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Evolutionary nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132934/the-evolution-of-pathogen-virulence-effects-of-transitions-between-host-types
#1
Paul David Williams, Stephanie Jill Kamel
Much of evolutionary epidemiology theory is derived from a perspective in which all hosts, and all parasites, are epidemiologically equivalent. This stands in contrast to the well-documented existence of the numerous processes generating heterogeneity among hosts and parasites that can profoundly influence evolutionary/epidemiological dynamics. Age-related immunological changes, inequities in nutritional status, and interactions between parasites via coinfection are just a few of the many factors that generate heterogeneity among hosts in the ways they express susceptibility to, and respond to infection by, a focal pathogen...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127487/towards-a-unified-understanding-of-lithium-action-in-basic-biology-and-its-significance-for-applied-biology
#2
REVIEW
Eric Jakobsson, Orlando Argüello-Miranda, See-Wing Chiu, Zeeshan Fazal, James Kruczek, Santiago Nunez-Corrales, Sagar Pandit, Laura Pritchet
Lithium has literally been everywhere forever, since it is one of the three elements created in the Big Bang. Lithium concentration in rocks, soil, and fresh water is highly variable from place to place, and has varied widely in specific regions over evolutionary and geologic time. The biological effects of lithium are many and varied. Based on experiments in which animals are deprived of lithium, lithium is an essential nutrient. At the other extreme, at lithium ingestion sufficient to raise blood concentration significantly over 1 mM/, lithium is acutely toxic...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125186/evolutionary-dynamics-of-interactions-between-plants-and-their-enemies-comparison-of-herbivorous-insects-and-pathogens
#3
REVIEW
Kerry Wininger, Nathan Rank
Plants colonized land over 400 million years ago. Shortly thereafter, organisms began to consume terrestrial plant tissue as a nutritional resource. Most plant enemies are plant pathogens or herbivores, and they impose natural selection for plants to evolve defenses. These traits generate selection pressures on enemies. Coevolution between terrestrial plants and their enemies is an important element of the evolutionary history of both groups. However, coevolutionary studies of plant-pathogen interactions have tended to focus on different research topics than plant-herbivore interactions...
November 10, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101189/distribution-and-phylogeny-of-microsymbionts-associated-with-cowpea-vigna-unguiculata-nodulation-in-three-agro-ecological-regions-of-mozambique
#4
Ifeoma N Chidebe, Sanjay K Jaiswal, Felix D Dakora
Cowpea derives most of its N nutrition from biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) via symbiotic bacteroids in root nodules. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the diversity and biogeo-graphic distribution of bacterial microsymbionts nodulating cowpea and other indigenous legumes are not well understood, though needed for increased legume production. The aim of this study was to describe rhizobial distribution and their phylogenies at different agro-ecological regions of Mozambique using BOX-PCR, ITS-RFLP and sequence analysis of housekeeping genes...
November 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077948/phosphorus-nutrition-of-populus-%C3%A3-canescens-reflects-adaptation-to-high-p-availability-in-the-soil
#5
Florian Netzer, Carsten W Mueller, Ursula Scheerer, Jörg Grüner, Ingrid Kögel-Knabner, Cornelia Herschbach, Heinz Rennenberg
Phosphorus (P) constitutes one of five macronutrients essential for plant growth and development due to the central function of phosphate in energy metabolism, inheritance and metabolic control. In many ecosystems, plant available soil-P gets limited by soil aging. Hence, plants have developed adaptation strategies to cope with such limitation by an efficient plant and ecosystem internal P-cycling during annual growth. The natural floodplain habitat of fast-growing Populus × canescens is characterized by high soil-P availability...
October 25, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072305/life-history-theory-hypotheses-on-child-growth-potential-implications-for-short-and-long-term-child-growth-development-and-health
#6
EDITORIAL
Rihlat Said-Mohamed, John M Pettifor, Shane A Norris
Life history theory integrates ecological, physiological, and molecular layers within an evolutionary framework to understand organisms' strategies to optimize survival and reproduction. Two life history hypotheses and their implications for child growth, development, and health (illustrated in the South African context) are reviewed here. One hypothesis suggests that there is an energy trade-off between linear growth and brain growth. Undernutrition in infancy and childhood may trigger adaptive physiological mechanisms prioritizing the brain at the expense of body growth...
