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Neonatal pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334374/transitory-presence-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-in-neonates-is-critical-for-control-of-inflammation
#1
Yu-Mei He, Xing Li, Michela Perego, Yulia Nefedova, Andrew V Kossenkov, Erik A Jensen, Valerian Kagan, Yu-Feng Liu, Shu-Yu Fu, Qing-Jian Ye, Yan-Hong Zhou, Lai Wei, Dmitry I Gabrilovich, Jie Zhou
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are pathologically activated and relatively immature myeloid cells that have been implicated in the immunological regulation of many pathologic conditions. Phenotypically and morphologically, MDSCs are similar to neutrophils (PMN-MDSCs) and monocytes (M-MDSCs). However, they have potent suppressive activity and distinct gene expression profiles and biochemical characteristics. No or very few MDSCs are observed in steady-state physiological conditions. Therefore, until recently, accumulation of MDSCs was considered a consequence of pathological processes or pregnancy...
January 15, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331747/dural-based-cavernous-malformation-at-the-cerebral-convexity-report-of-two-pediatric-patients
#2
Guichen Li, Xuan Zhai, Yang Zhang, Ping Liang, Xuanxuan Wu, Kun Hou
BACKGROUND: Intracranial (cavernous malformations) CMs are usually located at the cerebral parenchyma, dural-based CMs outside the middle fossa are rarely reported. To our knowledge, dural-based CMs located at the cerebral convexity are even rarer that only two pediatric cases were ever reported. In this report, we present two extremely rare cases of dural-based CMs at the cerebral convexity in pediatric patients. The clinical course, radiological and pathological features, treatment, and follow-up are described...
January 10, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331314/chloroquine-inhibits-autophagy-and-deteriorates-the-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-apoptosis-in-hypoxic-rat-neurons
#3
Peng Li, Lei Hao, Yan-Yan Guo, Guang-Lu Yang, Hua Mei, Xiao-Hua Li, Qiong-Xiang Zhai
AIMS: Mitochondrial dysfunction (MD) and apoptosis in the neurons are associated with neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy (HIE). The present study was to explore the influence of autophagy on the induction of MD and apoptosis in the neurons in a neonatal HIE rats and in hypoxia-treated neurons in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten-day-old HI rat pups were sacrificed for brain pathological examination and immunohistochemical analysis. The induction of autophagy, apoptosis and MD were also determined in the neurons under hypoxia, with or without autophagy inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ) treatment...
January 10, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329366/delineating-differential-regulatory-signatures-of-the-human-transcriptome-in-the-choriodecidua-and-myometrium-at-term-labor
#4
Sylvia Lui, Cyntia Duval, Farkhondeh Farrokhnia, Sylvie Girard, Lynda K Harris, Clare L Tower, Adam Stevens, Rebecca L Jones
Background: Preterm deliveries remain the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Current therapies target only myometrial contractions and are largely ineffective. As labor involves multiple coordinated events across maternal and fetal tissues, identifying fundamental regulatory pathways of normal term labor is vital to understanding successful parturition and consequently labor pathologies. We aimed to identify transcriptomic signatures of human normal term labor of two tissues: in the fetal-facing choriodecidua and the maternal myometrium...
January 10, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328035/assessment-of-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-infants-6-12-months-of-age-according-to-impact-of-perinatal-risk-factors
#5
N Tskimanauri, N Khachapuridze, P Imnadze, T Chanadiri, S Bakhtadze
The purpose of this research was to investigate the developmental follow-up of infants (at age of 6 month and 12 month), exposed to separate and combination impact of perinatal risk factors, compared with not exposed cases, within the prospective cohort study. Between January 2015 and January 2017, in this research we prospectively enrolled 1018 live-born infants from the medical reports of the participating clinics in Tbilisi (capital of Republic of Georgia) and Mtskheta, Dusheti (districts of Georgia). Within postnatal follow-up, the children from whole population were assessed at 6 and 12 months of age by family doctors using the Denver Developmental Screening Test (Denver II)...
