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Memory and borderline personality disorder

Natalie Gold, Michalis Kyratsous
We consider how conceptions of the self and identity from the philosophical literature can help us to understand identity disturbance in borderline personality disorder (BPD). We present 3 philosophical approaches: connectedness, narrative, and agency. We show how these map on to 3 different ways in which the self can be temporally extended. The connectedness approach is dominant in philosophy, and the narrative approach has been used by psychiatry, but we argue that the lesser-known agency approach provides a promising way to theorize some aspects of identity disturbance in BPD...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Annegret Krause-Utz, Dorina Winter, Friederike Schriner, Chui-De Chiu, Stefanie Lis, Philip Spinhoven, Martin Bohus, Christian Schmahl, Bernet M Elzinga
Affective hyper-reactivity and impaired cognitive control of emotional material are core features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). A high percentage of individuals with BPD experience stress-related dissociation, including emotional numbing and memory disruptions. So far little is known about how dissociation influences the neural processing of emotional material in the context of a working memory task in BPD. We aimed to investigate whole-brain activity and amygdala functional connectivity (FC) during an Emotional Working Memory Task (EWMT) after dissociation induction in un-medicated BPD patients compared to healthy controls (HC)...
May 19, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Joan Haliburn, Janine Stevenson, Shaun Halovic
The psychotherapy of commonly occurring severe personality disorders-borderline, narcissistic, avoidant, dependent, obsessive compulsive, and schizoid-presents the therapist with a unique therapeutic challenge, as each personality disorder rarely occurs alone. Integration of what is most useful and what works in each model is being proposed to enable a more successful approach to the diversity of presentations. We describe the conversational model, some outcome research, and descriptive studies to illustrate this...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Tytus Koweszko, Jacek Gierus, Magdalena Więdłocha, Anna Mosiołek, Agata Szulc
Borderline personality disorder is highly associated with suicidal behaviors. The authors of the current case study present the introduction model of original Crisis Intervention Procedure for Borderline Patients (CIP-BP) which is a method focused on restoring emotional balance, reducing the severity of symptoms and the risk of suicidal behavior, as well as developing optimum solutions for further action. Its aim is to enable the patient to regain control of their emotional memory, increase autonomy and restore important interpersonal relations by using the original resources of this person...
June 2017: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
Ying Liu, Mingtian Zhong, Chang Xi, Xinhu Jin, Xiongzhao Zhu, Shuqiao Yao, Jinyao Yi
Whereas some studies have demonstrated impaired working memory (WM) among patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), these findings have not been consistent. Furthermore, there is a lack of neurophysiological evidence about WM function in patients with BPD. The goal of this study was to examine WM function in patients with BPD by using event-related potentials (ERPs). An additional goal was to explore whether characteristics of BPD (i.e., impulsiveness and emotional instability) are associated with WM impairment...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Sammy Roording-Ragetlie, Helen Klip, Jan Buitelaar, Dorine Slaats-Willemse
BACKGROUND: Working memory training (WMT) has been shown to offer therapeutic benefits to both patients with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and patients with mild to borderline Intellectual Disabilities (MBID; 60 < IQ < 85). However, robust evidence for transfer effects and treatment benefits of WMT over placebo training are lacking. Owing to the nature of double-blind research designs in RCTs, children have received non-specific coaching not based on their actual training performance...
March 28, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
Annegret Krause-Utz, Rachel Frost, Dorina Winter, Bernet M Elzinga
Dissociation involves disruptions of usually integrated functions of consciousness, perception, memory, identity, and affect (e.g., depersonalization, derealization, numbing, amnesia, and analgesia). While the precise neurobiological underpinnings of dissociation remain elusive, neuroimaging studies in disorders, characterized by high dissociation (e.g., depersonalization/derealization disorder (DDD), dissociative identity disorder (DID), dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (D-PTSD)), have provided valuable insight into brain alterations possibly underlying dissociation...
January 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
Dana Bichescu-Burian, Jürgen Steyer, Tilman Steinert, Benjamin Grieb, Stefan Tschöke
Defense reactions to threatening situations are vital adaptations to stress that protect organisms from injury and ensure survival. We retrospectively investigated the role of peritraumatic dissociation (PD) in the occurrence of severe psychopathology and dissociative patterns of reactions in borderline personality disorder (BPD). We recruited 28 patients with a clinical diagnosis of BPD and 15 healthy controls. The BPD group was divided according to the level of PD (low vs. high): BPD and PD (n = 15) and BPD only (n = 13)...
March 2017: Psychophysiology
Domingo Garcia-Villamisar, John Dattilo, Marta Garcia-Martinez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes recent executive functions research to better delineate the nosology of personality disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: This review indicates that there are consistent impairments in executive functioning in people with personality disorders as compared with matched controls. Only five disorders were considered: borderline, obsessive-compulsive, antisocial, narcissistic, and schizotypal. Significant deficits are observed in decision-making, working memory, inhibition, and flexibility...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
M M Hurtado, M Triviño, M Arnedo, G Roldán, P Tudela
This research explored the relationship between executive functions (working memory and reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Trail Making and Stroop tests, fluency and planning tasks, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test) and emotional intelligence measured by the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test in patients with schizophrenia or borderline personality disorder compared to a control group. As expected, both clinical groups performed worse than the control group in executive functions and emotional intelligence, although the impairment was greater in the borderline personality disorder group...
