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Neonatal pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774186/ring-enhancing-lesions-in-neonatal-meningitis-an-analysis-of-neuroradiology-pitfalls-through-exemplificative-cases-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#1
Mario Ganau, Kshitij Mankad, Uma Rami Srirambhatla, Zubair Tahir, Felice D'Arco
Very often the clinical course of neonatal meningitis (NM) is characterized by sudden worsening, at times associated with cerebrovascular complications and strokes or the formation of cerebral abscesses. The immediate recognition of these pathological patterns is pivotal in providing clinicians with useful information to differentiate between those different pathological entities, which may both present as ring-enhancing lesions on neuroradiology investigations. Understanding their natural history and diagnostic features is of paramount importance to timely adopt the most appropriate medical and surgical management...
April 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773072/formal-procedure-to-facilitate-the-decision-to-withhold-or-withdraw-life-sustaining-interventions-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-a-seven-year-retrospective-study
#2
G Sorin, R Vialet, B Tosello
BACKGROUND: Neonatal deaths are often associated with the complex decision to limit or withdraw life-sustaining interventions (LSIs) rather than therapeutic impasses. Despite the existence of a law, significant disparities in clinical procedures remain. This study aimed to assess deaths occurring in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and measure the impact of a traceable Limitation or Withdrawal of Active Treatment (LWAT) file on the treatment of these newborns. METHODS: In this monocentric retrospective study, we reviewed all consecutive neonatal deaths occurring during two three-year periods among patients in the NICU at the North Hospital of Marseille: cohort 1 (from 2009 to 2011 without the LWAT file) and cohort 2 (from 2013 to 2015 after introduction of the LWAT file)...
May 17, 2018: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769237/outcomes-following-antenatal-identification-of-hydrops-fetalis-a-single-centre-experience-from-2001-to-2012
#3
Damien M Gilby, J Bridie Mee, C Omar Farouk Kamlin, Louise H Kornman, Peter G Davis, Brett James Manley
OBJECTIVE: To describe the aetiologies and outcomes of pregnancies complicated by hydrops fetalis (HF). STUDY DESIGN: Case series of all pregnancies complicated by HF managed at The Royal Women's Hospital (RWH), Melbourne, Australia, between 2001 and 2012. Multiple pregnancies, and cases where antenatal care was not provided at RWH were excluded. Cases were identified from neonatal and obstetric databases. Data were extracted from maternal and neonatal case files, electronic pathology and radiology reports, and obstetric and neonatal databases...
May 16, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768405/pathology-and-causes-of-death-in-stranded-humpback-whales-megaptera-novaeangliae-from-brazil
#4
Kátia Regina Groch, Josué Díaz-Delgado, Milton C C Marcondes, Adriana Castaldo Colosio, Elitieri B Santos-Neto, Vítor Luz Carvalho, Gisele Silva Boos, Ana Carolina Oliveira de Meirelles, Hernani Gomes da Cunha Ramos, Juliana Plácido Guimarães, João Carlos Gomes Borges, Jociery Einhardt Vergara-Parente, Judy A St Leger, Antonio Fernández, José Luiz Catão-Dias
This study describes the pathologic findings of 24 humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) found stranded along the Brazilian coast from 2004 to 2016. Eighteen (75%) animals evaluated were found stranded alive. From these, 13 died naturally on shore and five were euthanized. Six died at sea and were washed ashore. Of the 24, 19 (79.2%) were calves, four (16.7%) were juveniles, and one (4.2%) was an adult. The most probable cause of stranding and/or death (CSD) was determined in 23/24 (95.8%) individuals. In calves, CSD included neonatal respiratory distress (13/19; 68...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764580/-effect-of-rhubarb-on-neonatal-rats-with-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-induced-by-hyperoxia
#5
Ling-Ling Yin, Zhen-Zhi Ye, Li-Jun Tang, Liang Guo, Wei-Min Huang
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of rhubarb on neonatal rats with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) induced by hyperoxia. METHODS: A total of 64 rats (postnatal day 4) were randomly divided into four groups: air control, rhubarb control, hyperoxia model, and hyperoxia+rhubarb (n=16 each). The rats in the hyperoxia model and hyperoxia+rhubarb groups were exposed to hyperoxia (60% O2) to establish a BPD model. The rats in the rhubarb control and hyperoxia+rhubarb groups were given rhubarb extract suspension (600 mg/kg) by gavage daily...
