namely necrotrophic (where autotrophs prey on other organisms), biotrophic (where heterotrophs gain autotrophy by symbiosis) and absorbotrophic (where autotrophs take up environmental organic molecules)...
February 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031282/tonb-dependent-heme-hemoglobin-utilization-by-caulobacter-crescentus-huta
#16
Heloise Balhesteros, Yan Shipelskiy, Noah J Long, Aritri Majumdar, Benjamin B Katz, Naara M Santos, Laura Leaden, Salete M Newton, Marilis V Marques, Phillip E Klebba
Siderophore nutrition tests with Caulobacter crescentus strain NA1000 revealed that it utilized a variety of ferric hydroxamate siderophores, including asperchromes, ferrichromes, ferrichrome A, malonichrome, and ferric aerobactin, as well as hemin and hemoglobin. C. crescentus did not transport ferrioxamine B or ferric catecholates. Because it did not use ferric enterobactin, the catecholate aposiderophore was an effective agent for iron deprivation. We determined the kinetics and thermodynamics of [(59)Fe]apoferrichrome and (59)Fe-citrate binding and transport by NA1000...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026884/making-a-queen-an-epigenetic-analysis-of-the-robustness-of-the-honeybee-apis-mellifera-queen-developmental-pathway
#17
Xu Jiang He, Lin Bin Zhou, Qi Zhong Pan, Andrew B Barron, Wei Yu Yan, Zhi Jiang Zeng
Specialized castes are considered a key reason for the evolutionary and ecological success of the social insect lifestyle. The most essential caste distinction is between the fertile queen and the sterile workers. Honeybee (Apis mellifera) workers and queens are not genetically distinct, rather these different phenotypes are the result of epigenetically regulated divergent developmental pathways. This is an important phenomenon in understanding the evolution of social insect societies. Here, we studied the genomic regulation of the worker and queen developmental pathways, and the robustness of the pathways by transplanting eggs or young larvae to queen cells...
December 27, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005948/the-jujube-genome-provides-insights-into-genome-evolution-and-the-domestication-of-sweetness-acidity-taste-in-fruit-trees
#18
Jian Huang, Chunmei Zhang, Xing Zhao, Zhangjun Fei, KangKang Wan, Zhong Zhang, Xiaoming Pang, Xiao Yin, Yang Bai, Xiaoqing Sun, Lizhi Gao, Ruiqiang Li, Jinbo Zhang, Xingang Li
Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) belongs to the Rhamnaceae family and is a popular fruit tree species with immense economic and nutritional value. Here, we report a draft genome of the dry jujube cultivar 'Junzao' and the genome resequencing of 31 geographically diverse accessions of cultivated and wild jujubes (Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa). Comparative analysis revealed that the genome of 'Dongzao', a fresh jujube, was ~86.5 Mb larger than that of the 'Junzao', partially due to the recent insertions of transposable elements in the 'Dongzao' genome...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000570/structural-functional-and-evolutionary-aspects-of-seed-globulins
#19
Pooja Kesari, Neetu, Anchal Sharma, Madhusudhanarao Katiki, Pramod Kumar, Bhola R Gurjar, Shailly Tomar, Ashwani Kumar Sharma, Pravindra Kumar
Globulins are a major class of seed storage proteins which were thought to be enzymatically inactive. These proteins belong to the most ancient cupin superfamily. They can be graded into 11S legumin types and 7S vicilin types based on their sedimentation coefficients. Members from both classes share structural homology are thought to have evolved from either one-domain germin predecessor by duplication or by horizontal gene transfer of two-domain gene from bacteria to eukaryotes. Globulins are known to define the nutritional quality of the seeds, however, they are also involved in sucrose binding, desiccation, defense against microbes, hormone binding and oxidative stress etc...
December 20, 2016: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956844/helminth-infection-during-pregnancy-insights-from-evolutionary-ecology
#20
REVIEW
Aaron D Blackwell
Helminths are parasitic nematodes and trematodes, grouped together because of morphological similarities and commonalities in the effects infections have on hosts. These include complications such as anemia and biasing of immune responses, which can alter susceptibility for other diseases. For pregnant women, these complications might have implications for pregnancy outcomes or neonatal health. Here, I review studies of helminth infections during pregnancy, and ask the following questions: Do helminths affect maternal health or pregnancy outcomes? Are there consequences of maternal infection for infants? What are the effects of antihelminth treatment during pregnancy? The evidence suggests that the answers to these questions depend on the particular helminth species in question, maternal nutritional status, and the presence or absence of comorbid infection with other species, such as malaria...
2016: International Journal of Women's Health
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