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Bruno Hoen, Bruno Schaub, Anna L Funk, Vanessa Ardillon, Manon Boullard, André Cabié, Caroline Callier, Gabriel Carles, Sylvie Cassadou, Raymond Césaire, Maylis Douine, Cécile Herrmann-Storck, Philippe Kadhel, Cédric Laouénan, Yoann Madec, Alice Monthieux, Mathieu Nacher, Fatiha Najioullah, Dominique Rousset, Catherine Ryan, Kinda Schepers, Sofia Stegmann-Planchard, Benoît Tressières, Jean-Luc Voluménie, Samson Yassinguezo, Eustase Janky, Arnaud Fontanet
BACKGROUND: The risk of congenital neurologic defects related to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has ranged from 6 to 42% in various reports. The aim of this study was to estimate this risk among pregnant women with symptomatic ZIKV infection in French territories in the Americas. METHODS: From March 2016 through November 2016, we enrolled in this prospective cohort study pregnant women with symptomatic ZIKV infection that was confirmed by polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay...
March 15, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
J Jeong, I Kang, S Kim, S-J Park, K H Park, T Oh, S Yang, C Chae
The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of a commercially available porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-1 modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine against PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2 challenge in late-term pregnancy gilts. Gilts were vaccinated with the PRRSV-1 MLV vaccine at 4 weeks prior to breeding and then challenged intranasally with PRRSV-1 or PRRSV-2 at 93 days of gestation. After PRRSV-1 challenge, vaccinated pregnant gilts had a significantly longer gestation period, significantly higher numbers of live-born and weaned piglets and a significantly lower number of stillborn piglets at birth compared to unvaccinated pregnant gilts...
March 13, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Julie M Hennegan, Jane Henderson, Maggie Redshaw
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the effects on partners' health and well-being of holding a stillborn baby. BACKGROUND: Findings from quantitative and qualitative studies have produced inconsistent results concerning the effects of holding a stillborn baby on parents. METHODS: Secondary analyses were conducted on postal questionnaire data relating to 455 partners of women who had a stillbirth. Women answered questions about their partners' behaviour, perceptions of care, mental health and well-being at three and nine months after the stillbirth...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Gonzague Jourdain, Nicole Ngo-Giang-Huong, Linda Harrison, Luc Decker, Woottichai Khamduang, Camlin Tierney, Nicolas Salvadori, Tim R Cressey, Wasna Sirirungsi, Jullapong Achalapong, Prapap Yuthavisuthi, Prateep Kanjanavikai, Orada P Na Ayudhaya, Thitiporn Siriwachirachai, Sinart Prommas, Prapan Sabsanong, Aram Limtrakul, Supang Varadisai, Chaiwat Putiyanun, Pornnapa Suriyachai, Prateung Liampongsabuddhi, Suraphan Sangsawang, Wanmanee Matanasarawut, Sudanee Buranabanjasatean, Pichit Puernngooluerm, Chureeratana Bowonwatanuwong, Thanyawee Puthanakit, Virat Klinbuayaem, Satawat Thongsawat, Sombat Thanprasertsuk, George K Siberry, Diane H Watts, Nahida Chakhtoura, Trudy V Murphy, Noele P Nelson, Raymond T Chung, Stanislas Pol, Nantasak Chotivanich
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women with an elevated viral load of hepatitis B virus (HBV) have a risk of transmitting infection to their infants, despite the infants' receiving hepatitis B immune globulin. METHODS: In this multicenter, double-blind clinical trial performed in Thailand, we randomly assigned hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive pregnant women with an alanine aminotransferase level of 60 IU or less per liter to receive tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) or placebo from 28 weeks of gestation to 2 months post partum...
March 8, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Cuilin Zhu, Xiaomei Zheng, Zhicheng Zhu, Dan Li, Tiance Wang, Rihao Xu, Kexiang Liu
Acute aortic dissection occurring during pregnancy poses great danger to both the mother and fetus. Cesareans are usually performed before or after the aortic repair depending on the conditions of the mother and fetus. Here we report our experience in treating a 32-week pregnant woman with a type B aortic dissection, whose baby had died before admission. A cesarean section was initially arranged after emergency aortic repair. However, the patient started to deliver the fetus vaginally after the aortic surgery and the stillborn baby was delivered vaginally...
March 5, 2018: International Heart Journal
Lena Rangstrup-Christensen, Sarah-Lina Aagaard Schild, Lene Juul Pedersen, Jan Tind Sørensen
The aims of the current study were to identify the causes of preweaning piglet mortality and investigate the effect of season and parity on the proportions of mortality causes. The study was conducted in nine herds over a one-year period, and dead piglets were collected for necropsy once during each of the four seasons. In total, 2672 piglets were necropsied of which 60% were live-born but died post-partum (pp), 32% were stillborn and 8% were euthanised. Intra-partum deaths accounted for 88% of stillborn piglets...
