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Sudden unexpected death in infancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659376/when-a-child-dies-unexpectedly-no-truth-be-told
#1
Deborah L Callanan, William D McClain
Sudden death of a child beyond infancy is a rare event. We report a child who presented to the emergency care system with asystole and the caregiver's report of an asthma attack as the preceding event. After unsuccessful attempts at resuscitation, an autopsy was performed by the medical examiner. Despite only scattered bruises with no clear-cut signs of abuse, aortic rupture and spinal fractures were found. This case highlights the crucial role of the medical examiner in evaluating sudden childhood death, even in the setting of underlying illness...
April 13, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558846/focal-congenital-hyperinsulinism-as-a-cause-for-sudden-infant-death
#2
Amish Chinoy, Indraneel Banerjee, Sarah E Flanagan, Sian Ellard, Bing Han, Zainab Mohamed, Mark J Dunne, Stefania Bitetti
Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is the commonest cause of persistent and severe hypoglycemia in infancy due to unregulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. Prompt early diagnosis is important, as insulin reduces glucose supply to the brain, resulting in significant brain injury and risk of death. Histologically, CHI has focal and diffuse forms; in focal CHI, an inappropriate level of insulin is secreted from localized β-cell hyperplasia. We report a 4-month-old male infant, who presented with sudden illness and collapse without a recognized cause and died...
January 1, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558463/causes-of-death-and-infant-mortality-rates-among-full-term-births-in-the-united-states-between-2010-and-2012-an-observational-study
#3
Neha Bairoliya, Günther Fink
BACKGROUND: While the high prevalence of preterm births and its impact on infant mortality in the US have been widely acknowledged, recent data suggest that even full-term births in the US face substantially higher mortality risks compared to European countries with low infant mortality rates. In this paper, we use the most recent birth records in the US to more closely analyze the primary causes underlying mortality rates among full-term births. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Linked birth and death records for the period 2010-2012 were used to identify the state- and cause-specific burden of infant mortality among full-term infants (born at 37-42 weeks of gestation)...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460253/neuronal-apoptosis-in-the-brainstem-medulla-of-sudden-unexpected-death-in-infancy-sudi-and-the-importance-of-standardized-sudi-classification
#4
Natalie Ambrose, Karen A Waters, Michael L Rodriguez, Kendall Bailey, Rita Machaalani
The purpose of this study was to examine the neuronal expression of apoptotic markers in the rostral medulla of a newly characterized dataset of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI), and to determine the impact of diagnostic groupings on these findings and whether they pertain to the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Immunohistochemical staining was quantified to determine the percentage of neurons positive for active caspase-9 (specific to the intrinsic apoptotic pathway), active caspase-3 (common to the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways) and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) (labels DNA fragmentation) in nine nuclei of the rostral medulla...
March 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357197/the-p%C3%A4-pi-pod-study-overnight-video-oximetry-and-thermal-environment-while-using-an-in-bed-sleep-device-for-sudden-unexpected-death-in-infancy-prevention
#5
David Tipene-Leach, Sally A Baddock, Sheila M Williams, Angeline Tangiora, Raymond Jones, Caroline McElnay, Barry J Taylor
AIM: The aim of this study was to identify the potential risks and benefits of sleeping infants in a Pēpi-Pod distributed to families with high risk of sudden unexpected death in infancy compared to a bassinet. METHODS: Forty-five mostly indigenous Māori mothers who were referred by local health providers to receive a Pēpi-Pod were surveyed at recruitment, 1 and 3 months. A sleep study at 1 month included infrared video, oximetry and temperature measures...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299793/bed-sharing-in-the-first-8-weeks-of-life-an-australian-study
#6
H M Cunningham, H Vally, L Bugeja
Background As the evidence continues to emerge about the relationship between sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) and the way an infant sleeps, providing consistent and evidence-informed recommendations on how best to sleep infants is an ongoing challenge. A recent case series study in the state of Victoria, Australia, identified 45.8% of sleep-related infant deaths occurred whilst bed-sharing. This study prompted the need for further exploration of infant sleeping practices, including bed-sharing, in this population...
