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Evolutionary nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333059/innate-food-aversions-and-culturally-transmitted-food-taboos-in-pregnant-women-in-rural-southwest-india-separate-systems-to-protect-the-fetus
#1
Caitlyn D Placek, Purnima Madhivanan, Edward H Hagen
Pregnancy increases women's nutritional requirements, yet causes aversions to nutritious foods. Most societies further restrict pregnant women's diet with food taboos. Pregnancy food aversions are theorized to protect mothers and fetuses from teratogens and pathogens or increase dietary diversity in response to resource scarcity. Tests of these hypotheses have had mixed results, perhaps because many studies are in Westernized populations with reliable access to food and low exposure to pathogens. If pregnancy food aversions are adaptations, however, then they likely evolved in environments with uncertain access to food and high exposure to pathogens...
November 2017: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330187/acquisition-of-a-novel-sulfur-oxidizing-symbiont-in-the-gutless-marine-worm-inanidrilus-exumae
#2
C Bergin, C Wentrup, N Brewig, A Blazejak, C Erséus, O Giere, M Schmid, P De Wit, N Dubilier
Gutless phallodrilines are marine annelid worms without a mouth or gut, which live in an obligate association with multiple bacterial endosymbionts that supply them with nutrition. In this study, we discovered an unusual symbiont community in the gutless phallodriline Inanidrilus exumae that differs markedly from the microbiome of all other 22 examined host species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that I. exumae harboured co-occurring gamma-, alpha- and deltaproteobacterial symbionts, while all other known host species harbour gamma- and either alpha- or deltaproteobacterial symbionts...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321537/computational-investigation-of-environment-noise-interaction-in-single-cell-organisms-the-merit-of-expression-stochasticity-depends-on-the-quality-of-environmental-fluctuations
#3
Anja Lück, Lukas Klimmasch, Peter Großmann, Sebastian Germerodt, Christoph Kaleta
Organisms need to adapt to changing environments and they do so by using a broad spectrum of strategies. These strategies include finding the right balance between expressing genes before or when they are needed, and adjusting the degree of noise inherent in gene expression. We investigated the interplay between different nutritional environments and the inhabiting organisms' metabolic and genetic adaptations by applying an evolutionary algorithm to an agent-based model of a concise bacterial metabolism. Our results show that constant environments and rapidly fluctuating environments produce similar adaptations in the organisms, making the predictability of the environment a major factor in determining optimal adaptation...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242585/risks-to-pollinators-and-pollination-from-invasive-alien-species
#4
REVIEW
Adam J Vanbergen, Anahí Espíndola, Marcelo A Aizen
Invasive alien species modify pollinator biodiversity and the services they provide that underpin ecosystem function and human well-being. Building on the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) global assessment of pollinators and pollination, we synthesize current understanding of invasive alien impacts on pollinators and pollination. Invasive alien species create risks and opportunities for pollinator nutrition, re-organize species interactions to affect native pollination and community stability, and spread and select for virulent diseases...
January 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240843/behavior-of-bacteriome-symbionts-during-transovarial-transmission-and-development-of-the-asian-citrus-psyllid
#5
Hiroki Dan, Naoya Ikeda, Masaya Fujikami, Atsushi Nakabachi
The Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) is a serious pest worldwide, transmitting Candidatus Liberibacter spp. (Alphaproteobacteria), the causative agents of a devastating citrus disease known as huanglongbing or greening disease. In a symbiotic organ called the bacteriome, D. citri possesses an organelle-like defensive symbiont, Candidatus Profftella armatura (Betaproteobacteria), and a nutritional symbiont, Ca. Carsonella ruddii (Gammaproteobacteria). Drastically reduced symbiont genomes and metabolic complementarity among the symbionts and D...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240755/integrating-transcriptomics-and-metabolomics-to-characterize-the-regulation-of-epa-biosynthesis-in-response-to-cold-stress-in-seaweed-bangia-fuscopurpurea
#6
Min Cao, Dongmei Wang, Yunxiang Mao, Fanna Kong, Guiqi Bi, Qikun Xing, Zhen Weng
Bangia fuscopurpurea is a traditional mariculture crop having high nutritional value, eicosapntemacnioc acid (EPA) production, and protein content. As an intertidal species, it can tolerate drastic changes in abiotic factors such as temperature, hydration, and light radiation; however, genomic information on the evolutionary aspect and mechanism of EPA enrichment in B. fuscopurpurea and the role of EPA in cold tolerance in this species remain elusive. We conducted transcriptome profile analysis in B. fuscopurpurea to investigate the biological functions of genes associated with resistance to various environment factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224577/long-term-implications-of-feed-energy-source-in-different-genetic-types-of-reproductive-rabbit-females-ii-immunologic-status
#7
M Penadés, A Arnau-Bonachera, A García-Quirós, D Viana, L Selva, J M Corpa, J J Pascual
Genetic selection and nutrition management have played a central role in the development of commercial rabbitry industry over the last few decades, being able to affect productive and immunological traits of the animals. However, the implication of different energy sources in animals from diverse genetic lines achieving such evolutionary success remains still unknown. Therefore, in this work, 203 female rabbits housed and bred in the same conditions were used from their first artificial insemination until their fifth weaning...
