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Neonatal pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648169/-the-incidence-of-congenital-hypothyroidism-is-increasing
#1
Tina Lund Leunbach, Pia Sønderby Christensen, Kurt Kristensen
The prognosis of primary congenital hypothyroidism, which has potentially devastating effects on neurodevelopment, has been almost eradicated after the implementation of the neonatal screening programme. Although early facilitation with substitution of levothyroxine is preventative, caution should still be taken in severe cases, as subtle psychomotor delays may occur. Treatment dose may be indicative of the severity and pathology behind the condition and can be used as guidance when deciding which patients should have a trial of levothyroxine in cases where the thyroid gland remains in situ...
June 26, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645308/neonatal-aav-delivery-of-alpha-synuclein-induces-pathology-in-the-adult-mouse-brain
#2
Marion Delenclos, Ayman H Faroqi, Mei Yue, Aishe Kurti, Monica Castanedes-Casey, Linda Rousseau, Virginia Phillips, Dennis W Dickson, John D Fryer, Pamela J McLean
Abnormal accumulation of alpha-synuclein (αsyn) is a pathological hallmark of Lewy body related disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Dementia with Lewy body disease. During the past two decades, a myriad of animal models have been developed to mimic pathological features of synucleinopathies by over-expressing human αsyn. Although different strategies have been used, most models have little or no reliable and predictive phenotype. Novel animal models are a valuable tool for understanding neuronal pathology and to facilitate development of new therapeutics for these diseases...
June 23, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645120/acute-abdomen-secondary-to-ruptured-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-during-pregnancy-the-relevance-of-teamwork
#3
Carlos Manuel Ortiz-Mendoza, Sandra Adriana Vera-Vázquez, Manuel Gómez-Rodríguez, José Luis López-Gómez, Leticia Bornstein-Quevedo
Acute abdomen secondary to epithelial ovarian cancer rupture during pregnancy is a rare event. Our aim is to present how the work of a coordinated multidisciplinary team in a case of ruptured epithelial ovarian cancer during pregnancy is feasible to obtain the best results possible. A 34-year-old woman during the 37th week of her first gestation presented with an acute abdomen. During laparotomy, a ruptured 16.5-cm left ovarian tumor was detected; the tumor was extirpated and sent to pathologic evaluation. In the meantime, a Kerr cesarean section was performed, and a healthy female neonate was born...
June 23, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644831/inflammatory-and-vascular-placental-lesions-are-associated-with-neonatal-amplitude-integrated-eeg-recording-in-early-premature-neonates
#4
Dorit Paz-Levy, Letizia Schreiber, Offer Erez, Sharon Goshen, Justin Richardson, VIadimir Drunov, Orna Staretz Chacham, Eilon Shany
INTRODUCTION: Placental histologic examination can assist in revealing the mechanism leading to preterm birth. Accumulating evidence suggests an association between intrauterine pathological processes, morbidity and mortality of premature infants, and their long term outcome. Neonatal brain activity is increasingly monitored in neonatal intensive care units by amplitude integrated EEG (aEEG) and indices of background activity and sleep cycling patterns were correlated with long term outcome...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641980/cardiomyocyte-specific-overexpression-of-a-37-amino-acid-domain-of-regulator-of-g-protein-signalling-2-inhibits-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-improves-function-in-response-to-pressure-overload-in-mice
#5
Katherine N Lee, Xiangru Lu, Chau Nguyen, Qingping Feng, Peter Chidiac
Regulator of G protein signalling 2 (RGS2) is known to play a protective role in maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure via its ability to inhibit Gq and Gs mediated GPCR signalling. We previously demonstrated that RGS2 can also inhibit protein translation and can thereby attenuate cell growth. This G protein-independent inhibitory effect has been mapped to a 37 amino acid domain (RGS2(eb)) within RGS2 that binds to eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF2B). When expressed in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, RGS2(eb) attenuates both protein synthesis and hypertrophy induced by Gq- and Gs- activating agents...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640798/evaluation-of-placental-and-fetal-tissue-specimens-for-zika-virus-infection-50-states-and-district-of-columbia-january-december-2016
#6
Sarah Reagan-Steiner, Regina Simeone, Elizabeth Simon, Julu Bhatnagar, Titilope Oduyebo, Rebecca Free, Amy M Denison, Demi B Rabeneck, Sascha Ellington, Emily Petersen, Joy Gary, Gillian Hale, M Kelly Keating, Roosecelis B Martines, Atis Muehlenbachs, Jana Ritter, Ellen Lee, Alexander Davidson, Erin Conners, Sarah Scotland, Kayleigh Sandhu, Andrea Bingham, Elizabeth Kassens, Lou Smith, Kirsten St George, Nina Ahmad, Mary Tanner, Suzanne Beavers, Brooke Miers, Kelley VanMaldeghem, Sumaiya Khan, Ingrid Rabe, Carolyn Gould, Dana Meaney-Delman, Margaret A Honein, Wun-Ju Shieh, Denise J Jamieson, Marc Fischer, Sherif R Zaki
Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause congenital microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1), and detection of Zika virus RNA in clinical and tissue specimens can provide definitive laboratory evidence of recent Zika virus infection. Whereas duration of viremia is typically short, prolonged detection of Zika virus RNA in placental, fetal, and neonatal brain tissue has been reported and can provide key diagnostic information by confirming recent Zika virus infection (2). In accordance with recent guidance (3,4), CDC provides Zika virus testing of placental and fetal tissues in clinical situations where this information could add diagnostic value...