May 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764569/-combined-effect-of-gestational-age-and-birth-weight-on-metabolites-related-to-inherited-metabolic-diseases-in-neonates
#6
Fang Yi, Ling Wang, Mei Wang, Xue-Lian Yuan, Hua-Jing Wan, Jia-Yuan Li
OBJECTIVE: To study the combined effect of gestational age and birth weight on metabolites related to inherited metabolic diseases (IMD). METHODS: A total of 3 381 samples ruled out of IMD by follow-up were randomly selected from 38 931 newborns who participated in the neonatal IMD screening during 2014-2016. The 3 381 neonates were categorized into seven groups according to their gestational age and birth weight: extremely preterm appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) group (n=12), preterm small-for-gestational age (SGA) group (n=18), preterm AGA group (n=219), preterm large-for-gestational age (LGA) group (n=18), full-term SGA group (n=206), full-term AGA group (n=2 677), and full-term LGA group (n=231)...
May 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763478/a-case-of-pustular-psoriasis-of-pregnancy-with-positive-maternal-fetal-outcomes
#7
Michelle Pitch, Kathryn Somers, Glynis Scott, Francisco Tausk, Mary G Mercurio
Pustular psoriasis of pregnancy (PPP), also known as impetigo herpetiformis, is a rare condition that affects women in the third trimester of pregnancy through the postpartum period. The relative infrequency of PPP presents both clinical and pathologic challenges in the diagnosis and management of this condition. We report a case of a woman who presented at 32 weeks' gestation with a generalized rash demonstrating clinicopathologic features consistent with PPP. Based on prior reports of adverse maternal-fetal outcomes in PPP, coordinated efforts from our patient's dermatologic and obstetric teams ensured positive outcomes for the patient and the neonate...
April 2018: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758552/downregulation-of-s100a4-alleviates-cardiac-fibrosis-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-mice
#8
LiJun Qian, Jian Hong, YanMei Zhang, MengLin Zhu, XinChun Wang, YanJuan Zhang, Ming Chu, Jing Yao, Di Xu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cardiac fibrosis is a pathological change leading to cardiac remodeling during the progression of myocardial ischemic diseases, and its therapeutic strategy remains to be explored. S100A4, a calcium-binding protein, participates in fibrotic diseases with an unclear mechanism. This study aimed to investigate the role of S100A4 in cardiac fibrosis. METHODS: Cardiac fibroblasts from neonatal C57BL/6 mouse hearts were isolated and cultured. Myocardial infarction was induced by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD)...
May 7, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753496/an-evidence-based-protocol-for-managing-neonatal-middle-ear-effusions-in-babies-who-fail-newborn-hearing-screening
#9
Brittany C Weber, Scott M Whitlock, Kaidi He, Blake S Kimbrell, Craig S Derkay
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of middle ear disease in infants referred for failed newborn hearing screening (NBHS) and to review patient outcomes after intervention in order to propose an evidence-based protocol for management of newborns with otitis media with effusion (OME) who fail NBHS. METHODS: 85 infants with suspected middle ear pathology were retrospectively reviewed after referral for failed NBHS. All subjects underwent a diagnostic microscopic exam with myringotomy with or without placement of a ventilation tube in the presence of a middle ear effusion and had intra-operative auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing or testing at a later date...
