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combat clinical hemorrhage

Jean-Guillaume Meusnier, Charles Dewar, Erti Mavrovi, Frederic Caremil, Pierre-Francois Wey, Jean-Yves Martinez
BACKGROUND: Junctional hemorrhage (i.e., between the trunk and limbs) are too proximal for a tourniquet and difficult to compress. These hemorrhages are responsible for 20% of preventable deaths by bleeding on the battlefield. The majority of these involve the groin area. Devices allowing a proximal compression for arterial axes have been recently developed. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the use of two junctional- tourniquet models, the Combat Ready Clamp (CRoC®) and the SAM® Junctional Tourniquet (SJT), in simulated out-of-hospital trauma care when tourniquets were ineffective to stop the arterial flow...
2016: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Mustafa Uğur, Seçkin Akküçük, Yavuz Savaş Koca, Cem Oruç, Akın Aydoğan, Erol Kılıç, İbrahim Yetim, Muhyittin Temiz
BACKGROUND: Transport of casualties from a combat area to a fully equipped hospital where all techniques of damage control surgery (DCS) can be performed requires a great deal of time. Therefore, prior to transport, prompt control of hemorrhage and contamination should be achieved, and resuscitative procedures should be performed at the nearest health center. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the location at which DCS was performed on rates of mortality. METHODS: The present retrospective study included 51 combat casualties who underwent DCS at the present clinic or at hospitals nearest the combat area due to high kinetic energy gunshot injuries to the abdomen between 2010 and 2015...
May 2016: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
Raymond Devlin, Laura Bonanno, Jennifer Badeaux
BACKGROUND: Rapid replacement of blood loss is critical in patients suffering from traumatic hemorrhage. When the availability of blood products is limited, certain interventions have shown promise in conserving blood supplies. Recombinant factor (rF) VIIa has been administered, as an off-label use, to assist in controlling hemorrhage in trauma patients. Although rFVIIa has a tendency to remain localized to areas of vascular insult, there may be an increase in thromboembolism formation when patients suffer multiple sites of injury as seen in blunt force trauma...
March 2016: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Rachel L Choron, Joshua P Hazelton, Krystal Hunter, Lisa Capano-Wehrle, John Gaughan, John Chovanes, Mark J Seamon
BACKGROUND: Intra-abdominal packing with laparotomy pads (LP) is a common and rapid method for hemorrhage control in critically injured patients. Combat Gauze™ and Trauma Pads™ ([QC] Z-Medica QuikClot(®)) are kaolin impregnated hemostatic agents, that in addition to LP, may improve hemorrhage control. While QC packing has been effective in a swine liver injury model, QC remains unstudied for human intra-abdominal use. We hypothesized QC packing during damage control laparotomy (DCL) better controls hemorrhage than standard packing and is safe for intracorporeal use...
July 21, 2016: Injury
Jennifer Leonard, John Zietlow, David Morris, Kathleen Berns, Steven Eyer, Kurt Martinson, Donald Jenkins, Scott Zietlow
BACKGROUND: Life-threatening hemorrhage is a leading cause of preventable mortality in trauma patients. Since publication of the Hartford Consensus statement, there has been intense interest in civilian use of commercial hemostatic gauze and tourniquets. Although the military has studied their use on soldiers with wartime injuries, there are limited data on patient outcomes following civilian prehospital use and no data on the use in rural trauma. METHODS: We performed a multi-institutional retrospective analysis of clinical outcomes following prehospital use of QuikClot combat gauze (QC) and combat application tourniquets (CATs) from 2009 to 2014...
September 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Luis Martinez-Sobrido, Juan Carlos de la Torre
INTRODUCTION: Several arenaviruses, chiefly Lassa virus (LASV), cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) disease in humans and pose significant public health problems in their endemic regions. Moreover, HF arenaviruses represent credible biodefense threats. There are not FDA-approved arenavirus vaccines and current anti-arenaviral therapy is limited to an off-label use of ribavirin that is only partially effective. AREAS COVERED: Live-attenuated vaccines (LAV) represent the most feasible approach to control HF arenaviruses within their endemic regions...