June 23, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638481/neonatal-heart-enriched-mir-708-promotes-proliferation-and-stress-resistance-of-cardiomyocytes-in-rodents
#7
Shengqiong Deng, Qian Zhao, Lixiao Zhen, Chuyi Zhang, Cuicui Liu, Guangxue Wang, Lin Zhang, Luer Bao, Ying Lu, Lingyu Meng, Jinhui Lü, Ping Yu, Xin Lin, Yuzhen Zhang, Yi-Han Chen, Huimin Fan, William C Cho, Zhongmin Liu, Zuoren Yu
Adult heart has limited potential for regeneration after pathological injury due to the limited cell proliferation of cardiomyocytes and the quiescent status of progenitor cells. As such, induction of cell-cycle reentry of cardiomyocytes is one of the key strategies for regeneration of damaged heart. In this study, a subset of miRNAs including miR-708 were identified to be much more abundant in the embryonic and neonatal cardiomyocytes than that in adult rodents. Overexpression of miR-708 promoted cellular proliferation of H9C2 cells or primary cardiomyocytes from neonatal rats or mice in vitro...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627661/altered-expression-of-ppar%C3%A2-%C3%AE-and-trpc-in-neonatal-rats-with-persistent-pulmonary-hypertension
#8
Yanna Du, Jianhua Fu, Li Yao, Lin Qiao, Na Liu, Yujiao Xing, Xindong Xue
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a life‑threatening disease that is commonly observed in the neonatal intensive care unit. PPHN is pathologically characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling and, in particular, pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation. Decreased expression levels of peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ (PPAR‑γ), which is a member of the nuclear receptor hormone superfamily, in combination with elevated expressions of transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 1 (TRPC1) and TRPC6 contributes to the PASMC proliferation and excessive pulmonary vascular remodeling in adult pulmonary hypertension (PH)...
June 9, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627493/parasitic-infections-in-the-east-asian-finless-porpoise-neophocaena-asiaeorientalis-sunameri-living-off-the-chinese-yellow-bohai-sea-coast
#9
X L Wan, J S Zheng, W X Li, X Y Zeng, J W Yang, Y J Hao, D Wang
Parasitic disease is among the major causes of health problems in marine mammals. However, little information on parasitic species composition and infection levels in finless porpoises (Neophocaena spp.) is available. In this study, we report the first systematic survey on parasitic infections in the East Asian finless porpoise N. asiaeorientalis sunameri (EAFP) living off the Chinese Yellow/Bohai Sea coast. Using both morphological and molecular methods, 5 parasitic helminths were identified: Campula oblonga in the liver and pancreas; Synthesium seymouri in the pyloric stomach and duodenum ampulla; Anisakis pegreffii in the forestomach, main stomach, and esophagus; Halocercus sp...
