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Evolutionary nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905882/plasticity-in-growth-of-farmed-and-wild-atlantic-salmon-is-the-increased-growth-rate-of-farmed-salmon-caused-by-evolutionary-adaptations-to-the-commercial-diet
#1
Alison Catherine Harvey, Monica Favnebøe Solberg, Eva Troianou, Gary Robert Carvalho, Martin Ian Taylor, Simon Creer, Lise Dyrhovden, Ivar Helge Matre, Kevin Alan Glover
BACKGROUND: Domestication of Atlantic salmon for commercial aquaculture has resulted in farmed salmon displaying substantially higher growth rates than wild salmon under farming conditions. In contrast, growth differences between farmed and wild salmon are much smaller when compared in the wild. The mechanisms underlying this contrast between environments remain largely unknown. It is possible that farmed salmon have adapted to the high-energy pellets developed specifically for aquaculture, contributing to inflated growth differences when fed on this diet...
December 1, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901032/from-the-past-to-future-from-energy-expenditure-to-energy-intake-to-energy-expenditure
#2
REVIEW
M J Müller, C Geisler
Although most recent research on energy balance focusses on energy intake (EI) there is still need to think about both sides of the energy balance. Current research on energy expenditure (EE) relates to metabolic adaptation to negative energy balance, mitochondrial metabolism associated with aging, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the role of EE in hunger and appetite control, non-shivering thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue activity, cellular bioenergetics as a target of obesity treatment and the evolutionary and ecological determinants of EE in humans and other primates...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891602/cannabimimetic-phytochemicals-in-the-diet-an-evolutionary-link-to-food-selection-and-metabolic-stress-adaptation
#3
REVIEW
Jürg Gertsch
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a major lipid signaling network that plays important pro-homeostatic (allostatic) roles not only in the nervous system but in peripheral organs. Increasing evidence points towards a dietary component in the modulation of the ECS. Cannabinoid receptors in hominids co-evolved with diet and the ECS constitutes a feedback loop for food selection and energy metabolism. Here it is postulated that the mismatch of ancient lipid genes of hunter-gatheres and pastoralists with the high carbohydrate diet introduced by agriculture could be compensated via dietary modulation of the ECS...
November 27, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883220/how-long-does-the-volumizing-effect-of-a-zingiber-officinale-based-lip-plumper-last
#4
Vittorio Mazzarello, Giuliana Solinas, Pasquale Bandiera, Valeria Pomponi, Gabriella Piu, Marco Ferrari, Andrea Montella
The vermilion zone of the lips (also called red lip or zone of Klein) has peculiar characteristics, different from the surrounding skin, which make it one of the most important parts of the lips. It can be considered a tactile organ, with an essential role in the body's anatomy and functions. Together with the lips, the vermilion zone represents one of the typical characteristics of mammals and its evolutionary appearance seems to be linked to the source of nutrition of these animals (especially breastfeeding), to the articulation of sounds, to their facial expression and to their sexual function...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878094/host-mediated-shift-in-the-cold-tolerance-of-an-invasive-insect
#5
Amy C Morey, Robert C Venette, Erica C Nystrom Santacruz, Laurel A Mosca, W D Hutchison
While many insects cannot survive the formation of ice within their bodies, a few species can. On the evolutionary continuum from freeze-intolerant (i.e., freeze-avoidant) to freeze-tolerant insects, intermediates likely exist that can withstand some ice formation, but not enough to be considered fully freeze tolerant. Theory suggests that freeze tolerance should be favored over freeze avoidance among individuals that have low relative fitness before exposure to cold. For phytophagous insects, numerous studies have shown that host (or nutrition) can affect fitness and cold-tolerance strategy, respectively, but no research has investigated whether changes in fitness caused by different hosts of polyphagous species could lead to systematic changes in cold-tolerance strategy...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871231/transcriptomic-and-proteomic-insights-into-innate-immunity-and-adaptations-to-a-symbiotic-lifestyle-in-the-gutless-marine-worm-olavius-algarvensis
#6
Juliane Wippler, Manuel Kleiner, Christian Lott, Alexander Gruhl, Paul E Abraham, Richard J Giannone, Jacque C Young, Robert L Hettich, Nicole Dubilier
BACKGROUND: The gutless marine worm Olavius algarvensis has a completely reduced digestive and excretory system, and lives in an obligate nutritional symbiosis with bacterial symbionts. While considerable knowledge has been gained of the symbionts, the host has remained largely unstudied. Here, we generated transcriptomes and proteomes of O. algarvensis to better understand how this annelid worm gains nutrition from its symbionts, how it adapted physiologically to a symbiotic lifestyle, and how its innate immune system recognizes and responds to its symbiotic microbiota...