September 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
Shima Shahjouei, Peter Y Cai, Saeed Ansari, Sharareh Sharififar, Hassan Azari, Sarah Ganji, Ramin Zand
Stroke is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries and an immense amount of medical care resources are devoted to combat the poststroke debilitating consequences. The key to develop effective and clinically applicable treatment methodologies is a better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease, including the root causes and targets for pharmacology. Developing these foundations requires the use of standard animal models that mimic the physicochemical process of the diseases that can reliably replicate results in order to test and fine-tune therapeutic modalities...
January 2016: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
Laurence E Shields, Suzanne Wiesner, Catherine Klein, Barbara Pelletreau, Herman L Hedriana
BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality in the United States has increased unabated for the past 20 years. Maternal morbidity is also affecting an increasingly large number of women in the United States. A number of national and state organizations have recommend the use of maternal early warning tools as a method to combat this problem. There are limited data suggesting that the use of these types of clinical assessment tools can reduce maternal morbidity. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine if maternal morbidity could be reduced with the implementation of a clinical pathway-specific Maternal Early Warning Trigger (MEWT) tool...
April 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Anil Kumar, Aakriti, Varun Gupta
Stroke is one of the major healthcare challenges prevailing across the globe due to its significant rate of mortality and morbidity. Stroke is multifactorial in nature and involves several cellular and molecular signaling cascades that make the pathogenesis complex and treatment difficult. For a deeper understanding of the diverse pathological mechanisms and molecular & cellular cascades during stroke, animal modeling serves as a reliable and an effective tool. This also helps to develop and critically analyse various neuroprotective strategies for the mitigation of this devastating disease...
April 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Eve-Isabelle Pécheur, Viktoriya Borisevich, Peter Halfmann, John D Morrey, Donald F Smee, Mark Prichard, Chad E Mire, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Thomas W Geisbert, Stephen J Polyak
UNLABELLED: Arbidol (ARB) is a synthetic antiviral originally developed to combat influenza viruses. ARB is currently used clinically in several countries but not in North America. We have previously shown that ARB inhibits in vitro hepatitis C virus (HCV) by blocking HCV entry and replication. In this report, we expand the list of viruses that are inhibited by ARB and demonstrate that ARB suppresses in vitro infection of mammalian cells with Ebola virus (EBOV), Tacaribe arenavirus, and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8)...
March 2016: Journal of Virology
Peter T Pons, Jesse Jerome, Jeffrey McMullen, James Manson, James Robinson, Will Chapleau
BACKGROUND: Active shooter incidents have led to the recognition that the traditional response paradigm of sequential response and scene entry by law enforcement, first responders, and emergency medical service (EMS) personnel produced delays in care and suboptimal victim outcomes. The Hartford Consensus Group developed recommendations to improve the response to and outcomes from active shooter events and urged that a continuum of care be implemented that incorporates not only EMS response, but also the initiation of care by law enforcement officers and potentially by lay bystanders...
December 2015: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Ana Grande-Pérez, Veronica Martin, Hector Moreno, Juan C de la Torre
The family Arenaviridae currently comprises over 20 viral species, each of them associated with a main rodent species as the natural reservoir and in one case possibly phyllostomid bats. Moreover, recent findings have documented a divergent group of arenaviruses in captive alethinophidian snakes. Human infections occur through mucosal exposure to aerosols or by direct contact of abraded skin with infectious materials. Arenaviruses merit interest both as highly tractable experimental model systems to study acute and persistent infections and as clinically important human pathogens including Lassa (LASV) and Junin (JUNV) viruses, the causative agents of Lassa and Argentine hemorrhagic fevers (AHFs), respectively, for which there are no FDA-licensed vaccines, and current therapy is limited to an off-label use of ribavirin (Rib) that has significant limitations...
2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Izabela Toczyska, Tadeusz Płusa
Toxins produced by the bacteria are of particular interest as potential cargo combat possible for use in a terrorist attack or war. Shiga toxin is usually produced by shiga toxigenic strains of Escherichia coli (STEC - shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli). To infection occurs mostly after eating contaminated beef. Clinical syndromes associated with Shiga toxin diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS - hemolytic uremic syndrome) or thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Treatment is symptomatic...
