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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907231/use-of-autopsy-to-determine-live-or-stillbirth-new-approaches-in-decision-support-systems
#1
Riza Yilmaz, Okan Erkaymaz, Erdogan Kara, Kivanc Ergen
Fetal deaths are important cases for forensic medicine, as well as for criminal and civil law. From a legal perspective, the determination of whether a deceased infant was stillborn is a difficult process. Such a determination is generally made during autopsy; however, no standardized procedures for this determination exist. Therefore, new facilitative approaches are needed. In this study, three new support systems based on 10 autopsy parameters were tested for their ability to correctly determine whether deceased infants were alive or stillborn...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898925/heritability-of-udder-morphology-and-colostrum-quality-traits-in-swine
#2
A Balzani, H J Cordell, E Sutcliffe, S A Edwards
The heritability of udder quality traits, defined as morphology and colostrum IgG concentration at farrowing, was estimated together with the genetic and phenotypic correlations of these traits with other production and reproduction criteria. Udder morphology traits were recorded in 988 Meidam sows and colostrum samples were collected from 528 sows. Teat length, teat diameter (DIA), interteat distance within the same row (SAMER), and teat distance from the abdominal midline (AML) were recorded to the nearest millimeter...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891829/prepregnancy-obesity-and-the-racial-disparity-in-infant-mortality
#3
Lara S Lemon, Ashley I Naimi, Barbara Abrams, Jay S Kaufman, Lisa M Bodnar
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent to which prepregnancy obesity explains the Black-White disparity in stillbirth and infant mortality. METHODS: A population-based study of linked Pennsylvania birth-infant death certificates (2003-2011; n = 1,055,359 births) and fetal death certificates (2006-2011; n = 3,102 stillbirths) for all singleton pregnancies in non-Hispanic (NH) White and NH Black women was conducted. Inverse probability weighted regression was used to estimate the role of prepregnancy obesity in explaining the race-infant/fetal death association...
December 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881200/sow-level-risk-factors-for-stillbirth-of-piglets-in-organic-sow-herds
#4
L Rangstrup-Christensen, M A Krogh, L J Pedersen, J T Sørensen
In Danish organic pig production, one-third of total born piglets die before weaning, and stillbirth has previously crudely been estimated to account for 27% of the total preweaning mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate season, litter size, parity and body condition of the sow as risk factors for stillbirth in nine commercial Danish organic pig herds. The study was conducted over a 1-year period, and the data included registrations on 5170 farrowings with 82 906 total born piglets. The average number of total born piglets per litter was 16...
November 24, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865263/molecular-assessment-of-the-transplacental-transmission-of-toxoplasma-gondii-neospora-caninum-brucella-canis-and-ehrlichia-canis-in-dogs
#5
Isis Indaiara Gonçalves Granjeiro Taques, Tatiane Rodrigues Barbosa, Andresa de Cássia Martini, Letícia Camara Pitchenin, Ísis Assis Braga, Andréia Lima Tomé de Melo, Luciano Nakazato, Valéria Dutra, Daniel Moura de Aguiar
Given the fact that numerous microbial species can be detected in pregnant female dogs, the objective of this study was to assess the transplacental transmission of Brucella canis, Ehrlichia canis, Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in stillborn puppies. This study involved 41 stillborn puppies, 78.6% of which were positive for T. gondii, 52.4% for N. caninum and 59.5% for B. canis. E. canis was not detected in any of the analyzed puppies. Pregnancy is an important physiological condition for the transmission of infectious agents to puppies and transplacental transmission may be epidemiologically relevant in the spread of these opportunistic agents...
December 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857030/seasonal-variation-in-growth-of-berkshire-pigs-in-alternative-production-systems
#6
Hannah Park, Sang-Hyon Oh
Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of farrowing month (FM), parity and sex on the growth performance of Berkshire swine raised in alternative production systems. Methods: A total of 40 farrowing records from 27 sows and 1258 BW records from 274 piglets collected over a two-year period were used for the analysis. Body weights were recorded at birth, weaning (28 d), 56, 84, 112 and 140 days. Any BW not recorded on schedule was recalculated to conform the days of age among corresponding BW records, using growth curves drawn with polynomial functions whose power was determined by the number of existing observations for each individual...
November 17, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821126/efficient-generation-of-ggta1-null-diannan-miniature-pigs-using-talens-combined-with-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer
#7
Wenmin Cheng, Heng Zhao, Honghao Yu, Jige Xin, Jia Wang, Luyao Zeng, Zaimei Yuan, Yubo Qing, Honghui Li, Baoyu Jia, Cejun Yang, Youfeng Shen, Lu Zhao, Weirong Pan, Hong-Ye Zhao, Wei Wang, Hong-Jiang Wei
BACKGROUND: α1,3-Galactosyltransferase (GGTA1) is essential for the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and therefore a simple and effective target for disrupting the expression of galactose α-1,3-galactose epitopes, which mediate hyperacute rejection (HAR) in xenotransplantation. Miniature pigs are considered to have the greatest potential as xenotransplantation donors. A GGTA1-knockout (GTKO) miniature pig might mitigate or prevent HAR in xenotransplantation. METHODS: Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) were designed to target exon 6 of porcine GGTA1 gene...
