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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318991/bleeding-control-using-hemostatic-dressings-lessons-learned
#1
REVIEW
Brad L Bennett
Based on lessons learned, many military battlefield trauma advances ultimately transition to enhance civilian trauma care. However, even with major strides to enhance battlefield hemorrhage control, it is unclear how effectively these techniques and products are being translated to civilian trauma. The purpose of this brief review is to present the evidence of current hemostatic product effectiveness, determine the evidence for transitioning of this technology to prehospital civilian application, and provide recommendations about potential use in the wilderness/austere setting...
March 16, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298471/bk-polyomavirus-clinical-aspects-immune-regulation-and-emerging-therapies
#2
REVIEW
George R Ambalathingal, Ross S Francis, Mark J Smyth, Corey Smith, Rajiv Khanna
BK polyomavirus (BKV) causes frequent infections during childhood and establishes persistent infections within renal tubular cells and the uroepithelium, with minimal clinical implications. However, reactivation of BKV in immunocompromised individuals following renal or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may cause serious complications, including BKV-associated nephropathy (BKVAN), ureteric stenosis, or hemorrhagic cystitis. Implementation of more potent immunosuppression and increased posttransplant surveillance has resulted in a higher incidence of BKVAN...
April 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285482/clinical-image-visual-estimation-of-blood-loss
#3
Benjamin Donham, Robby Frondozo, Michael Petro, Andrew Reynolds, Jonathan Swisher, Ryan M Knight
Military prehospital providers frequently have to make important clinical decisions with only limited objective information and vital signs. Because of this, accurate estimation of blood loss, at the point of injury, can augment any available objective information. Prior studies have shown that individuals significantly overestimate the amount of blood loss when the amount of hemorrhage is small, and they tend to underestimate the amount of blood loss with larger amounts of hemorrhage. Furthermore, the type of surface on which the blood is deposited can impact the visual estimation of the amount of hemorrhage...
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265454/fluid-resuscitation-in-haemorrhagic-shock-in-combat-casualties
#4
REVIEW
Parli R Ravi, Bipin Puri
This brief update reviews the recent literature available on fluid resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock and considers the applicability of this evidence for use in resuscitation of combat casualties in the combat casualty care (CCC) environment. A number of changes need to be incorporated in the CCC guidelines: (1) dried plasma (DP) is added as an option when other blood components or whole blood are not available; (2) the wording is clarified to emphasize that Hetastarch is a less desirable option than whole blood, blood components, or DP and should be used only when these preferred options are not available; (3) the use of blood products in certain tactical field care settings where this option might be feasible (FSC, GH) is discussed; (4) 1:1:1 damage control resuscitation (DCR) with plasma: packed red blood cells (PRBC): platelets is preferred to 1:1 DCR with plasma: PRBC when platelets are available; and (5) the 30-min wait between increments of resuscitation fluid administered to achieve clinical improvement or target blood pressure has been eliminated...
2017: Disaster Mil Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230629/point-of-injury-tourniquet-application-during-operation-protective-edge-what-de-we-learn
#5
Amir Shlaifer, Avraham Yitzhak, Erez N Baruch, Avi Shina, Alexandra Satanovsky, Amiram Shovali, Ofer Almog, Elon Glassberg
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhage is a leading cause of preventable death on the battlefield. Timely tourniquet application to massively bleeding extremity wounds is critical for casualty survival albeit with reported adverse effects to extremity integrity. The aim of this study was to describe the immediate and short term outcomes of point of injury (POI) tourniquet applications during 'Operation Protective Edge' (OPE). METHODS: A case series study regarding tourniquet application at the POI during OPE was collected...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048972/astaxanthin-improves-cognitive-performance-in-mice-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Xinran Ji, Dayong Peng, Yiling Zhang, Jun Zhang, Yuning Wang, Yuan Gao, Ning Lu, Peifu Tang
[BACKGROUND]: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) produces lasting neurological deficits that plague patients and physicians. To date, there is no effective method to combat the source of this problem. Here, we utilized a mild, closed head TBI model to determine the modulatory effects of a natural dietary compound, astaxanthin (AST). AST is centrally active following oral administration and is neuroprotective in experimental brain ischemia/stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) models. We examined the effects of oral AST on the long-term neurological functional recovery and histological outcomes following moderate TBI in a mice model...
December 31, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864463/increased-brain-hemopexin-levels-improve-outcomes-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#7
Jenna L Leclerc, Juan Santiago-Moreno, Alex Dang, Andrew S Lampert, Pedro E Cruz, Awilda M Rosario, Todd E Golde, Sylvain Doré
Following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), extracellular heme precipitates secondary brain injury, which results in irreversible brain damage and enduring neurological deficits. Hemopexin (Hpx) is an endogenous protein responsible for scavenging heme, thereby modulating its intrinsic proxidant/proinflammatory properties. Although Hpx is present in the brain, the endogenous levels are insufficient to combat the massive heme overload following ICH. We hypothesized that increasing brain Hpx levels would improve ICH outcomes...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787435/assessment-of-key-plasma-metabolites-in-combat-casualties
#8
Elizabeth R Lusczek, Sydne L Muratore, Michael A Dubick, Greg J Beilman
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that hemorrhagic shock and injury cause significant early changes in metabolism. Recently, global changes in metabolism have been described using metabolomics in animal models and civilian trauma. We evaluated metabolic changes associated with combat injury to identify early biomarkers and aid in triage. METHODS: Plasma obtained at emergency department presentation and intervals thereafter from patients injured during combat operations in Iraq (n = 78) were compared with healthy control subjects (n = 40)...