December 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325092/intravenous-administration-of-scaav9-hexb-normalizes-lifespan-and-prevents-pathology-in-sandhoff-disease-mice
#6
Natalia Niemir, Laura Rouvière, Aurore Besse, Marie T Vanier, Jasmin Dmytrus, Thibaut Marais, Stéphanie Astord, Jean-Philippe Puech, Ganna Panasyuk, Jonathan D Cooper, Martine Barkats, Catherine Caillaud
Sandhoff disease (SD) is a rare inherited disorder caused by a deficiency of β-hexosaminidase activity which is fatal because no effective treatment is available. A mouse model of Hexb deficiency reproduces the key pathognomonic features of SD patients with severe ubiquitous lysosomal dysfunction, GM2 accumulation, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, culminating in death at 4 months. Here, we show that a single intravenous neonatal administration of a self-complementary adeno-associated virus 9 vector (scAAV9) expressing the Hexb cDNA in SD mice is safe and sufficient to prevent disease development...
January 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320328/twenty-five-diagnoses-on-midline-images-of-the-brain-from-fetus-to-child-to-adult
#7
Asim F Choudhri, Harris L Cohen, Adeel Siddiqui, Vijay Pande, Ari M Blitz
Midsagittal images of the brain provide a wealth of anatomic information and may show abnormalities that are pathognomonic for particular diagnoses. Using an anatomy-based approach, the authors identify pertinent anatomic structures to serve as a checklist when evaluating these structures. Subregions evaluated include the corpus callosum, pituitary gland and sellar region, pineal gland and pineal region, brainstem, and cerebellum. The authors present 25 conditions with characteristic identifiable abnormalities at midsagittal imaging...
January 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313986/protein-kinase-d-activation-induces-mitochondrial-fragmentation-and-dysfunction-in-cardiomyocytes
#8
Bong Sook Jhun, Jin O-Uchi, Stephanie M Adaniya, Tomas J Mancini, Jessica L Cao, Michelle E King, Amy K Landi, Hanley Ma, Milla Shin, Donqin Yang, Xiaole Xu, Yisang Yoon, Gaurav Choudhary, Richard T Clements, Ulrike Mende, Shey-Shing Sheu
Regulation of mitochondrial morphology is crucial for the maintenance of physiological functions in many cell types including cardiomyocytes. Small and fragmented mitochondria are frequently observed in pathological condition, but it is still unclear which cardiac signalling pathway is responsible for regulating the abnormal mitochondrial morphology in cardiomyocytes. Here we demonstrate that a downstream kinase of Gq -protein coupled receptor (Gq PCR) signalling, protein kinase D (PKD), mediates pathophysiological modifications in mitochondrial morphology and function, which consequently contribute to the activation of apoptotic signalling...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311628/vascular-placental-pathology-and-the-relationship-between-hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy-and-neonatal-outcomes-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#9
Lisa Strouss, Neal D Goldstein, Robert Locke, David A Paul
OBJECTIVE: To investigate vascular placental pathology's effect on known associations between hypertensive disorders and four adverse neonatal outcomes-bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, and death. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort of very low birth weight neonates born at a single center (n = 911). Statistical analysis included χ2, t test, modified Poisson regression with robust error variance to measure risk, and Wald test...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303551/engineering-bioinspired-antioxidant-materials-promoting-cardiomyocyte-functionality-and-maturation-for-tissue-engineering-application
#10
Parvaiz Ahmad Shiekh, Anamika Singh, Ashok Kumar
Oxidative stress plays an important role in various pathological conditions such as wound healing, inflammation, myocardial infarction and biocompatibility of the materials. Antioxidant polymers to attenuate oxidative stress is an emerging field of biomaterial research with a huge impact in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. We describe here the fabrication and evaluation of an elastomeric antioxidant polyurethane (PUAO) for tissue engineering applications. Uniaxial and cyclic tensile testing, thermal analysis, degradation, cytotoxicity and antioxidant analysis was carried out...