November 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862974/phenotypic-variation-in-food-utilization-in-an-outbreak-insect-herbivore
#7
Roberto Quezada-García, Álvaro Fuentealba, Éric Bauce
The effects of nutrition may have subtantial impact on insect evolution by shaping different components of phenotypes. The key to undestanding this evolutionary process is to know how nutritional condition affects additive and non-additive components of the phenotype. However, this is poorly understood in outbreaking insects. We investigated the additive and non-additive variation present in food utilization traits in spruce budworm individuals subjected to chronic nutritional stress. 160 full-sib families of spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clem...
November 8, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835655/a-transcriptome-meta-analysis-proposes-novel-biological-roles-for-the-antifungal-protein-anafp-in-aspergillus-niger
#8
Norman Paege, Sascha Jung, Paul Schäpe, Dirk Müller-Hagen, Jean-Paul Ouedraogo, Caroline Heiderich, Johanna Jedamzick, Benjamin M Nitsche, Cees A van den Hondel, Arthur F Ram, Vera Meyer
Understanding the genetic, molecular and evolutionary basis of cysteine-stabilized antifungal proteins (AFPs) from fungi is important for understanding whether their function is mainly defensive or associated with fungal growth and development. In the current study, a transcriptome meta-analysis of the Aspergillus niger γ-core protein AnAFP was performed to explore co-expressed genes and pathways, based on independent expression profiling microarrays covering 155 distinct cultivation conditions. This analysis uncovered that anafp displays a highly coordinated temporal and spatial transcriptional profile which is concomitant with key nutritional and developmental processes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814031/coccolithophore-cell-biology-chalking-up-progress
#9
Alison R Taylor, Colin Brownlee, Glen Wheeler
Coccolithophores occupy a special position within the marine phytoplankton because of their production of intricate calcite scales, or coccoliths. Coccolithophores are major contributors to global ocean calcification and long-term carbon fluxes. The intracellular production of coccoliths requires modifications to cellular ultrastructure and metabolism that are surveyed here. In addition to calcification, which appears to have evolved with a diverse range of functions, several other remarkable features that likely underpin the ecological and evolutionary success of coccolithophores have recently been uncovered...
October 28, 2016: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795568/how-multi-partner-endosymbioses-function
#10
Angela E Douglas
Various animals are associated with specific endosymbiotic microorganisms that provide the host with essential nutrients or confer protection against natural enemies. Genomic analyses of the many endosymbioses that are found in plant sap-feeding hemipteran insects have revealed independent acquisitions - and occasional replacements - of endosymbionts, such that many of these endosymbioses involve two or more microbial partners. In this Review, I discuss how partitioning of the genetic capacity for metabolic function between different endosymbionts has sustained nutritional function in multi-partner endosymbioses, and how the phenotypic traits of these endosymbionts can be shaped by co-evolutionary interactions with both co-occurring microbial taxa and the host, which often operate over long evolutionary timescales...
October 31, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792183/molecular-basis-for-vitamin-a-uptake-and-storage-in-vertebrates
#11
REVIEW
Sylwia Chelstowska, Made Airanthi K Widjaja-Adhi, Josie A Silvaroli, Marcin Golczak
The ability to store and distribute vitamin A inside the body is the main evolutionary adaptation that allows vertebrates to maintain retinoid functions during nutritional deficiencies and to acquire new metabolic pathways enabling light-independent production of 11-cis retinoids. These processes greatly depend on enzymes that esterify vitamin A as well as associated retinoid binding proteins. Although the significance of retinyl esters for vitamin A homeostasis is well established, until recently, the molecular basis for the retinol esterification enzymatic activity was unknown...
October 26, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780291/biology-and-evolution-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-symbiosis-in-the-light-of-genomics
#12
REVIEW
Laurent Kamel, Michelle Keller-Pearson, Christophe Roux, Jean-Michel Ané
I. II. III. IV. V. References SUMMARY: Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi associate with the vast majority of land plants, providing mutual nutritional benefits and protecting hosts against biotic and abiotic stresses. Significant progress was made recently in our understanding of the genomic organization, the obligate requirements, and the sexual nature of these fungi through the release and subsequent mining of genome sequences. Genomic and genetic approaches also improved our understanding of the signal repertoire used by AM fungi and their plant hosts to recognize each other for the initiation and maintenance of this association...