December 11, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218053/marker-development-for-phylogenomics-the-case-of-orobanchaceae-a-plant-family-with-contrasting-nutritional-modes
#8
Xi Li, Baohai Hao, Da Pan, Gerald M Schneeweiss
Phylogenomic approaches, employing next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques, have revolutionized systematic and evolutionary biology. Target enrichment is an efficient and cost-effective method in phylogenomics and is becoming increasingly popular. Depending on availability and quality of reference data as well as on biological features of the study system, (semi-)automated identification of suitable markers will require specific bioinformatic pipelines. Here, we established a highly flexible bioinformatic pipeline, BaitsFinder, to identify putative orthologous single copy genes (SCGs) and to construct bait sequences in a single workflow...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213256/determinism-and-contingency-shape-metabolic-complementation-in-an-endosymbiotic-consortium
#9
Miguel Ponce-de-Leon, Daniel Tamarit, Jorge Calle-Espinosa, Matteo Mori, Amparo Latorre, Francisco Montero, Juli Pereto
Bacterial endosymbionts and their insect hosts establish an intimate metabolic relationship. Bacteria offer a variety of essential nutrients to their hosts, whereas insect cells provide the necessary sources of matter and energy to their tiny metabolic allies. These nutritional complementations sustain themselves on a diversity of metabolite exchanges between the cell host and the reduced yet highly specialized bacterial metabolism-which, for instance, overproduces a small set of essential amino acids and vitamins...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196290/evolution-and-diversity-of-inherited-spiroplasma-in-myrmica-ants
#10
Matthew J Ballinger, Logan D Moore, Steve J Perlman
Microbial partners play an important role in the biology and ecology of animals. In insects, maternally-transmitted symbionts are especially common and can have host effects ranging from reproductive manipulation to nutrient provisioning and defense against natural enemies. In this study, we report a genus-wide association of Myrmica ants with the inherited bacterial symbiont, Spiroplasma We screen Myrmica ants collected from the wild, including the invasive European fire ant, Myrmica rubra, and find an extraordinarily high prevalence of this symbiont - 8 of 9 species, 42 of 43 colonies, and 250 of 276 individual workers were harboring Spiroplasma - only one host species was uninfected...
December 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186143/comparative-growth-rates-of-cultured-marine-dinoflagellates-in-the-genus-symbiodinium-and-the-effects-of-temperature-and-light
#11
Anke Klueter, Jennifer Trapani, Frederick I Archer, Shelby E McIlroy, Mary Alice Coffroth
Many dinoflagellate microalgae of the genus Symbiodinium form successful symbioses with a large group of metazoans and selected protists. Yet knowledge of growth kinetics of these endosymbionts and their ecological and evolutionary implications is limited. We used a Bayesian biphasic generalized logistic model to estimate key parameters of the growth of five strains of cultured Symbiodinium, S. microadriaticum (cp-type A194; strain 04-503), S. microadriaticum (cp-type A194; strain CassKB8), S. minutum (cp-type B184; strain Mf 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166404/species-specific-signatures-of-the-microbiome-from-camponotus-and-colobopsis-ants-across-developmental-stages
#12
Manuela Oliveira Ramalho, Odair Correa Bueno, Corrie Saux Moreau
Symbiotic relationships between hosts and bacteria are common in nature, and these may be responsible for the evolutionary success of various groups of animals. Among ants, these associations have been well studied in some genera of the Camponotini, but several questions remain regarding the generality of the previous findings across all the members of this ant tribe and if bacterial communities change across development in these hosts. This study is the first to characterize the bacterial community associated with a colony of the recently recognized genus Colobopsis and three colonies of Camponotus (two distinct species) and show how different the composition of the bacterial community is when compared across the different genera...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151637/strategies-to-improve-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-technological-advancements-and-evolutionary-engineering
#13
REVIEW
Arun Kumar Dangi, Kashyap Kumar Dubey, Pratyoosh Shukla
Bakery industries are thriving to augment the diverse properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to increase its flavor, texture and nutritional parameters to attract the more consumers. The improved technologies adopted for quality improvement of baker's yeast are attracting the attention of industry and it is playing a pivotal role in redesigning the quality parameters. Modern yeast strain improvement tactics revolve around the use of several advanced technologies such as evolutionary engineering, systems biology, metabolic engineering, genome editing...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132934/the-evolution-of-pathogen-virulence-effects-of-transitions-between-host-types
#14
Paul David Williams, Stephanie Jill Kamel
Much of evolutionary epidemiology theory is derived from a perspective in which all hosts, and all parasites, are epidemiologically equivalent. This stands in contrast to the well-documented existence of the numerous processes generating heterogeneity among hosts and parasites that can profoundly influence evolutionary/epidemiological dynamics. Age-related immunological changes, inequities in nutritional status, and interactions between parasites via coinfection are just a few of the many factors that generate heterogeneity among hosts in the ways they express susceptibility to, and respond to infection by, a focal pathogen...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127487/towards-a-unified-understanding-of-lithium-action-in-basic-biology-and-its-significance-for-applied-biology
#15
REVIEW
Eric Jakobsson, Orlando Argüello-Miranda, See-Wing Chiu, Zeeshan Fazal, James Kruczek, Santiago Nunez-Corrales, Sagar Pandit, Laura Pritchet
Lithium has literally been everywhere forever, since it is one of the three elements created in the Big Bang. Lithium concentration in rocks, soil, and fresh water is highly variable from place to place, and has varied widely in specific regions over evolutionary and geologic time. The biological effects of lithium are many and varied. Based on experiments in which animals are deprived of lithium, lithium is an essential nutrient. At the other extreme, at lithium ingestion sufficient to raise blood concentration significantly over 1 mM/, lithium is acutely toxic...