April 12, 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751877/pathologic-features-of-hereditary-cholestatic-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Andrew D Clouston
The inherited diseases causing conjugated hyperbilirubinemia are diverse, with variability in clinical severity, histologic appearance, and time of onset. The liver biopsy appearances can also vary depending on whether the initial presentation is in the neonatal period or later. Although many of the disorders have specific histologic features in fully developed and classic cases, biopsies taken early in the disease course may be nonspecific, showing either cholestatic hepatitis or an obstructive pattern of injury requiring close correlation with the laboratory and clinical findings to reach the correct diagnosis...
June 2018: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751786/meconium-peritonitis-due-to-fetal-appendiceal-perforation-two-case-reports-and-a-brief-review-of-the-literature
#11
Yi Wang, Yeming Wu, Wenbin Guan, Wenbo Yan, Yuhua Li, Jin Fang, Jun Wang
BACKGROUND: Meconium peritonitis is an infrequent congenital disease usually caused by perforation of the fetal digestive tract. Meconium peritonitis resulting from intrauterine appendiceal perforation has been rarely reported and is often overlooked during pregnancy. We herein report two cases of fetal appendiceal perforation. CASE PRESENTATION: Two neonates were found to have intestinal distension and gradually increasing ascites antenatally. After birth, diagnostic abdominal punctures revealed meconium peritonitis...
May 11, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751216/pellino-1-is-a-novel-regulator-of-tnf-and-tlr-signalling-in-human-myometrial-and-amnion-cells
#12
Ratana Lim, Gillian Barker, Martha Lappas
Preterm birth is the primary cause of neonatal deaths and morbidities. Pathological processes causally linked to preterm birth are inflammation and infection. Pellino-1 (Peli1) has previously been found to regulate the inflammatory response in non-gestational tissues in response to toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of labor on Peli1 expression in myometrium and fetal membranes, and the effect of Peli1 silencing by siRNA (siPELI1) on the production of pro-inflammatory and pro-labor mediators...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740189/reference-intervals-for-stool-calprotectin-in-preterm-neonates-and-their-utility-for-the-diagnosis-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#13
B C MacQueen, R D Christensen, C C Yost, P V Gordon, V L Baer, R Schlaberg, J Lowe
OBJECTIVE: Calprotectin is an antimicrobial protein found in stool when released by granulocytes. We sought to create stool calprotectin reference ranges in preterm neonates and to evaluate whether levels exceeding the upper reference interval are diagnostic for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). STUDY DESIGN: Stool calprotectin was measured in premature neonates without gastrointestinal pathology to create reference intervals. For comparison, levels from infants undergoing "rule out NEC" evaluations were plotted on these reference intervals...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732167/bugs-in-the-program-can-pregnancy-drugs-and-smoking-disturb-molecular-reprogramming-of-the-fetal-germline-increasing-heritable-risk-for-autism-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#14
Jill Escher
In a seeming paradox, the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has surged, while at the same time research has pointed to the strong heritability of this neurodevelopmental pathology. Here an autism research philanthropist suggests a biological phenomenon of exogenously induced 'gamete disruption' that could reconcile these seemingly contradictory observations. Mining information from her own family history and that of her fellow autism parents, while also engaging with the scientific community, she proposes that a subset of the autisms may be rooted in a variety of molecular glitches in parental gametes induced by certain acute exposures during the parents' own fetal or neonatal development...
April 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728721/characterization-of-the-placenta-in-the-newborn-with-congenital-heart-disease-distinctions-based-on-type-of-cardiac-malformation
#15
Jack Rychik, Donna Goff, Eileen McKay, Antonio Mott, Zhiyun Tian, Daniel J Licht, J William Gaynor
The placenta is a complex organ that influences prenatal growth and development, and through fetal programming impacts postnatal health and well-being lifelong. Little information exists on placental pathology in the presence of congenital heart disease (CHD). Our objective is to characterize the placenta in CHD and investigate for distinctions based on type of malformation present. Placental pathology from singleton neonates prenatally diagnosed and delivered at > 37 weeks gestation was analyzed. Placental findings of absolute weight, placental weight-to-newborn birth weight ratio, chorangiosis, villus maturity, thrombosis, and infarction were recorded and analyzed based on four physiological categories of CHD: (1) single ventricle-aortic obstruction, (2) single ventricle-pulmonic obstruction, (3) two-ventricle anomalies, and (4) transposition of the great arteries (TGA)...