January 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303058/can-placental-histopathology-lesions-predict-recurrence-of-small-for-gestational-age-neonates
#11
Michal Levy, Yossi Mizrachi, Sophia Leytes, Eran Weiner, Jacob Bar, Letizia Schreiber, Michal Kovo
OBJECTIVE: To study the role of placental pathology in predicting the recurrence of delivery of small for gestational age (SGA) neonates. METHODS: The medical records and placental pathological reports of normotensive women who gave birth at 24 to 42 weeks to neonates with birth weight (BW) <10th percentile were reviewed. Patients were divided according to their subsequent pregnancy into those who developed or did not develop recurrent SGA (BW < 10th percentile)...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300158/vaccination-of-sows-with-a-dendritic-cell-targeted-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-s1-protein-based-candidate-vaccine-reduced-viral-shedding-but-exacerbated-gross-pathological-lesions-in-suckling-neonatal-piglets
#12
Sakthivel Subramaniam, Danielle M Yugo, C Lynn Heffron, Adam J Rogers, Harini Sooryanarain, Tanya LeRoith, Christopher Overend, Dianjun Cao, Xiang-Jin Meng
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) poses a serious threat to swine worldwide as evidenced by its recent introduction into the USA and the devastating economic impact it caused to the USA swine industry. Commercial vaccines against PEDV are available but their efficacies are inadequate. Therefore, vaccines with improved efficacy are needed to effectively control PEDV infections. We previously determined the immunogenicity of a novel dendritic cell (DC)-targeted PEDV S1 protein-based subunit vaccine in weaned piglets in which the PEDV antigen was targeted to DCs through a porcine Langerin-specific antibody...
January 4, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299500/ddh-epidemiology-revisited-do-we-need-new-strategies
#13
Amir R Vafaee, Taghi Baghdadi, Azarakhsh Baghdadi, Reza Khalili Jamnani
Background: Although the developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is well known to pediatric orthopedists, its etiology has still remained unknown and despite dedication of a vast majority of research, the results are still inadequate and confusing. The exact incidence of DDH and its relationship with known risk factors in Iran is still unknown. Here we represent the results of one year study on the incidence and related conditions of DDH. Methods: Sonography was performed on the hip joints of 1073 full term healthy newborns at Imam Khomeini Hospital from March 2013 to March 2014...
November 2017: Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297809/congenital-nutritional-myodegeneration-white-muscle-disease-in-a-giraffe-giraffa-camelopardalis-calf
#14
Jan H Bos, Fokko C Klip, Marja J L Kik
It is well known that vitamin E and selenium deficiencies in domestic ruminants can lead to white muscle disease. After a clinically normal gestation period at Ouwehand Zoo in the Netherlands, a newborn giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis) calf showed clinical signs of white muscle disease almost immediately after birth. The calf was rejected by the mother and was euthanized 3 days later because of deterioration of clinical signs. At necropsy, pulmonary edema and pallor of skeletal and heart muscles was noted...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290292/mathematical-modeling-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-dynamics-within-a-farrow-to-finish-swine-farm-to-investigate-the-effects-of-control-measures
#15
Kiyokazu Murai, Sachiko Moriguchi, Yoko Hayama, Sota Kobayashi, Ayako Miyazaki, Toshiyuki Tsutsui, Takehisa Yamamoto
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a highly contagious enteric disease in swine that can cause devastating economic damage to pig producers. Japan was severely affected by PED epidemics from 2013 through 2015, with over 1000 farms were affected during this period. Although many studies have unraveled pathological and molecular characteristics of PED virus (PEDV), the mechanism for within-farm spread is largely unknown. Here, we constructed a deterministic compartmental model to quantitatively describe the infection dynamics in a farm setting and to investigate effective control measures...