December 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Marianne S Thomsen, Anthony C Ruocco, Dean Carcone, Birgit B Mathiesen, Erik Simonsen
The present study evaluates the severity of neurocognitive deficits and assesses their relations with self-reported childhood trauma and dimensions of personality psychopathology in 45 outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) matched to 56 non-psychiatric controls. Participants completed a comprehensive battery of neurocognitive tests, a retrospective questionnaire on early life trauma and a dimensional measure of personality psychopathology. Patients with BPD primarily showed deficits in verbal comprehension, sustained visual attention, working memory and processing speed...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Hara Karamanolaki, Areti C Spyropoulou, Aggeliki Iliadou, Eleni Vousoura, Stamatia Vondikaki, Nikos Pantazis, Grigoris Vaslamatzis
The purpose of this study was to assess the possible effect of recalled traumatic experiences, perceived parental rearing styles, and family parameters on the occurrence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) versus other personality disorders (other-PDs). A total of 88 adult outpatients with personality disorders completed the Traumatic Antecedents Questionnaire and the Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran, which measures perceptions regarding parental rearing. Results indicated that incidence of traumatic childhood experiences was higher among those in the BPD group compared to those in the other-PD group...
2016: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic
Jennifer A Silvers, Alexa D Hubbard, Sadia Chaudhury, Emily Biggs, Jocelyn Shu, Michael F Grunebaum, Eric Fertuck, Jochen Weber, Hedy Kober, Amanda Carson-Wong, Beth S Brodsky, Megan Chesin, Kevin N Ochsner, Barbara Stanley
Suicidal behavior and difficulty regulating emotions are hallmarks of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). This study examined neural links between emotion regulation and suicide risk in BPD. 60 individuals with BPD (all female, mean age = 28.9 years), 46 of whom had attempted suicide, completed a fMRI task involving recalling aversive personal memories. Distance trials assessed the ability to regulate emotion by recalling memories from a third-person, objective viewpoint. Immerse trials assessed emotional reactivity and involved recalling memories from a first-person perspective...
October 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Andreas Laddis, Paul F Dell, Marilyn Korzekwa
A total of 75 patients were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised as having dissociative identity disorder (DID), and 100 patients were diagnosed with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality as having borderline personality disorder (BPD). Both groups were administered the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID). DID patients had significantly higher MID scores than BPD patients, different distributions of MID scores, and different MID subscale profiles in 3 ranges of MID scores (0-15, 15-30, 30-45)...
March 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Dorina Winter, Katrin Koplin, Christian Schmahl, Martin Bohus, Stefanie Lis
People's memory of past social encounters influences current social interactions. Social rejection has been shown to increase people's memory for social events particularly when referring to others rather than themselves. Social rejection and neglect often characterize biographies of individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Using a social memory task, we investigated whether the evaluation and memory of social events is altered in BPD and whether this depends on reference to the self or others...
June 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Marianne S Thomsen, Anthony C Ruocco, Amanda A Uliaszek, Birgit B Mathiesen, Erik Simonsen
Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have deficits in neurocognitive function that could affect their ability to engage in psychotherapy and may be ameliorated by improvements in symptom severity. In the current study, 18 patients with BPD completed neurocognitive tests prior to beginning mentalization-based therapy and again after 6 months of treatment. Twenty-eight nonpsychiatric controls were tested over the same period of time but received no intervention. Before starting treatment, patients performed lower than controls on tests assessing sustained attention and visuospatial working memory...
June 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
Antonio Vita, Giacomo Deste, Stefano Barlati, Roberto Poli, Paolo Cacciani, Luca De Peri, Emilio Sacchetti
Several studies have demonstrated that borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with neuropsychological deficits and there is evidence that the neurocognitive profile of patients with BPD may be related to the outcome of this disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and the effectiveness of a cognitive remediation intervention in patients with BPD. Thirty patients with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of BPD were assessed on clinical, neuropsychological and functional outcome measures at baseline and after 16 weeks of a computer-assisted cognitive remediation (CACR) intervention or treatment as usual (TAU)...
February 12, 2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Peter Kirsch
The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT), highly conserved during evolution, is an important modulator of social and emotional processes across many species. During the last decade, a large body of literature has revealed its effects on different aspects of social behavior, including social stress and anxiety, social memory, affiliation and bonding, emotion recognition, mentalizing, empathy, and interpersonal trust. In addition, as impairments in these social domains can be observed in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism, social anxiety disorder, depression, schizophrenia, and borderline personality disorder, the role of OXT in mental disorders and their treatment has been intensively studied...
December 2015: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Christel Hessels, Marcel A G van Aken, Bram Orobio de Castro, Odilia M Laceulle, Guus van Voorst
BACKGROUND: This study investigated relations between personality pathology and mentalizing capacities reflected in social information processing (SIP) of adolescents. SAMPLING AND METHODS: 96 adolescent outpatients completed a structured interview regarding SIP. Their clinicians completed a checklist based on DSM-IV, assessing severity of personality pathology. RESULTS: Significant relations were found between the severity of personality pathology and SIP: the more severe the personality pathology, the higher the intensity of reported emotions, the more likely adolescents were to choose inadequate coping strategies and aggressive reactions in social situations, and the more positively they evaluated aggressive reactions...
2016: Psychopathology
Zsolt Unoka, Mara J Richman
Studies have shown that patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have co-occurring disorders; literature has also suggested that BPD patients have impairments in neuropsychological functioning, as seen in a previous meta-analysis (Ruocco, 2005). This meta-analysis showed that neuropsychological functioning are marked areas of concern in BPD; however, this meta-analytic research did not assess the effects of co-occurring disorders on neuropsychological functioning in BPD patients. The current meta-analysis takes this into consideration and a systematic review of cross-sectional studies comparing neuropsychological performance of individuals with BPD with age-matched healthy comparison subjects was carried out...
March 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
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