April 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243157/why-is-a-prone-sleeping-position-dangerous-for-certain-infants
#7
Roger W Byard, Fiona Bright, Robert Vink
The prone (face down) sleeping position is known to be associated with a significantly increased risk of sudden and unexpected death in infancy (sudden infant death syndrome or SIDS), however, the reasons for this are unclear. Suggested mechanisms have involved suffocation from occlusion of the external airways by soft bedding/pillows or from flattening of the nose with backward displacement of the tongue, rebreathing of carbon dioxide, blunting of arousal responses with decreased cardiac responses to auditory stimulation, diaphragmatic splinting or fatigue, lowering of vasomotor tone with tachycardia, nasopharyngeal bacterial overgrowth, overheating, alteration of sleep patterns, compromise of cerebral blood flow and upper airway obstruction from distortion of nasal cartilages...
March 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125216/evaluation-of-a-sudden-unexpected-death-in-infancy-intervention-programme-aimed-at-improving-parental-awareness-of-risk-factors-and-protective-infant-care-practices
#8
Christine McIntosh, Adrian Trenholme, Joanna Stewart, Alison Vogel
AIM: Sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) rates for Māori and Pacific infants remain higher than for other ethnic groups in New Zealand and bed-sharing is a major risk factor when there is smoking exposure in pregnancy. Sleep space programmes of education and Pēpi-Pod baby beds require evaluation. METHODS: Two hundred and forty Māori and Pacific women and infants were randomised 1:1, to the Pēpi-Pod sleep space programme, or to a control group with 'usual care'...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747690/postmortem-genetic-analysis-of-sudden-unexpected-death-in-infancy-neonatal-genetic-screening-may-enable-the-prevention-of-sudden-infant-death
#9
Yuki Oshima, Takuma Yamamoto, Taisuke Ishikawa, Hiroyuki Mishima, Aya Matsusue, Takahiro Umehara, Takehiko Murase, Yuki Abe, Shin-Ichi Kubo, Koh-Ichiro Yoshiura, Naomasa Makita, Kazuya Ikematsu
Tandem mass screening has recently been started in Japan, but genetic screening has yet to be widely performed in neonates and many unexpected deaths are still being reported. We previously reported two cases of sudden infant death that may have been prevented had newborn screening been performed. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed 71 cases of sudden infant death for 66 arrhythmia- and 63 metabolic disease-related genes to identify how many cases of sudden infant death may have been prevented had mass screening been performed...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697921/new-frameworks-for-understanding-sudden-unexpected-deaths-in-infancy-sudi-in-socially-vulnerable-families
#10
REVIEW
Rebecca Shipstone, Jeanine Young, Lauren Kearney
THEORETICAL PRINCIPLES: Sociological frameworks may enhance understanding of the complex and multidimensional nature of disadvantage, which is prevalent among families who experience Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (SUDI). PHENOMENA ADDRESSED: SUDI is the largest category of postneonatal death and largely associated with the social determinants of health. The highly successful 'Back to Sleep' campaign has resulted in a more than 85% decrease in SUDI. However, social inequalities have accompanied this decrease, and the burden of SUDI now lies with the most disadvantaged and socially vulnerable families...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571049/the-combination-of-bed-sharing-and-maternal-smoking-leads-to-a-greatly-increased-risk-of-sudden-unexpected-death-in-infancy-the-new-zealand-sudi-nationwide-case-control-study
#11
Edwin A Mitchell, John Md Thompson, Jane Zuccollo, Melanie MacFarlane, Barry Taylor, Dawn Elder, Alistair W Stewart, Teuila Percival, Nick Baker, Gabrielle K McDonald, Bev Lawton, Martin Schlaud, Peter Fleming
BACKGROUND: Despite a major reduction in overall infant mortality, sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) continues to be of concern in New Zealand, as the rate is high by international standards, and is even higher in indigenous Māori. AIM: To identify modifiable risk factors for SUDI. METHODS: A three-year (1 March 2012-28 February 2015) nationwide case-control study was conducted in New Zealand. RESULTS: There were 137 SUDI cases, giving a SUDI mortality rate of 0...