November 8, 2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816240/systematic-early-obstetrical-assistance-at-calving-i-effects-on-dairy-calf-stillbirth-vigor-and-passive-immunity-transfer
#8
M Villettaz Robichaud, D L Pearl, S M Godden, S J LeBlanc, D B Haley
A critical time for dairy cattle is the perinatal period. Good calving management is critical to reduce periparturient losses and ensure the health of the offspring. Generally, it has been recommended that cows be allowed to calve unassisted when possible, but very few studies have been published that support or refute this general guideline. To investigate the effect of early assistance, a clinical trial enrolled 257 Holstein cows that were observed through the second stage of calving and assigned randomly to 1 of 2 calving interventions: not assisted (NA) or early assistance (EA) during the second stage of parturition...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808367/translocation-breakpoints-of-chromosome-1-in-male-carriers-clinical-features-and-implications-for-genetic-counseling
#9
R X Wang, H G Zhang, Y Pan, S Chen, F G Yue, D L Zhu, R Z Liu
Reciprocal translocation is closely associated with male infertility and recurrent miscarriages. Balanced reciprocal translocations associated with reproductive failures are predominantly observed on chromosome 1. Additionally, infertile male patients present a number of breakpoints throughout chromosome 1. A translocation breakpoint might interrupt the structure of an important gene, leading to male infertility. Here, we report the breakpoints on chromosome 1 translocation and the clinical features presented in carriers, to enable informed genetic counseling of these patients...
October 5, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807902/epidemiological-analysis-of-reproductive-performances-and-kitten-mortality-rates-in-5-303-purebred-queens-of-45-different-breeds-and-28-065-kittens-in-france
#10
A Fournier, M Masson, F Corbière, H Mila, C Mariani, A Grellet, S Chastant-Maillard
Reproduction management and performances are evaluated in the feline species only through a limited number of animals and studies. Our objective was to provide reference figures in purebred cats, from a large-scale sample. Data were collected from an online software dedicated to cattery management (Breeding Management System®, BMS, Royal Canin, Aimargues, France). Information was recorded on a voluntary basis by French breeders between 2011 and 2014. Data were anonymously transferred for analysis. A total of 9,063 oestrous periods (in contact with a male) from 5,303 queens (45 breeds) were recorded from 1,521 breeders...
November 3, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781322/stillbirth-and-intrauterine-fetal-death-contemporary-demographic-features-of-1000-cases-from-an-urban-population
#11
J Man, J C Hutchinson, M Ashworth, A E Heazell, I Jeffrey, N J Sebire
OBJECTIVES: Of 780 000 births annually in the UK, around 3300 are stillborn, a rate of approximately 4 per 1000 births. Traditional epidemiological associations are based on historic data. The aim of this study was to document contemporary demographic findings in a large series of > 1000 deaths in utero in London and compare these with national datasets. METHODS: From a dedicated database, including > 400 data fields per case, of fetal, infant and pediatric autopsies performed at Great Ormond Street Hospital and St George's Hospital, London, we extracted information on all intrauterine deaths, excluding terminations of pregnancy, from 2005 to 2013, inclusive...
October 25, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781321/effects-of-intrauterine-retention-and-postmortem-interval-on-body-weight-following-intrauterine-death-implications-for-assessment-of-fetal-growth-restriction-at-autopsy
#12
J Man, J C Hutchinson, M Ashworth, A E Heazell, S Levine, N J Sebire
OBJECTIVE: According to the classification system used, 15-60% of stillbirths remain unexplained, despite undergoing recommended autopsy examination, with variable attribution of fetal growth restriction (FGR) as a cause of death. Distinguishing small-for-gestational age (SGA) from pathological FGR is a challenge at postmortem examination. This study uses data from a large, well-characterized series of intrauterine death autopsies to investigate the effects of secondary changes such as fetal maceration, intrauterine retention and postmortem interval on body weight...
October 25, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780832/outcome-of-babies-with-no-detectable-heart-rate-before-10%C3%A2-minutes-of-age-and-the-effect-of-gestation
#13
Thomas Sproat, Richard Hearn, Sundeep Harigopal
OBJECTIVE: Current resuscitation guidelines suggest that it is reasonable to consider stopping resuscitation where no heart rate (cardiac activity) has been detected for 10 min in a newborn baby from birth. We aimed to determine the mortality rate and 2-year neurodevelopmental outcome of all babies born with no heart rate before 10 min of age where resuscitation was attempted in a tertiary referral centre over a 5-year period. DESIGN: To identify all babies with no heart rate before age 10 min we examined two groups:▸ All babies classified as live born who received cardiac massage at birth between January 2009 and December 2013...