February 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734441/evaluation-of-two-junctional-tourniquets-used-on-the-battlefield-combat-ready-clamp%C3%A2-versus-sam%C3%A2-junctional-tourniquet
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jean-Guillaume Meusnier, Charles Dewar, Erti Mavrovi, Frederic Caremil, Pierre-Francois Wey, Jean-Yves Martinez
BACKGROUND: Junctional hemorrhage (i.e., between the trunk and limbs) are too proximal for a tourniquet and difficult to compress. These hemorrhages are responsible for 20% of preventable deaths by bleeding on the battlefield. The majority of these involve the groin area. Devices allowing a proximal compression for arterial axes have been recently developed. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the use of two junctional- tourniquet models, the Combat Ready Clamp (CRoC®) and the SAM® Junctional Tourniquet (SJT), in simulated out-of-hospital trauma care when tourniquets were ineffective to stop the arterial flow...
2016: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598593/where-should-the-damage-control-surgery-be-performed-at-the-nearest-health-center-or-at-a-fully-equipped-hospital
#10
Mustafa Uğur, Seçkin Akküçük, Yavuz Savaş Koca, Cem Oruç, Akın Aydoğan, Erol Kılıç, İbrahim Yetim, Muhyittin Temiz
BACKGROUND: Transport of casualties from a combat area to a fully equipped hospital where all techniques of damage control surgery (DCS) can be performed requires a great deal of time. Therefore, prior to transport, prompt control of hemorrhage and contamination should be achieved, and resuscitative procedures should be performed at the nearest health center. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the location at which DCS was performed on rates of mortality. METHODS: The present retrospective study included 51 combat casualties who underwent DCS at the present clinic or at hospitals nearest the combat area due to high kinetic energy gunshot injuries to the abdomen between 2010 and 2015...
May 2016: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27532142/the-incidence-of-thromboembolism-formation-following-the-use-of-recombinant-factor-viia-in-patients-suffering-from-blunt-force-trauma-compared-with-penetrating-trauma-a-systematic-review
#11
Raymond Devlin, Laura Bonanno, Jennifer Badeaux
BACKGROUND: Rapid replacement of blood loss is critical in patients suffering from traumatic hemorrhage. When the availability of blood products is limited, certain interventions have shown promise in conserving blood supplies. Recombinant factor (rF) VIIa has been administered, as an off-label use, to assist in controlling hemorrhage in trauma patients. Although rFVIIa has a tendency to remain localized to areas of vascular insult, there may be an increase in thromboembolism formation when patients suffer multiple sites of injury as seen in blunt force trauma...
March 2016: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469399/intra-abdominal-packing-with-laparotomy-pads-and-quikclot%C3%A2-during-damage-control-laparotomy-a-safety-analysis
#12
Rachel L Choron, Joshua P Hazelton, Krystal Hunter, Lisa Capano-Wehrle, John Gaughan, John Chovanes, Mark J Seamon
BACKGROUND: Intra-abdominal packing with laparotomy pads (LP) is a common and rapid method for hemorrhage control in critically injured patients. Combat Gauze™ and Trauma Pads™ ([QC] Z-Medica QuikClot(®)) are kaolin impregnated hemostatic agents, that in addition to LP, may improve hemorrhage control. While QC packing has been effective in a swine liver injury model, QC remains unstudied for human intra-abdominal use. We hypothesized QC packing during damage control laparotomy (DCL) better controls hemorrhage than standard packing and is safe for intracorporeal use...
January 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27257704/a-multi-institutional-study-of-hemostatic-gauze-and-tourniquets-in-rural-civilian-trauma
#13
Jennifer Leonard, John Zietlow, David Morris, Kathleen Berns, Steven Eyer, Kurt Martinson, Donald Jenkins, Scott Zietlow
BACKGROUND: Life-threatening hemorrhage is a leading cause of preventable mortality in trauma patients. Since publication of the Hartford Consensus statement, there has been intense interest in civilian use of commercial hemostatic gauze and tourniquets. Although the military has studied their use on soldiers with wartime injuries, there are limited data on patient outcomes following civilian prehospital use and no data on the use in rural trauma. METHODS: We performed a multi-institutional retrospective analysis of clinical outcomes following prehospital use of QuikClot combat gauze (QC) and combat application tourniquets (CATs) from 2009 to 2014...