September 2015: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Tauqeer Hussain Mallhi, Amer Hayat Khan, Azreen Syazril Adnan, Azmi Sarriff, Yusra Habib Khan, Fauziah Jummaat
BACKGROUND: The incidence of dengue is rising steadily in Malaysia since the first major outbreak in 1973. Despite aggressive measures taken by the relevant authorities, Malaysia is still facing worsening dengue crisis over the past few years. There is an urgent need to evaluate dengue cases for better understanding of clinic-laboratory spectrum in order to combat this disease. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of dengue patients admitted to a tertiary care teaching hospital during the period of six years (2008 - 2013) was performed...
2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
Avi Shina, Ari M Lipsky, Roy Nadler, Moran Levi, Avi Benov, Yuval Ran, Avraham Yitzhak, Elon Glassberg
BACKGROUND: Hemostatic dressings are advanced topical dressings designed to control hemorrhage by enhancing clot formation. These dressings may be effective when used on injuries sustained in junctional zones. The Israeli Defense Forces Medical Corps (IDF-MC) chose to equip its medical personnel with the QuikClot Combat Gauze. There is a paucity of data describing clinical use and results of hemostatic dressing especially at the point of injury. The purpose of this article was to report the IDF-MC experience with prehospital use of the QuikClot Combat Gauze in junctional zones in a case series retrieved from the IDF Trauma Registry...
October 2015: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Jacob Glaser, Matthew Vasquez, Cassandra Cardarelli, James Dunne, Eric Elster, Emily Hathaway, Benjamin Bograd, Shawn Safford, Carlos Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom have seen the highest rates of combat casualties since Vietnam. These casualties often require massive transfusion (MT) and immediate surgical attention to control hemorrhage. Clinical practice guidelines dictate ratio-driven resuscitation (RDR) for patients requiring MT. With the transition from crystalloid to blood product resuscitation, we have seen fewer open abdomens in combat casualties. We sought to determine the effect RDR has on achieving early definitive abdominal fascial closure in combat casualties undergoing exploratory laparotomy...
October 2015: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Utkarsh Raj, Pritish Kumar Varadwaj
Ebola virus is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus that causes severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. This virus is unreceptive to a large portion of the known antiviral drugs, and there is no valid treatment as on date for disease created by this pathogen. Looking into its ability to create a pandemic scenario across globe, there is an utmost need for new drugs and therapy to combat this life-threatening infection. The current study deals with the evaluation of the inhibitory activity of flavonoids against the four selected Ebola virus receptor proteins, using in silico studies...
June 2016: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
Jun-Feng Zhang, Hong-Yan Zhu, Yong-Wei Sun, Wei Liu, Yan-Miao Huo, De-Jun Liu, Jiao Li, Rong Hua
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a leading cause of nosocomial infections, which is difficult to treat because of limited susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. In China, isolation rates of P. aeruginosa were observed to increase by year. The incidence of infectious complications after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) were high. However, there was no data available regarding P. aeruginosa infection in patients undergoing PD. This study evaluated the risk factors and clinical impacts of P...
December 2015: Surgical Infections
Geoffrey P Dobson, Hayley L Letson, Rajiv Sharma, Forest R Sheppard, Andrew P Cap
Traumatic-induced coagulopathy (TIC) is a hemostatic disorder that is associated with significant bleeding, transfusion requirements, morbidity and mortality. A disorder similar or analogous to TIC was reported around 70 years ago in patients with shock, hemorrhage, burns, cardiac arrest or undergoing major surgery, and the condition was referred to as a "severe bleeding tendency," "defibrination syndrome," "consumptive disorder," and later by surgeons treating US Vietnam combat casualties as a "diffuse oozing coagulopathy...
August 2015: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Amy C Shurtleff, Sina Bavari
INTRODUCTION: Ebolaviruses are highly pathogenic filoviruses, which cause disease in humans and nonhuman primates (NHP) in Africa. The Zaire ebolavirus outbreak in 2014, which continues to greatly affect Western Africa and other countries to which the hemorrhagic fever was exported due to travel of unsymptomatic yet infected individuals, was complicated by the lack of available licensed vaccines or therapeutics to combat infection. After almost a year of research at an increased pace to find and test vaccines and therapeutics, there is now a deeper understanding of the available disease models for ebolavirus infection...
July 2015: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
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