February 22, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Satomi Tani, Carlos Piñeiro, Yuzo Koketsu
Background: The objectives of our study were 1) to characterize culling and retention patterns in parities 0 to 6 in served females and farrowed sows in two herd groups, and 2) to quantify the factors associated with by-parity culling risks for both groups in commercial herds. Lifetime data from first-service to removal included 465,947 service records of 94,691 females served between 2008 and 2013 in 98 Spanish herds. Herds were categorized into two groups based on the upper 25th percentile of the herd means of annualized lifetime pigs weaned per sow: high-performing (> 24...
2018: Porcine Health Management
Megan Verdon, R S Morrison, P H Hemsworth
This experiment examined the effects of group composition on sow aggressive behaviour and welfare. Over 6 time replicates, 360 sows (parity 1-6) were mixed into groups (10 sows per pen, 1.8 m2 /sow) composed of animals that were predicted to be aggressive (n = 18 pens) or groups composed of animals that were randomly selected (n = 18 pens). Aggressive sows were selected based on a model-pig test that has been shown to be related to the aggressive behaviour of parity 2 sows when subsequently mixed in groups...
February 20, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Ana Rita Paulo Cardoso, Maria Alix Leite Araújo, Maria do Socorro Cavalcante, Mirna Albuquerque Frota, Simone Paes de Melo
This study analyzes the reported cases of syphilis in pregnant women and the possible outcomes for fetuses and the newborn in Fortaleza, Ceará. It is a cross-sectional study that analyzed 175 reported cases of syphilis in pregnant women matched with the corresponding reports of congenital syphilis during the years 2008-2010. Descriptive statistics with absolute and relative frequencies, central tendency and dispersion measures, and the Pearson's chi-square test were used to analyze the statistical significance using the p-value <0...
February 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Y Wang, X Ding, Z Tan, K Xing, T Yang, Y Wang, D Sun, C Wang
Using the PorcineSNP80 BeadChip, we performed a genome-wide association study for seven reproductive traits, including total number born, number born alive, litter birth weight, average birth weight, gestation length, age at first service and age at first farrowing, in a population of 1207 Large White pigs. In total, we detected 12 genome-wide significant and 41 suggestive significant SNPs associated with six reproductive traits. The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by all significant SNPs for each trait ranged from 4...
February 7, 2018: Animal Genetics
G M Chuck, P D Mansell, M A Stevenson, M M Izzo
This was a prospective cohort study to determine how events from birth until first calving affect performance during the first lactation in pasture-based dairy herds in Victoria, Australia. Events during the preweaning (0-84 d), prepubertal (85-473 d), and postpubertal (474-804 d) periods were recorded in 6 herds, and their association with first-lactation 100-d and 250-d total milk, fat, and protein yields was quantified. Predictors of first-lactation performance included passive transfer status as a calf; season of birth; age of dam; the presence or absence of dystocia at the time of the heifer's birth; the presence or absence of preweaning diarrhea; preweaning, prepubertal, and postpubertal average daily weight gain; age at first calving; the presence or absence of periparturient disease at first calving; sex of the first-born calf; the presence or absence of a stillborn calf at the first calving; and requirement of assistance at the first calving...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Michael Obladen
Infant baptism originated when St. Augustine proclaimed the doctrine of original sin in 412 CE. Neonates stillborn or deceased before baptism were declared to go down to Hell and were buried outside of sacred ground. From the 15th century, parents carried these infants to "respite sanctuaries" in remote mountain chapels, where miraculous images were believed to revive the infant in order to allow baptism and a Christian burial. Monasteries made fortunes out of the parents' anguish. In 1528, the abuse of the Oberbüren image ignited iconoclasm and heralded the beginning of the Reformation...
January 26, 2018: Neonatology
Guilherme de Arruda Cuadrado, Mauro Figueiredo Carvalho de Andrade, Flávia Emi Akamatsu, Alfredo Luiz Jacomo
PURPOSE: We studied the lymphatic drainage of the upper limb and mammary region directing to the axilla to investigate whether independent pathways can be observed or whether anastomoses and shared drainage occur between them. This analysis aimed to assess the safety of axillary reverse mapping (ARM) in breast cancer treatment and to understand the development of lymphedema after sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) alone. METHODS: Seven unfixed stillborn fetuses were injected with a modified Gerota mass in the peri-areolar area, palm and dorsum of the hands, formalin fixed, and then submerged in 10% hydrogen peroxide solution...