September 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27118328/novel-strategies-for-development-of-hemorrhagic-fever-arenavirus-live-attenuated-vaccines
#14
Luis Martinez-Sobrido, Juan Carlos de la Torre
INTRODUCTION: Several arenaviruses, chiefly Lassa virus (LASV), cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) disease in humans and pose significant public health problems in their endemic regions. Moreover, HF arenaviruses represent credible biodefense threats. There are not FDA-approved arenavirus vaccines and current anti-arenaviral therapy is limited to an off-label use of ribavirin that is only partially effective. AREAS COVERED: Live-attenuated vaccines (LAV) represent the most feasible approach to control HF arenaviruses within their endemic regions...
September 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26958146/middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-model-of-stroke-in-rodents-a-step-by-step-approach
#15
Shima Shahjouei, Peter Y Cai, Saeed Ansari, Sharareh Sharififar, Hassan Azari, Sarah Ganji, Ramin Zand
Stroke is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries and an immense amount of medical care resources are devoted to combat the poststroke debilitating consequences. The key to develop effective and clinically applicable treatment methodologies is a better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease, including the root causes and targets for pharmacology. Developing these foundations requires the use of standard animal models that mimic the physicochemical process of the diseases that can reliably replicate results in order to test and fine-tune therapeutic modalities...
January 2016: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26924745/use-of-maternal-early-warning-trigger-tool-reduces-maternal-morbidity
#16
MULTICENTER STUDY
Laurence E Shields, Suzanne Wiesner, Catherine Klein, Barbara Pelletreau, Herman L Hedriana
BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality in the United States has increased unabated for the past 20 years. Maternal morbidity is also affecting an increasingly large number of women in the United States. A number of national and state organizations have recommend the use of maternal early warning tools as a method to combat this problem. There are limited data suggesting that the use of these types of clinical assessment tools can reduce maternal morbidity. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine if maternal morbidity could be reduced with the implementation of a clinical pathway-specific Maternal Early Warning Trigger (MEWT) tool...
April 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26902651/a-review-on-animal-models-of-stroke-an-update
#17
REVIEW
Anil Kumar, Aakriti, Varun Gupta
Stroke is one of the major healthcare challenges prevailing across the globe due to its significant rate of mortality and morbidity. Stroke is multifactorial in nature and involves several cellular and molecular signaling cascades that make the pathogenesis complex and treatment difficult. For a deeper understanding of the diverse pathological mechanisms and molecular & cellular cascades during stroke, animal modeling serves as a reliable and an effective tool. This also helps to develop and critically analyse various neuroprotective strategies for the mitigation of this devastating disease...
April 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26739045/the-synthetic-antiviral-drug-arbidol-inhibits-globally-prevalent-pathogenic-viruses
#18
Eve-Isabelle Pécheur, Viktoriya Borisevich, Peter Halfmann, John D Morrey, Donald F Smee, Mark Prichard, Chad E Mire, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Thomas W Geisbert, Stephen J Polyak
UNLABELLED: Arbidol (ARB) is a synthetic antiviral originally developed to combat influenza viruses. ARB is currently used clinically in several countries but not in North America. We have previously shown that ARB inhibits in vitro hepatitis C virus (HCV) by blocking HCV entry and replication. In this report, we expand the list of viruses that are inhibited by ARB and demonstrate that ARB suppresses in vitro infection of mammalian cells with Ebola virus (EBOV), Tacaribe arenavirus, and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8)...
January 6, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26482826/the-hartford-consensus-on-active-shooters-implementing-the-continuum-of-prehospital-trauma-response
#19
Peter T Pons, Jesse Jerome, Jeffrey McMullen, James Manson, James Robinson, Will Chapleau
BACKGROUND: Active shooter incidents have led to the recognition that the traditional response paradigm of sequential response and scene entry by law enforcement, first responders, and emergency medical service (EMS) personnel produced delays in care and suboptimal victim outcomes. The Hartford Consensus Group developed recommendations to improve the response to and outcomes from active shooter events and urged that a continuum of care be implemented that incorporates not only EMS response, but also the initiation of care by law enforcement officers and potentially by lay bystanders...
December 2015: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26472215/arenavirus-quasispecies-and-their-biological-implications
#20
REVIEW
Ana Grande-Pérez, Veronica Martin, Hector Moreno, Juan C de la Torre
The family Arenaviridae currently comprises over 20 viral species, each of them associated with a main rodent species as the natural reservoir and in one case possibly phyllostomid bats. Moreover, recent findings have documented a divergent group of arenaviruses in captive alethinophidian snakes. Human infections occur through mucosal exposure to aerosols or by direct contact of abraded skin with infectious materials. Arenaviruses merit interest both as highly tractable experimental model systems to study acute and persistent infections and as clinically important human pathogens including Lassa (LASV) and Junin (JUNV) viruses, the causative agents of Lassa and Argentine hemorrhagic fevers (AHFs), respectively, for which there are no FDA-licensed vaccines, and current therapy is limited to an off-label use of ribavirin (Rib) that has significant limitations...
2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
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