January 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287786/leptin-treatment-prevents-long-term-abnormalities-in-cognition-seizure-threshold-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-sprouting-and-znt3-cb-d28k-expression-in-a-rat-developmental-twist-seizure-model
#16
Hong Ni, Su-Hong Chen, Li-Li Li, Mei-Fang Jin
The mechanism of linking neonatal seizures with long-term brain damage is unclear, and there is no effective drug to block this long-term pathological process. Recently, the fat-derived hormone leptin has been appreciated for its neuroprotective function in neurodegenerative processes, although less is known about the effects of leptin on neonatal seizure-induced brain damage. Here, we developed a "twist" seizure model by coupling pilocarpine-induced neonatal status epilepticus (SE) with later exposure to penicillin to test whether leptin treatment immediately after neonatal SE would exert neuroprotective effects on cognition, seizure threshold and hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting, as well if leptin had any influence on the expression of zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) and calcium homeostasis-related CB-D28k in the hippocampus...
December 26, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285182/effects-of-caszi-on-bronchopulmonary-development-of-neonatal-rats
#17
Liping Xu, Ruifang Tong, Xiangnan Li, Lihong Liang, Han Huang
The effect of CASZI on bronchopulmonary development in neonatal rats was investigated. Forty SD rats were randomly divided into the control group (n=20) and the experimental group (n=20) using a random number table. The experimental group was treated with hyperoxia to establish the bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) model, while the control group received no treatment. At 14 days of experiment, rats in each group were treated, and lung tissues were taken for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Radial alveolar count (RAC) and morphological changes in lung tissues were observed under a microscope, and the thickness of respiratory membrane was detected via IPP6 image...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284213/pathologic-and-molecular-characterization-of-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-subspecies-equisimilis-infection-in-neonatal-piglets
#18
Sang-Ik Oh, Jong Wan Kim, Ji-Youl Jung, Myeongju Chae, Yu-Ran Lee, Jong Ho Kim, ByungJae So, Ha-Young Kim
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE) is an emerging pathogen in animals and humans. Here, we describe two clinical swine cases of SDSE infection presenting with lameness, neurological signs, or sudden death. Pathological examination indicated suppurative arthritis, encephalitis, and multifocal abscesses in the kidney and heart. β-hemolytic colonies from the joint samples of each case were identified as SDSE. The isolates showed low minimum inhibitory concentration values for β-lactams and presented the same virulence gene profile (slo-/sagA+/pSTKP8+)...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277067/biochemical-composition-of-fetal-fluids-in-at-term-normal-developed-healthy-viable-dogs-and-preliminary-data-from-pathologic-littermates
#19
M C Veronesi, B Bolis, M Faustini, A Rota, A Mollo
A proper canine neonatal assistance, required to reduce the high perinatal loss rate, imply a full knowledge about the fetal-to-neonatal physiology. Because fetal fluids play an important role throughout mammals pregnancy, influencing fetal growth and development, fetal well being, and contributing to guarantee the most suitable environment for the fetus, the knowledge about fetal fluids biochemical composition is of major importance. At first, the biochemical composition of fetal fluids collected by normal developed, healthy and viable newborns, is necessary to depict the normal features, and represent the first step for the further detection of abnormalities associated to fetal/neonatal distress and useful for the early identification of newborns needing special attention, immediately after birth...
December 14, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276736/maternal-separation-stress-leads-to-resilience-against-neuropathic-pain-in-adulthood
#20
Julien Genty, Milène Tetsi Nomigni, Fernand Anton, Ulrike Hanesch
Early life stress (ELS) leads to a permanent reprogramming of biochemical stress response cascades that may also be relevant for the processing of chronic pain states such as neuropathy. Despite clinical evidence, little is known about ELS-related vulnerability for neuropathic pain and the possibly underlying etiology. In the framework of experimental studies aimed at investigating the respective relationships we used the established ELS model of maternal separation (MS). Rat dams and neonates were separated for 3 h/day from post-natal day 2-12...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
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