October 26, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066546/adaptation-to-chronic-nutritional-stress-leads-to-reduced-dependence-on-microbiota-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#7
Berra Erkosar, Sylvain Kolly, Jan R van der Meer, Tadeusz J Kawecki
Numerous studies have shown that animal nutrition is tightly linked to gut microbiota, especially under nutritional stress. In Drosophila melanogaster, microbiota are known to promote juvenile growth, development, and survival on poor diets, mainly through enhanced digestion leading to changes in hormonal signaling. Here, we show that this reliance on microbiota is greatly reduced in replicated Drosophila populations that became genetically adapted to a poor larval diet in the course of over 170 generations of experimental evolution...
October 24, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059188/intraspecific-variation-in-feeding-strategies-of-galapagos-sea-lions-a-case-of-trophic-specialization
#8
Diego Páez-Rosas, Stella Villegas-Amtmann, Daniel Costa
The trophic behavior of marine predators varies according to the level of competition to which they are exposed. In general, populations that inhabit lower productivity systems face a strong intraspecific competition, which contributes to the development of different foraging strategies to maximize nutritional efficiency. Given the high trophic flexibility of Zalophus wollebaeki, this species is considered appropriate for the analysis of such behavior. Furthermore, this trophic flexibility has allowed them to persist in a seemingly marginal ecosystem...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056664/shape-variation-in-the-craniomandibular-system-and-prevalence-of-dental-problems-in-domestic-rabbits-a-case-study-in-evolutionary-veterinary-science
#9
Christine Böhmer, Estella Böhmer
In contrast to wild lagomorphs, pet rabbits exhibit a noticeably high frequency of dental problems. Although dietary habits are considered as a major factor contributing to acquired malocclusions, the exact causes and interrelationships are still under debate. In this regard, an important aspect that has not been considered thoroughly to date is the effect of diet-induced phenotypic plasticity in skull morphology. Therefore, we conducted a geometric morphometric analysis on skull radiological images of wild and pet rabbits in order to quantify intraspecific variation in craniomandibular morphology...
January 24, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026656/phylogenomics-and-comparative-genomics-of-lactobacillus-salivarius-a-mammalian-gut-commensal
#10
Hugh M B Harris, Maxence J B Bourin, Marcus J Claesson, Paul W O'Toole
The genus Lactobacillus is a diverse group with a combined species count of over 200. They are the largest group within the lactic acid bacteria and one of the most important bacterial groups involved in food microbiology and human nutrition because of their fermentative and probiotic properties. Lactobacillus salivarius, a species commonly isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals, has been described as having potential probiotic properties and results of previous studies have revealed considerable functional diversity existing on both the chromosomes and plasmids...
August 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981639/nutritional-regulation-of-phenotypic-plasticity-in-a-solitary-bee-hymenoptera-megachilidae
#11
Brielle J Fischman, Theresa L Pitts-Singer, Gene E Robinson
Phenotypic plasticity involves adaptive responses to predictable environmental fluctuations and may promote evolutionary change. We studied the regulation of phenotypic plasticity in an important agricultural pollinator, the solitary alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata F.). Specifically, we investigated how larval nutrition affects M. rotundata diapause plasticity and how diapause plasticity affects adult female reproductive behavior. Field surveys and laboratory manipulations of aspects of larval diet demonstrated nutritional regulation of M...
October 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975615/resistance-and-tolerance-the-role-of-nutrients-on-pathogen-dynamics-and-infection-outcomes-in-an-insect-host
#12
C V L Miller, S C Cotter
1.Tolerance and resistance are the two ways in which hosts can lessen the effects of infection. Tolerance aims to minimise the fitness effects resulting from incumbent pathogen populations, whereas resistance aims to reduce the pathogen population size within the host. While environmental impacts on resistance have been extensively recorded their impacts on variation in tolerance are virtually unexplored. 2.Here we ask how the environment, namely the host diet, influences the capacity of an organism to tolerate and resist infection, using a model host-parasite system, the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides and the entomopathogenic bacteria, Photorhabdus luminescens...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964875/drosophila-as-a-model-for-ageing
#13
REVIEW
Matthew D W Piper, Linda Partridge
Drosophila melanogaster has been a key model in developing our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of ageing. Of particular note is its role in establishing the evolutionary conservation of reduced insulin and IGF-1-like signaling in promoting healthy ageing. Capitalizing on its many advantages for experimentation, more recent work has revealed how precise nutritional and genetic interventions can improve fly lifespan without obvious detrimental side effects. We give a brief summary of these recent findings as well as examples of how they may modify ageing via actions in the gut and muscle...