May 4, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728171/laryngeal-cleft-type-iv-one-pathology-two-different-presentations
#16
Gabriel Hernández, Francis D Beauchamp-Pérez, Carlos González-Aquino
Laryngotracheoesophageal cleft is a rare congenital malformation where a communication exists between the aero-digestive tracts that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. In this case series, we describe our experience with two neonates evaluated in our institution with two diverse initial presentations and symptomatology of type IV laryngotracheoesophageal clefts. One patient presented with acute distress and respiratory failure due to bowel contents obstructing the trachea and the other presented with mild subcostal retractions and inspiratory stridor without overt respiratory failure...
June 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720962/sex-differences-in-medium-spiny-neuron-excitability-and-glutamatergic-synaptic-input-heterogeneity-across-striatal-regions-and-evidence-for-estradiol-dependent-sexual-differentiation
#17
REVIEW
Jinyan Cao, Jaime A Willett, David M Dorris, John Meitzen
Steroid sex hormones and biological sex influence how the brain regulates motivated behavior, reward, and sensorimotor function in both normal and pathological contexts. Investigations into the underlying neural mechanisms have targeted the striatal brain regions, including the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens core (AcbC), and shell. These brain regions are of particular interest to neuroendocrinologists given that they express membrane-associated but not nuclear estrogen receptors, and also the well-established role of the sex steroid hormone 17β-estradiol (estradiol) in modulating striatal dopamine systems...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712514/prenatal-diagnosis-of-suprarenal-mass-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-a-case-series
#18
Pedro Castro, Ana Paula Matos, Heron Werner, Tatiana Fazecas, Renata Nogueira, Pedro Daltro, Edward Araujo Júnior
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the perinatal outcomes and postnatal follow-up of prenatally diagnosed suprarenal masses (SRMs) evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Thirteen fetuses with SRMs detected during routine prenatal ultrasound screening were evaluated by MRI between February 2007 and May 2015. The prenatal characteristics of the masses, complications of the pregnancies, and related malformations were collected as the postnatal clinical, radiological, and pathological data...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696704/fetal-medicine-foundation-fetal-and-neonatal-population-weight-charts
#19
K H Nicolaides, D Wright, A Syngelaki, A Wright, R Akolekar
OBJECTIVE: To develop fetal and neonatal population weight charts. The rationale for this objective is that while reference ranges of estimated fetal weight (EFW) are representative of the whole population, the traditional approach of deriving birth-weight (BW) charts is misleading because a high proportion of babies born preterm arises from pathological pregnancies. We propose that the reference population for BW charts, as in the case of EFW charts, should be all babies at a given gestational age including those still in utero...
April 26, 2018: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692289/first-record-of-halocercus-sp-pseudaliidae-lungworm-infections-in-two-stranded-neonatal-orcas-orcinus-orca
#20
A Reckendorf, E Ludes-Wehrmeister, P Wohlsein, R Tiedemann, U Siebert, K Lehnert
Orca (Orcinus orca) strandings are rare and post-mortem examinations on fresh individuals are scarce. Thus, little is known about their parasitological fauna, prevalence of infections, associated pathology and the impact on their health. During post-mortem examinations of two male neonatal orcas stranded in Germany and Norway, lungworm infections were found within the bronchi of both individuals. The nematodes were identified as Halocercus sp. (Pseudaliidae), which have been described in the respiratory tract of multiple odontocete species, but not yet in orcas...
April 25, 2018: Parasitology
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