June 19, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626595/williams-beuren-syndrome-and-congenital-lobar-emphysema-uncommon-association-with-common-pathology
#10
Timothy Andrew Walsh, Krishna Revanna Gopagondanahalli, Atul Malhotra
INTRODUCTION: Congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) and Williams-Beuren Syndrome are two rare conditions that have only been reported together in a single case study. CASE PRESENTATION: We report another case of a male Caucasian newborn with nonspecific initial respiratory distress, with detection of CLE on repeat chest X-ray on Day 25 of life and concurrent ventricular septal defect, supravalvular aortic stenosis, and branch pulmonary stenosis, in whom a 7q11.23 deletion consistent with Williams-Beuren Syndrome was made...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625478/a-neonatal-mouse-model-of-coxsackievirus-a10-infection-for-anti-viral-evaluation
#11
Shuxuan Li, Huan Zhao, Lisheng Yang, Wangheng Hou, Longfa Xu, Yangtao Wu, Wei Wang, Chunye Chen, Junkai Wan, Xiangzhong Ye, Zhenglun Liang, Qunying Mao, Tong Cheng, Ningshao Xia
Epidemiological data indicate that coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) has become one of the main causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and in recent years has often been found to co-circulate with other enteroviruses, which poses a challenge for the prevention and control of HFMD. Although most CVA10-associated HFMD cases present mild symptoms, severe manifestations and even death can also occur. However, the study of the pathogenesis and the development of drugs and vaccines for CVA10 infection is still far from complete...
June 15, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623142/complication-of-newborn-circumcision-meatal-stenosis-or-meatal-web
#12
Mehmet Ali Özen, Gökhan Gündoğdu, Mehmet Taşdemir, Egemen Eroğlu
INTRODUCTION: Meatal stenosis (MS) is a known complication of newborn circumcision. Symptoms are usually masked in young kids with a diaper. Deflation of urinary stream, dysuria, urinary frequency, and incontinence are the most common reported symptoms. Diagnosis of MS is still controversial. A narrow pinpoint urethral meatus is the current accepted diagnostic criteria. OBJECTIVE: In our practice, we observed that our cases do not overlap to the classic definition and presentation of MS...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622279/hydrogen-sulphide-in-exhaled-gases-from-ventilated-septic-neonates-and-children-a-preliminary-report
#13
Natalie Bee, Ruth White, Andy J Petros
OBJECTIVES: There is increasing interest in hydrogen sulphide as a marker of pathologic conditions or predictors of outcome. We speculate that as hydrogen sulphide is a diffusible molecule, if there is an increase in plasma hydrogen sulphide in sepsis, it may accumulate in the alveolar space and be detected in exhaled gas. "We wished to determine whether we could detect hydrogen sulphide in exhaled gases of ventilated children and neonates and if the levels changed in sepsis." DESIGN: Prospective, observational study...
June 15, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621328/live-cell-screening-platform-identifies-ppar%C3%AE-as-a-regulator-of-cardiomyocyte-proliferation-and-cardiac-repair
#14
Ajit Magadum, Yishu Ding, Lan He, Teayoun Kim, Mohankrishna Dalvoy Vasudevarao, Qinqiang Long, Kevin Yang, Nadeera Wickramasinghe, Harsha V Renikunta, Nicole Dubois, Gilbert Weidinger, Qinglin Yang, Felix B Engel
Zebrafish can efficiently regenerate their heart through cardiomyocyte proliferation. In contrast, mammalian cardiomyocytes stop proliferating shortly after birth, limiting the regenerative capacity of the postnatal mammalian heart. Therefore, if the endogenous potential of postnatal cardiomyocyte proliferation could be enhanced, it could offer a promising future therapy for heart failure patients. Here, we set out to systematically identify small molecules triggering postnatal cardiomyocyte proliferation. By screening chemical compound libraries utilizing a Fucci-based system for assessing cell cycle stages, we identified carbacyclin as an inducer of postnatal cardiomyocyte proliferation...
June 16, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619546/screening-in-developmental-dysplasia-of-the-hip-ddh
#15
REVIEW
Robin W Paton
Screening for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) is a controversial subject. Screening may be by universal neonatal clinical examination (Ortolani or Barlow manoeuvres) with the addition of sonographic imaging of the hip (selective 'at risk' hips or universal screening in the neonate). In the UK, the NIPE guidelines recommend universal neonatal clinical assessment of the hip joints, a General Practitioner 6-8 week clinical 'hip check' and assessment clinically with sonographic imaging at 4-6 weeks for certain 'at risk' hips for pathological DDH...