October 25, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773356/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-and-endometrial-hyperplasia-an-overview-of-the-role-of-bariatric-surgery-in-female-fertility
#14
Vasileios Charalampakis, Abd A Tahrani, Ahmed Helmy, Janesh K Gupta, Rishi Singhal
One of the most effective methods to tackle obesity and its related comorbidities is bariatric surgery. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and endometrial hyperplasia (EH), which are associated with increased risk of endometrial carcinoma, have been identified as potentially new indications for bariatric surgery. PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder in women in the reproductive age and is associated with several components of the metabolic syndrome such as obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension. EH is a pre-cancerous condition which arises in the presence of chronic exposure to estrogen unopposed by progesterone such as both in PCOS and obesity...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763844/examination-of-a-prenatal-syphilis-screening-program-alberta-canada-2010-2011
#15
Sabrina S Plitt, Mariam Osman, Vanita Sahni, Bonita E Lee, Carmen Charlton, Kimberley Simmonds
OBJECTIVES: In 2009, due to increasing congenital syphilis rates, prenatal syphilis tests (PST) at both mid-gestation and delivery were added to first trimester prenatal screening in the province of Alberta. We sought to determine the proportion of mothers who had all three recommended PSTs during this period and to identify factors associated with incomplete PST. METHODS: A cohort of all pregnancies resulting in a live or stillborn infant in Alberta for 2010 and 2011 was developed from Vital Statistics and linked with prenatal screening data to determine the number and timing of PSTs for pregnant women...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726416/zika-virus-associated-micrencephaly-a-thorough-description-of-neuropathologic-findings-in-the-fetal-central-nervous-system
#16
Peter Štrafela, Alenka Vizjak, Jerica Mraz, Jernej Mlakar, Jože Pižem, Nataša Tul, Tatjana Avšič Županc, Mara Popović
CONTEXT: -The 2015 outbreak of Zika virus in Brazil resulted in a 20-times increased prevalence of congenital microcephaly in stillborns and neonates and was instrumental in raising the suspicion of a causal association between Zika virus and microcephaly. OBJECTIVE: -To provide a comprehensive description of the neuropathologic features of congenital Zika virus infection. DESIGN: -Autopsy evaluation of the brain from a fetus of 32 weeks and 6 days of gestation, with a prenatal diagnosis of microcephaly associated with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed, fetal, Zika virus infection...
October 11, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726188/resuscitation-of-potentially-stillborn-periviable-neonates-who-lives-who-dies-and-who-gets-missed
#17
Edmund F La Gamma, J Lena Kim, Shetal Shah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695813/dynamics-of-nitrogen-retention-in-gestating-gilts-at-two-feeding-levels
#18
E G Miller, C L L Levesque, N Trottier, C F M de Lange
Whole-body protein deposition (Pd) is a main determinant of AA requirements of gestating gilts; however, data on the dynamics of Pd is limited. The main objective of this study was to measure whole-body Pd (pregnancy-associated and maternal) during gestation in gilts at 2 feeding levels. Changes in BW and backfat (BF) throughout gestation and subsequent lactation performance were also evaluated. We hypothesized that the effect of feed intake on maternal Pd decreases toward the end of gestation due to increased fetal nutrient demands...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695774/can-a-super-sow-be-a-robust-sow-consequences-of-litter-investment-in-purebred-and-crossbred-sows-of-different-parities
#19
M Ocepek, I Andersen-Ranberg, S A Edwards, B Fredriksen, T Framstad, I L Andersen
The aim of this project was to study the consequences of litter investment on physical characteristics in primiparous and multiparous sows in 3 Norwegian breeds (Norsvin Duroc [ = 12], Norsvin Landrace [ = 12], and crossbreeds [Norsvin Landrace and Swedish Yorkshire { = 15}]). We predicted that the maternal sow line (Norsvin Landrace) would invest more in their litter in term of higher weight at birth, resulting in a higher litter weight of weaned piglets but with the consequence of greater loss in body condition and a higher prevalence of shoulder lesions...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694537/microangiopathic-antiphospholipid-antibody-associated-syndrome-in-a-pregnant-lady
#20
G S Kew, J Cho, A Lateef
We describe a gravid 37-year-old Chinese lady with known triple positive primary antiphospholipid syndrome with previous recurrent deep vein thrombosis and early spontaneous miscarriages. She was managed with low-molecular weight heparin, aspirin, hydroxychloroquine, prednisolone and monthly intravenous immunoglobulin.She presented with recurrent per-vaginal bleeding at 22 weeks of gestation and was found to have abruptio placentae. Anti-coagulation was held off. She subsequently delivered a stillborn at 24 weeks and anti-coagulation was restarted...
October 1, 2016: Lupus
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