June 2, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382839/abnormal-muscularization-of-intra-acinar-pulmonary-arteries-in-2-cases-presenting-as-sudden-infant-death-sids
#12
Zainun Khairul, Hope Kirsten, Andrew G Nicholson, Marta C Cohen
Abnormal muscularization of acinar arteries is the hallmark of persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn (PPHN), an uncommon disease with high rate of morbidity and mortality. PPHN presents with signs of respiratory distress immediately following birth. We herein report 2 cases presenting as a witnessed sudden unexpected death in the late neonatal period, preceded by respiratory deterioration and in whom the presence of abnormal muscularization of the acinar pulmonary arteries was reminiscent of PPHN. The significance of this report is twofold: to increase the awareness among pediatricians and pathologists of this feature that can present in some cases of sudden unexpected death in infancy/Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), and to highlight the importance of performing a thorough autopsy in order to identify the abnormality...
January 1, 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276303/abnormal-muscularization-of-intra-acinar-pulmonary-arteries-in-two-cases-presenting-as-sudden-infant-death
#13
Khairul Zainun, Kirsten Hope, Andrew G Nicholson, Marta C Cohen
Abnormal muscularization of acinar arteries is the hallmark of persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn (PPHN), an uncommon disease with high rate of morbidity and mortality. PPHN presents with signs of respiratory distress immediately following birth. We herein report 2 cases presenting as a witnessed sudden unexpected death in the late neonatal period, preceded by respiratory deterioration and in whom the presence of abnormal muscularization of the acinar pulmonary arteries was reminiscent of PPHN. The significance of this report is twofold: to increase the awareness among pediatricians and pathologists of this feature that can present in some cases of Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy/Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, and to highlight the importance of performing a thorough autopsy in order to identify the abnormality...
January 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173849/rigour-and-rapport-a-qualitative-study-of-parents-and-professionals-experiences-of-joint-agency-infant-death-investigation
#14
Joanna Garstang, Frances Griffiths, Peter Sidebotham
BACKGROUND: In many countries there are now detailed Child Death Review (CDR) processes following unexpected child deaths. CDR can lead to a fuller understanding of the causes for each child's death but this potentially intrusive process may increase the distress of bereaved families. In England, a joint agency approach (JAA) is used where police, healthcare and social services investigate sudden child deaths together and a key part of this is the joint home visit (JHV) where specialist police and paediatricians visit the home with the parents to view the scene of death...
February 7, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164435/childhood-neoplasms-presenting-at-autopsy-a-20-year-experience
#15
Victoria A Bryant, John Booth, Liina Palm, Michael Ashworth, Thomas S Jacques, Neil J Sebire
OBJECTIVE: The aims of the review are to establish the number of undiagnosed neoplasms presenting at autopsy in a single centre and to determine the incidence and most common causes of sudden unexpected death due to neoplasia in infancy and childhood (SUDNIC). DESIGN: Retrospective observational study of paediatric autopsies performed on behalf of Her Majesty's Coroner over a 20-year period (1996-2015; n = 2,432). Neoplasms first diagnosed at autopsy were identified from an established database and cases meeting the criteria for sudden unexpected death were further categorised...