December 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125186/evolutionary-dynamics-of-interactions-between-plants-and-their-enemies-comparison-of-herbivorous-insects-and-pathogens
#16
REVIEW
Kerry Wininger, Nathan Rank
Plants colonized land over 400 million years ago. Shortly thereafter, organisms began to consume terrestrial plant tissue as a nutritional resource. Most plant enemies are plant pathogens or herbivores, and they impose natural selection for plants to evolve defenses. These traits generate selection pressures on enemies. Coevolution between terrestrial plants and their enemies is an important element of the evolutionary history of both groups. However, coevolutionary studies of plant-pathogen interactions have tended to focus on different research topics than plant-herbivore interactions...
November 10, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101189/distribution-and-phylogeny-of-microsymbionts-associated-with-cowpea-vigna-unguiculata-nodulation-in-three-agro-ecological-regions-of-mozambique
#17
Ifeoma N Chidebe, Sanjay K Jaiswal, Felix D Dakora
Cowpea derives most of its N nutrition from biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) via symbiotic bacteroids in root nodules. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the diversity and biogeo-graphic distribution of bacterial microsymbionts nodulating cowpea and other indigenous legumes are not well understood, though needed for increased legume production. The aim of this study was to describe rhizobial distribution and their phylogenies at different agro-ecological regions of Mozambique using BOX-PCR, ITS-RFLP and sequence analysis of housekeeping genes...
November 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077948/phosphorus-nutrition-of-populus-%C3%A3-canescens-reflects-adaptation-to-high-p-availability-in-the-soil
#18
Florian Netzer, Carsten W Mueller, Ursula Scheerer, Jörg Grüner, Ingrid Kögel-Knabner, Cornelia Herschbach, Heinz Rennenberg
Phosphorus (P) constitutes one of five macronutrients essential for plant growth and development due to the central function of phosphate in energy metabolism, inheritance and metabolic control. In many ecosystems, plant available soil-P gets limited by soil aging. Hence, plants have developed adaptation strategies to cope with such limitation by an efficient plant and ecosystem internal P-cycling during annual growth. The natural floodplain habitat of fast-growing Populus × canescens is characterized by high soil-P availability...
October 25, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072305/life-history-theory-hypotheses-on-child-growth-potential-implications-for-short-and-long-term-child-growth-development-and-health
#19
EDITORIAL
Rihlat Said-Mohamed, John M Pettifor, Shane A Norris
Life history theory integrates ecological, physiological, and molecular layers within an evolutionary framework to understand organisms' strategies to optimize survival and reproduction. Two life history hypotheses and their implications for child growth, development, and health (illustrated in the South African context) are reviewed here. One hypothesis suggests that there is an energy trade-off between linear growth and brain growth. Undernutrition in infancy and childhood may trigger adaptive physiological mechanisms prioritizing the brain at the expense of body growth...
October 26, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066546/adaptation-to-chronic-nutritional-stress-leads-to-reduced-dependence-on-microbiota-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
Berra Erkosar, Sylvain Kolly, Jan R van der Meer, Tadeusz J Kawecki
Numerous studies have shown that animal nutrition is tightly linked to gut microbiota, especially under nutritional stress. In Drosophila melanogaster, microbiota are known to promote juvenile growth, development, and survival on poor diets, mainly through enhanced digestion leading to changes in hormonal signaling. Here, we show that this reliance on microbiota is greatly reduced in replicated Drosophila populations that became genetically adapted to a poor larval diet in the course of over 170 generations of experimental evolution...
October 24, 2017: MBio
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