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Evolutionary nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769574/honey-bees-consider-larval-nutritional-status-rather-than-genetic-relatedness-when-selecting-larvae-for-emergency-queen-rearing
#1
Ramesh R Sagili, Bradley N Metz, Hannah M Lucas, Priyadarshini Chakrabarti, Carolyn R Breece
In honey bees and many other social insects, production of queens is a vital task, as colony fitness is dependent on queens. The factors considered by honey bee workers in selecting larvae to rear new queens during emergency queen rearing are poorly understood. Identifying these parameters is critical, both in an evolutionary and apicultural context. As female caste development in honey bees is dependent on larval diet (i.e. nutrition), we hypothesized that larval nutritional state is meticulously assessed and used by workers in selection of larvae for queen rearing...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764625/recognition-of-phenylthiocarbamide-ptc-in-taste-test-is-related-to-blood-group-b-phenotype-females-and-risk-of-developing-food-allergy-a-cross-sectional-brazilian-based-study
#2
Isac César Roldão Leite, José Carlos Dos Santos Júnior, Cinthya Clara Silva de Sousa, Alexandre Vasconcelos Lima, Ana Luisa Miranda-Vilela
Anti-nutritional factors, including hemagglutinins, are natural substances that reduce nutritional bioavailability and/or generate adverse physiological effects. Most are bitter toxic compounds, but present chemo-protective properties at low concentrations. Responses to phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) allow for an evaluation of humans' perception of bitter taste, a perception that has evolutionary advantages. Therefore, we hypothesized that relationships between food preference, dietary exposures and disease risk could reflect possible associations not only with the recognition threshold for the bitter taste of PTC, but also with ABO/Rh blood group phenotypes...
April 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721290/an-in-vitro-evaluation-of-browser-and-grazer-fermentation-efficiency-and-microbiota-using-european-moose-spring-and-summer-foods
#3
Sophie J Krizsan, Alejandro Mateos-Rivera, Stefan Bertilsson, Annika Felton, Anne Anttila, Mohammad Ramin, Merko Vaga, Helena Gidlund, Pekka Huhtanen
Evolutionary morphological and physiological differences between browsers and grazers contribute to species-specific digestion efficiency of food resources. Rumen microbial community structure of browsers is supposedly adapted to characteristic nutrient composition of the diet source. If this assumption is correct, domesticated ruminants, or grazers, are poor model animals for assessing the nutritional value of food consumed by browsing game species. In this study, typical spring and summer foods of the European moose ( Alces alces ) were combined with rumen fluid collected from both dairy cows ( Bos taurus ) and from moose, with the aim of comparing fermentation efficiency and microbial community composition...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718444/photobiology-of-vitamins
#4
Mark Lucock, Patrice Jones, Charlotte Martin, Zoe Yates, Martin Veysey, John Furst, Emma Beckett
This review explores contemporary ideas about the relationship between light exposure and vitamin biology. Nutritional biochemistry has long recognized the relationship between vitamins A and D and light exposure, but in recent years other vitamins have also been implicated in photoresponsive biological mechanisms that influence health, well-being, and even evolutionary processes. Interactions between light and vitamins can modify genotype-phenotype relationships across the life cycle, providing a basis for interesting new explanations relevant to wide aspects of human biology...
April 28, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712844/-escherichia-coli-cultures-maintain-stable-subpopulation-structure-during-long-term-evolution
#5
Megan G Behringer, Brian I Choi, Samuel F Miller, Thomas G Doak, Jonathan A Karty, Wanfeng Guo, Michael Lynch
How genetic variation is generated and maintained remains a central question in evolutionary biology. When presented with a complex environment, microbes can take advantage of genetic variation to exploit new niches. Here we present a massively parallel experiment where WT and repair-deficient ( ∆mutL ) Escherichia coli populations have evolved over 3 y in a spatially heterogeneous and nutritionally complex environment. Metagenomic sequencing revealed that these initially isogenic populations evolved and maintained stable subpopulation structure in just 10 mL of medium for up to 10,000 generations, consisting of up to five major haplotypes with many minor haplotypes...
April 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703888/manipulation-of-insulin-signaling-phenocopies-evolution-of-a-host-associated-polyphenism
#6
Meghan M Fawcett, Mary C Parks, Alice E Tibbetts, Jane S Swart, Elizabeth M Richards, Juan Camilo Vanegas, Meredith Cenzer, Laura Crowley, William R Simmons, Wenzhen Stacey Hou, David R Angelini
Plasticity, the capacity of an organism to respond to its environment, is thought to evolve through changes in development altering the integration of environmental cues. In polyphenism, a discontinuous plastic response produces two or more phenotypic morphs. Here we describe evolutionary change in wing polyphenism and its underlying developmental regulation in natural populations of the red-shouldered soapberry bug, Jadera haematoloma (Insecta: Hemiptera: Rhopalidae) that have adapted to a novel host plant...