September 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028890/evolution-and-significance-of-the-triple-risk-model-in-sudden-infant-death-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Jade Spinelli, Lyndsey Collins-Praino, Corinna Van Den Heuvel, Roger W Byard
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a leading cause of death in infants, although the mechanisms leading to death remain unclear. Multiple theories have emerged over time, with one of the most influential hypotheses being the triple risk model. This model, first devised in 1972 and later revised in 1994 by Filiano and Kinney, is still widely used in assisting with conceptualising and understanding sudden death in infancy. This model has evolved over time, with each version stressing that SIDS is likely to occur when certain risk factors coincide, suggesting that the lethal mechanisms in SIDS are likely to be multifactorial...
February 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864952/sudden-infant-and-early-childhood-death-and-sinus-of-valsalva-pseudoaneurysms
#17
John Gilbert, Mary N Sheppard, Roger W Byard
Two cases of occult pseudoaneurysms of the sinus of Valsalva (SoV) are reported to demonstrate different etiologies and lethal mechanisms. A previously well 9-month-old boy who suffered an unexpected fatal cardiorespiratory arrest was found at autopsy to have a ruptured pseudoaneurysm of the left SoV resulting in lethal hemopericardium. A 13.5-month-old boy died soon after presenting with a 24-h history of poor feeding and reduced urine output. At autopsy, destruction of the noncoronary cusp of the aortic valve by bacterial endocarditis was found with extension of the inflammation into a pseudoaneurysm of the SoV with surrounding abscess formation involving the atrioventricular node...
March 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781316/stillbirth-and-intrauterine-fetal-death-role-of-routine-histological-organ-sampling-to-determine-cause-of-death
#18
J Man, J C Hutchinson, M Ashworth, L Judge-Kronis, S Levine, N J Sebire
OBJECTIVES: Guidelines for the investigation of intrauterine death and sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) recommend, based on expert opinion, autopsy procedures and tissue sampling strategies for histological analysis. Although stillbirth is much more common than SUDI, there have been no large-scale studies published which evaluate the usefulness of histological evaluation of specific organs in stillbirth for determining cause of death. Our aim was to evaluate the use of macroscopic and microscopic assessment of internal organs to determine cause of intrauterine death...
November 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27523598/biallelic-ppa2-mutations-cause-sudden-unexpected-cardiac-arrest-in-infancy
#19
Anne Guimier, Christopher T Gordon, François Godard, Gianina Ravenscroft, Myriam Oufadem, Christelle Vasnier, Caroline Rambaud, Patrick Nitschke, Christine Bole-Feysot, Cécile Masson, Stéphane Dauger, Cheryl Longman, Nigel G Laing, Béatrice Kugener, Damien Bonnet, Patrice Bouvagnet, Sylvie Di Filippo, Vincent Probst, Richard Redon, Philippe Charron, Agnès Rötig, Stanislas Lyonnet, Alain Dautant, Loïc de Pontual, Jean-Paul di Rago, Agnès Delahodde, Jeanne Amiel
Sudden unexpected death in infancy occurs in apparently healthy infants and remains largely unexplained despite thorough investigation. The vast majority of cases are sporadic. Here we report seven individuals from three families affected by sudden and unexpected cardiac arrest between 4 and 20 months of age. Whole-exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous missense mutations in PPA2 in affected infants of each family. PPA2 encodes the mitochondrial pyrophosphatase, which hydrolyzes inorganic pyrophosphate into two phosphates...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503508/unintentional-asphyxia-sids-and-medically-explained-deaths-a-descriptive-study-of-outcomes-of-child-death-review-cdr-investigations-following-sudden-unexpected-death-in-infancy
#20
Joanna Garstang, Catherine Ellis, Frances Griffiths, Peter Sidebotham
BACKGROUND: A comprehensive child death review (CDR) program was introduced in England and Wales in 2008, but as yet data have only been analyzed at a local level, limiting the learning from deaths. The aim of this study is to describe the profile of causes and risk factors for sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) as determined by the new CDR program. METHODS: This was a descriptive outcome study using data from child death overview panel Form C for SUDI cases dying during 2010-2012 in the West Midlands region of England...
December 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
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