September 27, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883816/modulation-of-zinc-homeostasis-in-acanthamoeba-castellanii-as-a-possible-antifungal-strategy-against-cryptococcus-gattii
#14
Nicole S Ribeiro, Francine M Dos Santos, Ane W A Garcia, Patrícia A G Ferrareze, Laura F Fabres, Augusto Schrank, Livia Kmetzsch, Marilise B Rott, Marilene H Vainstein, Charley C Staats
Cryptococcus gattii is a basidiomycetous yeast that can be found in the environment and is one of the agents of cryptococcosis, a life-threatening disease. During its life cycle, cryptococcal cells take hold inside environmental predators such as amoebae. Despite their evolutionary distance, macrophages and amoebae share conserved similar steps of phagocytosis and microbial killing. To evaluate whether amoebae also share other antifungal strategies developed by macrophages, we investigated nutritional immunity against cryptococcal cells...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864990/exploitation-of-non-mammalian-model-organisms-in-epigenetic-research
#15
William V Holt
Model organisms are widely used in research that is ultimately aimed at understanding the causes and consequences of human disease. It may seem counterintuitive to expect clinically useful information to be obtained from species as diverse as fishes and insects, but because fundamental biological mechanisms share evolutionary origins they transcend species barriers. Epigenetic mechanisms fulfil this expectation admirably as more and more is discovered about the basic operational rules of inheritance, which are much more elaborate than formerly thought...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854926/single-molecule-sequencing-and-hi-c-based-proximity-guided-assembly-of-amaranth-amaranthus-hypochondriacus-chromosomes-provide-insights-into-genome-evolution
#16
D J Lightfoot, D E Jarvis, T Ramaraj, R Lee, E N Jellen, P J Maughan
BACKGROUND: Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) was a food staple among the ancient civilizations of Central and South America that has recently received increased attention due to the high nutritional value of the seeds, with the potential to help alleviate malnutrition and food security concerns, particularly in arid and semiarid regions of the developing world. Here, we present a reference-quality assembly of the amaranth genome which will assist the agronomic development of the species...
August 31, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836724/sleeper-cells-the-stringent-response-and-persistence-in-the-borreliella-borrelia-burgdorferi-enzootic-cycle
#17
REVIEW
Felipe C Cabello, Henry P Godfrey, Julia V Bugrysheva, Stuart A Newman
Infections with tick-transmitted Borreliella (Borrelia) burgdorferi, the cause of Lyme disease, represent an increasingly large public health problem in North America and Europe. The ability of these spirochetes to maintain themselves for extended periods of time in their tick vectors and vertebrate reservoirs is crucial for continuance of the enzootic cycle as well as for the increasing exposure of humans to them. The stringent response mediated by the alarmone (p)ppGpp has been determined to be a master regulator in B...
August 24, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823016/de-novo-synthesis-of-linoleic-acid-in-multiple-collembola-species
#18
Miriama Malcicka, Joachim Ruther, Jacintha Ellers
Many ecological interactions in communities take place between consumers and the organisms they feed on. Continuous surplus of specific nutritional compounds in the diet may lead to evolutionary changes in the metabolic capacity of the consumer, leaving the biosynthesis of such compounds prone to genetic decay and render organisms auxotrophic. A nutrient that is essential to many organisms is the unsaturated fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6), which is important in the maintenance of cell membrane fluidity and as a precursor for signaling molecules...
September 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820115/six-key-traits-of-fungi-their-evolutionary-origins-and-genetic-bases
#19
László G Nagy, Renáta Tóth, Enikő Kiss, Jason Slot, Attila Gácser, Gábor M Kovács
The fungal lineage is one of the three large eukaryotic lineages that dominate terrestrial ecosystems. They share a common ancestor with animals in the eukaryotic supergroup Opisthokonta and have a deeper common ancestry with plants, yet several phenotypes, such as morphological, physiological, or nutritional traits, make them unique among all living organisms. This article provides an overview of some of the most important fungal traits, how they evolve, and what major genes and gene families contribute to their development...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805640/nutritional-endocrine-and-social-influences-on-reproductive-physiology-at-the-origins-of-social-behavior
#20
REVIEW
Karen M Kapheim
Understanding the evolutionary origins of social behavior in insects requires understanding the physiological basis for reproductive plasticity. Solitary bees and wasps or those living in small, flexible societies will be key to understanding how conserved pathways have evolved to give rise to reproductive castes. Nutrient-sensing and endocrine pathways are decoupled from reproduction in some life stages of social insects. Heterochrony, particularly as it is related to diapause physiology, may be an important mechanism by which this decoupling occurs...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
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