October 25, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762069/an-introduction-to-microbiome-analysis-for-human-biology-applications
#13
Katherine R Amato
Research examining the gut microbiota is currently exploding, and results are providing new perspectives on human biology. Factors such as host diet and physiology influence the composition and function of the gut microbiota, which in turn affects human nutrition, health, and behavior via interactions with metabolism, the immune system, and the brain. These findings represent an exciting new twist on familiar topics, and as a result, gut microbiome research is likely to provide insight into unresolved biological mechanisms driving human health...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734894/genomic-evidence-for-plant-parasitic-nematodes-as-the-earliest-wolbachia-hosts
#14
Amanda M V Brown, Sulochana K Wasala, Dana K Howe, Amy B Peetz, Inga A Zasada, Dee R Denver
Wolbachia, one of the most widespread endosymbionts, is a target for biological control of mosquito-borne diseases (malaria and dengue virus), and antibiotic elimination of infectious filarial nematodes. We sequenced and analyzed the genome of a new Wolbachia strain (wPpe) in the plant-parasitic nematode Pratylenchus penetrans. Phylogenomic analyses placed wPpe as the earliest diverging Wolbachia, suggesting two evolutionary invasions into nematodes. The next branches comprised strains in sap-feeding insects, suggesting Wolbachia may have first evolved as a nutritional mutualist...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722071/statistical-optimization-for-enhanced-yields-of-probiotic-bacillus-coagulans-and-its-phage-resistant-mutants-followed-by-kinetic-modelling-of-the-process
#15
Kavita R Pandey, Chetan Joshi, Babu V Vakil
Probiotics are microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer health benefits to the host. A leading pharmaceutical company producing Bacillus coagulans as a probiotic was facing the problem of recurring phage attacks. Two mutants viz. B. co PIII and B. co MIII that were isolated as phage resistant mutants after UV irradiation and MMS treatment of phage sensitive B. coagulans parental culture were characterized at functional and molecular level and were noted to have undergone interesting genetic changes...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721806/the-terrestrial-isopod-microbiome-an-all-in-one-toolbox-for-animal-microbe-interactions-of-ecological-relevance
#16
Didier Bouchon, Martin Zimmer, Jessica Dittmer
Bacterial symbionts represent essential drivers of arthropod ecology and evolution, influencing host traits such as nutrition, reproduction, immunity, and speciation. However, the majority of work on arthropod microbiota has been conducted in insects and more studies in non-model species across different ecological niches will be needed to complete our understanding of host-microbiota interactions. In this review, we present terrestrial isopod crustaceans as an emerging model organism to investigate symbiotic associations with potential relevance to ecosystem functioning...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708630/beyond-16s-rrna-community-profiling-intra-species-diversity-in-the-gut-microbiota
#17
Kirsten M Ellegaard, Philipp Engel
Interactions with microbes affect many aspects of animal biology, including immune system development, nutrition and health. In vertebrates, the gut microbiota is dominated by a small subset of phyla, but the species composition within these phyla is typically not conserved. Moreover, several recent studies have shown that bacterial species in the gut are composed of a multitude of strains, which frequently co-exist in their host, and may be host-specific. However, since the study of intra-species diversity is challenging, particularly in the setting of complex, host-associated microbial communities, our current understanding of the distribution, evolution and functional relevance of intra-species diversity in the gut is scarce...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702787/complex-cis-regulatory-landscape-of-the-insulin-receptor-gene-underlies-the-broad-expression-of-a-central-signaling-regulator
#18
Yiliang Wei, Rewatee H Gokhale, Anne Sonnenschein, Kelly Mone't Montgomery, Andrew Ingersoll, David N Arnosti
Insulin signaling plays key roles in development, growth and metabolism through dynamic control of glucose uptake, global protein translation and transcriptional regulation. Altered levels of insulin signaling are known to play key roles in development and disease, yet the molecular basis of such differential signaling remains obscure. Expression of the insulin receptor (InR) gene itself appears to play an important role, but the nature of the molecular wiring controlling InR transcription has not been elucidated...
October 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696651/an-evolutionary-balance-conservation-vs-innovation-in-ciliate-membrane-trafficking
#19
REVIEW
Sabrice Guerrier, Helmut Plattner, Elisabeth Richardson, Joel B Dacks, Aaron P Turkewitz
As most of eukaryotic diversity lies in single-celled protists, they represent unique opportunities to ask questions about the balance of conservation and innovation in cell biological features. Among free-living protists the ciliates offer ease of culturing, a rich array of experimental approaches, and versatile molecular tools, particularly in Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetraurelia. These attributes have been exploited by researchers to analyze a wealth of cellular structures in these large and complex cells...
October 3, 2016: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651393/evolution-of-digestive-enzymes-and-rnase1-provides-insights-into-dietary-switch-of-cetaceans
#20
Zhengfei Wang, Shixia Xu, Kexing Du, Fang Huang, Zhuo Chen, Kaiya Zhou, Wenhua Ren, Guang Yang
Although cetaceans (whales, porpoises, and dolphins) have multi-chambered stomachs, feeding habits of modern cetaceans have dramatically changed from herbivorous to carnivorous. However, the genetic basis underlying this dietary switch remains unexplored. Here, we present the first systematic investigation of 10 digestive enzymes genes (i.e., CYP7A1, CTRC, LIPC, LIPF, PNLIP, PGC, PRSS1, SI, SLC5A1, and TMPRSS15) of representative cetaceans, and the evolutionary trajectory of RNASE1 in cetartiodactylans. Positive selections were detected with proteinases (i...
December 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
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