June 12, 2017: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617443/bilirubin-neurotoxicity-is-associated-with-proteasome-inhibition
#16
Hongbiao Huang, Mingxing Guo, Ningning Liu, Chong Zhao, Haoyu Chen, Xiaoli Wang, Siyan Liao, Ping Zhou, Yuning Liao, Xin Chen, Xiaoying Lan, Jinghong Chen, Dacai Xu, Xiaofen Li, Xianping Shi, Li Yu, Yuqiang Nie, Xuejun Wang, Chang-E Zhang, Jinbao Liu
The molecular mechanism underlying bilirubin neurotoxicity remains obscure. Ubiquitin-proteasome system-mediated proteolysis is pivotal to virtually all cellular processes and cell survival. Here we report for the first time that bilirubin at a clinically relevant elevated level impairs proteasomal function via inhibiting both the 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (USP14 and UCHL5) and the chymotrypsin-like (CT-like) peptidase activity of 20S proteasomes, thereby contributing to bilirubin neurotoxicity...
June 15, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616342/bicuspid-aortic-valve-syndrome-a-multidisciplinary-approach-for-a-complex-entity
#17
REVIEW
María Martín, Rebeca Lorca, José Rozado, Rubén Alvarez-Cabo, Juan Calvo, Isaac Pascual, Helena Cigarrán, Isabel Rodríguez, César Morís
Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) or bicuspid aortopathy is the most common congenital heart disease. It can be clinically silent and it is often identified as an incidental finding in otherwise healthy, asymptomatic patients. However, it can be dysfunctioning at birth, even requiring neonatal intervention, or, in time, lead to aortic stenosis, aortic insufficiency, and endocarditis, and also be associated with aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection. Given its prevalence and significant complications, it is estimated that BAV is responsible for more deaths and morbidity than the combined effects of all the other congenital heart defects...
May 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615294/pituitary-stem-cell-regulation-who-is-pulling-the-strings
#18
Benoit Cox, Heleen Roose, Annelies Vennekens, Hugo Vankelecom
The pituitary gland plays a pivotal role in the endocrine system, steering fundamental processes of growth, metabolism, reproduction and coping with stress. The adult pituitary contains resident stem cells which are highly quiescent in homeostatic conditions. However, the cells show marked signs of activation during processes of increased cell remodeling in the gland, including maturation at neonatal age, adaptation to physiological demands, regeneration upon injury, and growth of local tumors. Although functions of pituitary stem cells are slowly but gradually uncovered, their regulation largely remains virgin territory...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611684/protective-role-for-lpa3-in-cardiac-hypertrophy-induced-by-myocardial-infarction-but-not-by-isoproterenol
#19
Lin Cai, Guangpu Fan, Fang Wang, Si Liu, Tiewei Li, Xiangfeng Cong, Jerold Chun, Xi Chen
Background: We previously reported that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) promoted cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro via one of its G protein-coupled receptor subtypes, LPA3. In this study, we examined the role of LPA3 in cardiac hypertrophy induced by isoproterenol (ISO) and myocardial infarction. Methods:In vitro, neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) were subjected to LPA3 knocked-down, or pretreated with a β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) antagonist (propranolol) before LPA/ISO treatment. Cardiomyocyte size and hypertrophic gene (ANP, BNP) mRNA levels were determined...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611128/decreased-kcne2-expression-participates-in-the-development-of-cardiac-hypertrophy-by-regulation-of-calcineurin-nfat-nuclear-factor-of-activated-t-cells-and-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-pathways
#20
Wenjuan Liu, Jianxin Deng, Wenwen Ding, Gang Wang, Yuanyuan Shen, Junmeng Zheng, Xiaoming Zhang, Yizhi Luo, Chifei Lv, Yonghui Wang, Liqing Chen, Dewen Yan, Ryan L Boudreau, Long-Sheng Song, Jie Liu
BACKGROUND: KCNE2 is a promiscuous auxiliary subunit of voltage-gated cation channels. A recent work demonstrated that KCNE2 regulates L-type Ca(2+) channels. Given the important roles of altered Ca(2+) signaling in structural and functional remodeling in diseased hearts, this study investigated whether KCNE2 participates in the development of pathological hypertrophy. METHODS AND RESULTS: We found that cardiac KCNE2 expression was significantly decreased in phenylephrine-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes and in transverse aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice, as well as in dilated cardiomyopathy in human...
June 2017: Circulation. Heart Failure
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