April 27, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698745/evolution-regulation-and-function-of-porcine-selenogenome
#7
REVIEW
Xiao-Dong Chen, Ze-Ping Zhao, Ji-Chang Zhou, Xin Gen Lei
Much less research on regulation and function of selenoproteins has been conducted in domestic pigs than in rodents or humans, although pigs are an excellent model of human nutrition and medicine and pork is a widely consumed meat in the world. Phylogenetically, the 25 identified porcine selenoproteins fell into two primitive groups, and might be further divided into three parallel branches. Despite a high similarity to that of humans and rodents, the porcine selenoproteome exhibited the closest evolutionary relationship with that of sheep and cattle among eight domestic species...
April 23, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673170/cysteine-proteinase-c1a-paralog-profiles-correspond-with-phylogenetic-lineages-of-pathogenic-piroplasmids
#8
Mariano E Ascencio, Monica Florin-Christensen, Choukri B Mamoun, William Weir, Brian Shiels, Leonhard Schnittger
Piroplasmid parasites comprising of Babesia , Theileria , and Cytauxzoon are transmitted by ticks to farm and pet animals and have a significant impact on livestock industries and animal health in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. In addition, diverse Babesia spp. infect humans as opportunistic hosts. Molecular phylogeny has demonstrated at least six piroplasmid lineages exemplified by B. microti , B. duncani , C. felis , T. equi , Theileria sensu stricto ( T. annulata , T. parva , and T. orientalis ) and Babesia sensu stricto ( B...
April 17, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669349/transcriptome-biochemical-and-growth-responses-of-the-marine-phytoplankter-phaeodactylum-tricornutum-bohlin-bacillariophyta-to-copepod-grazer-presence
#9
Si Li, Stefanie M H Ismar
BACKGROUND/AIMS: As a model organism for a pleiomorphic marine planktonic primary producer, Phaeodactylum tricornutum has been studied on a molecular level under diverse cultural conditions. But little is known about its morphological, nutritional or transcriptomic responses under grazing stress. METHODS: To assess microalgal molecular and cellular responses to grazer presence, we conducted transcriptome profiling in combination with growth rate, biovolume, fatty acid content, carbon and nitrogen content measurements in the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum...
April 13, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606595/-informative-predation-towards-a-new-species-concept
#10
Philippe Lherminier
We distinguish two types of predations: the predation of matter-energy equals the food chain, and the informative predation is the capture of the information brought by the sexual partners. The cell or parent consumes energy and matter to grow, multiply and produce offspring. A fixed amount of resources is divided by the number of organisms, so individual growth and numerical multiplication are limited by depletion resources of the environment. Inversely, fertilization does not destroy information, but instead produces news...
March 29, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589227/morphological-reflections-of-evolutionary-adaptations-in-the-tongue-of-the-white-headed-duck
#11
Ghasem Akbari, Belal Hassanzadeh, Mohammad Sadegh Madadi, Mohammad Babaei
During an organism's evolution, functional adaptations help species to become better suited to their ecological niches. From the morphological aspect, these adaptations are reflected in the anatomical specializations of different organs. Specializations of the lingual organ is a critical adaptation of birds, such as the white-headed duck (Oxyura leucocephala), that enables their nutritional requirements to be met. For optimal use of the available food resources, the white-headed duck utilizes three methods of food collection, namely pecking, grazing and filter-feeding...
March 27, 2018: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576440/evolution-of-dietary-preferences-and-the-innate-urge-to-heal-drug-discovery-lessons-from-ayurveda
#12
REVIEW
Akhila Hosur Shrungeswara, Mazhuvancherry Kesavan Unnikrishnan
Highly specialized and functionally integrated cognitive systems facilitate hedonistic and healthy food preferences. Guided by survival needs, flavor preferences not only select safe, nutritious dietary components, but also those with negligible calorific value but significant health benefits, for example, spices. Feeding behavior, both innate and acquired, is guided not only by taste receptors on the tongue but also visceral organs. The gustatory cortex receives information from all senses, not just taste, suggesting multiple checkpoints in predicting and evaluating healthy foods...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557077/chemical-cues-that-guide-female-reproduction-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#13
REVIEW
Jean-Christophe Billeter, Mariana F Wolfner
Chemicals released into the environment by food, predators and conspecifics play critical roles in Drosophila reproduction. Females and males live in an environment full of smells, whose molecules communicate to them the availability of food, potential mates, competitors or predators. Volatile chemicals derived from fruit, yeast growing on the fruit, and flies already present on the fruit attract Drosophila, concentrating flies at food sites, where they will also mate. Species-specific cuticular hydrocarbons displayed on female Drosophila as they mature are sensed by males and act as pheromones to stimulate mating by conspecific males and inhibit heterospecific mating...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547802/hybrid-marriages-and-phenotypic-heterosis-in-offspring-evidence-from-china
#14
Chen Zhu, Xiaohui Zhang, Qiran Zhao, Qihui Chen
In genetics, heterosis refers to the phenomenon that cross-breeding within species leads to offspring that are genetically fitter than their parents and exhibit improved phenotypic characteristics. Based on the theory of heterosis and existing genetic evidence, offspring of "hybrid" marriages (spouses originating from different states/provinces/countries/areas), though relatively rare due to physical boundaries, may exhibit greater genetic fitness in terms of intelligence, height, or physical attractiveness (the "distance-performance" hypothesis)...