January 29, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Lewis B Holmes, Hanah Nasri, Rebecca Beroukhim, Anne-Therese Hunt, Drucilla J Roberts, M Hassan Toufaily, Marie-Noel Westgate
BACKGROUND: Stillbirth, defined as death of a fetus in utero after 20 weeks of gestation, occurs in 1 to 2% of pregnancies in the United States. Many of these stillborn infants have associated malformations, including chromosome abnormalities, neural tube defects, and malformation syndromes. Other causes are abnormalities of the placenta and maternal conditions, such as pre-eclampsia and obesity. A consecutive sample of malformed stillborn infants can establish the relative frequency and severity of the associated malformations...
January 2018: Birth Defects Research
Lewis B Holmes, M Hassan Toufaily, Marie-Noel Westgate
BACKGROUND: Iniencephaly is a severe developmental abnormality of the craniovertebral junction in which the head is retroflexed dramatically. Anatomic studies have identified striking changes in the vertebrae and skull: marked lordosis of the cervical vertebrae, duplicated cervical vertebrae, irregularly fused cervical vertebrae, a widened foramen magnum and a small posterior fossa. The affected infant appears to have no neck, as the skin of the face is continuous with the chest and the skin of the posterior scalp is continuous with the skin of the back...
January 2018: Birth Defects Research
Lewis B Holmes, Hanah Nasri, Marie-Noel Westgate, M Hassan Toufaily, Angela E Lin
BACKGROUND: Malformations surveillance programs have been carried out in consecutive populations of newborn infants at single hospitals, as well as in several hospitals in defined populations. A surveillance program begins with the review of the findings recorded by the examining pediatrician in each infant's medical record. The results of diagnostic tests, consultations, and imaging studies are obtained, also, from that infant's medical record. Some malformations surveillance programs identify additional malformations over several months, as the infants have hospitalizations and additional diagnostic testing...
January 2018: Birth Defects Research
Lewis B Holmes, Hanah Nasri, Anne-Therese Hunt, M Hassan Toufaily, Marie-Noel Westgate
BACKGROUND: Postaxial polydactyly, type B is the most common type of polydactyly. The vestigial sixth finger is attached by a narrow neurovascular pedicle to the lateral aspect of the hand or foot at the level of the metacarpal-phalangeal joint or the metatarsal-phalangeal joint. The occurrence of this type of polydactyly varies among racial groups, by sex and sidedness. Postaxial polydactyly, type A is a fully developed extra digit on the lateral aspect of the hand or foot with a bifid fifth or sixth metacarpal/metatarsal and is much less common...
January 2018: Birth Defects Research
T Schwarz, A Zięcik, M Murawski, J Nowicki, R Tuz, B Baker, P M Bartlewski
Azaperone can reduce stress caused by weaning and relocation of breeding sows, but its effects on reproductive processes are still poorly understood. The primary aim of this study was to describe and compare the endocrine and ovarian activity in ultrasonographically monitored second parity sows, with or without azaperone treatment at weaning (2 mg/kg BW i.m.). The intervals from weaning to the onset of estrus and ovulation were both greater (P<0.05) in azaperone-treated (n=12) than in control sows (n=12) by ~12 h...
January 24, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
María Del C Rojas, Marcelo Fort, Simone Bettermann, Carolina Entrocassi, Sixto R Costamagna, Konrad Sachse, Marcelo Rodríguez Fermepin
Reproductive losses linked to an infectious etiology in bovine cattle are a major economic concern worldwide. In Argentina, more than 50% of abortion cases have unknown causes. Species belonging to Chlamydiaceae family are frequent etiologic agents of abortion around the world; however, there is yet no information on their prevalence in Argentina. The objective of this work was to identify Chlamydia spp., and particularly C. abortus in reproductive losses from bovine cattle in La Pampa, Argentina. Real time PCR targeting Chlamydiaceae-specific DNA fragments was performed on 251 samples obtained from bovine abortions and stillborns, and ArrayTube was used for species identification on positive samples...
January 16, 2018: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
Valirie Ndip Agbor, Chobufo Ditah, Joel Noutakdie Tochie, Tsi Njim
BACKGROUND: Low birthweight (LBW) is a major predictor of early neonatal mortality which disproportionately affects low-income countries. WHO recommends regional definitions for LBW to prevent misclassifications and ensure appropriate care of babies with LBW. We conducted this study to define a clinical cut-off for LBW, and to determine the predictors and adverse foetal outcomes of LBW babies in a rural sub-division in Cameroon. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective register analysis of 1787 singleton deliveries in two health facilities in the Northwest Region of Cameroon...
January 15, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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