February 19, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544996/the-pathology-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-in-domesticated-animals-an-evolutionary-and-comparative-overview
#15
REVIEW
Elizabeth W Uhl
Although vitamin D is critical to calcium/phosphorus homeostasis, bone formation and remodeling, there is evolution-based variation between species in vitamin D metabolism and susceptibility to rickets and osteomalacia. Most herbivores produce vitamin D3 in response to sunlight, but dogs and cats have generally lost the ability as carnivore diets are rich in vitamin D. Nutritional deficiencies and/or poor exposure to sunlight can induce rickets in birds, swine, cattle and sheep, but horses are less susceptible as they have evolved a calcium homeostasis that is quite different than other animals...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540755/genome-analysis-reveals-evolutionary-mechanisms-of-adaptation-in-systemic-dimorphic-fungi
#16
José F Muñoz, Juan G McEwen, Oliver K Clay, Christina A Cuomo
Dimorphic fungal pathogens cause a significant human disease burden and unlike most fungal pathogens affect immunocompetent hosts. To examine the origin of virulence of these fungal pathogens, we compared genomes of classic systemic, opportunistic, and non-pathogenic species, including Emmonsia and two basal branching, non-pathogenic species in the Ajellomycetaceae, Helicocarpus griseus and Polytolypa hystricis. We found that gene families related to plant degradation, secondary metabolites synthesis, and amino acid and lipid metabolism are retained in H...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510660/loss-of-stomach-loss-of-appetite-sequencing-of-the-ballan-wrasse-labrus-bergylta-genome-and-intestinal-transcriptomic-profiling-illuminate-the-evolution-of-loss-of-stomach-function-in-fish
#17
Kai K Lie, Ole K Tørresen, Monica Hongrø Solbakken, Ivar Rønnestad, Ave Tooming-Klunderud, Alexander J Nederbragt, Sissel Jentoft, Øystein Sæle
BACKGROUND: The ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta) belongs to a large teleost family containing more than 600 species showing several unique evolutionary traits such as lack of stomach and hermaphroditism. Agastric fish are found throughout the teleost phylogeny, in quite diverse and unrelated lineages, indicating stomach loss has occurred independently multiple times in the course of evolution. By assembling the ballan wrasse genome and transcriptome we aimed to determine the genetic basis for its digestive system function and appetite regulation...
March 6, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502387/introducing-complementary-foods-in-the-first-year-of-life
#18
Francesco Tandoi, Laura Morlacchi, Angela Bossi, Massimo Agosti
Introduction of solid foods is a fundamental step in the development of an individual. There are many implications that weaning contains not only on a nutritional plan, but also on the contingent and long-term health of an individual. Over time this nutritional passage has evolved through the acquisition of new knowledge about maturation of anatomical and neurosensory structures involved in all the phases of such a complex process. The understanding of a maturing taste of infant and cultural changes is another key to understand the evolution of introduction of solid foods in infants...
December 22, 2017: La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica: Medical and Surgical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491552/the-fauna-and-perspective-of-rodentia-ectoparasites-in-iran-relying-on-their-roles-within-public-health-and-veterinary-characteristics
#19
REVIEW
Mousa Khosravani
Historically, rodents-ectoparasites are responsible for many diseases in human and domestic animal communities because they are well-adapted to the environment and nutritional resources. In addition, ectoparasites can affect the reproductive rates, ecological fitness and the dispersal pattern of their hosts. Data was compiled through all publications relating to ectoparasites fauna from Iranian rodents. Host specificity, rodent-parasites interaction, geographical distribution, ecological trends as well as the medical or veterinary importance of ectoparasites are considered in this review...
March 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449757/why-and-how-the-early-life-environment-affects-development-of-coping-behaviours
#20
REVIEW
M Rohaa Langenhof, Jan Komdeur
Understanding the ways in which individuals cope with threats, respond to challenges, make use of opportunities and mediate the harmful effects of their surroundings is important for predicting their ability to function in a rapidly changing world. Perhaps one of the most essential drivers of coping behaviour of adults is the environment experienced during their early-life development. Although the study of coping, defined as behaviours displayed in response to environmental challenges, has a long and rich research history in biology, recent literature has repeatedly pointed out that the processes through which coping behaviours develop in individuals are still largely unknown...
2018: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
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