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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195364/conjoined-twins-from-conception-to-separation-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Asma Mian, Nader Ishak Gabra, Tanuj Sharma, Nitsa Topale, Jerzy Gielecki, R Shane Tubbs, Marios Loukas
Conjoined twins are suggested to result from aberrant embryogenesis. The two main theories proposed to explain the phenomena are fission and fusion. The incidence rate is 1 in 50,000 births; however, since about 60% of the cases are stillborn, the true incidence is approximated at 1 in 200,000. There is a higher predisposition towards female than male gender with a ratio of 3:1. Conjoined twins are classified based upon the site of attachment. The extent of organ sharing, especially the heart, determines the possibility and prognosis of a separation procedure...
February 13, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166972/comparison-between-allantochorion-membrane-and-amniotic-sac-detection-by-per-rectal-palpation-for-pregnancy-diagnosis-on-pregnancy-loss-calving-rates-and-abnormalities-in-newborn-calves
#2
Juan E Romano, Pablo Pinedo, Kelsey Bryan, Roney S Ramos, Karol G Solano, Daniel Merchan, Juan Velez
The objectives of the present investigation were to evaluate the pregnancy diagnosis by detection of either the allantochorion membrane (FMS) or amniotic sac (ASP) by per rectum palpation (PRP) during late embryonic or early fetal period on pregnancy loss (PRL) at reexamination, calving rates, and abnormalities in newborn calves. A controlled randomized blind design with 800 lactating dairy pregnant cows diagnosed by transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) between Days 35 and 57 of gestation from one dairy farm were included...
March 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166936/cerebellar-disease-of-ruminants
#3
REVIEW
Philippa Gibbons
Cerebellar disease can be congenital or acquired. Clinical signs of cerebellar disease include hypermetric gait in all limbs, normal to increased muscle tone, wide-based stance, swaying, intention tremor, and convulsions. Vestibular signs may be observed. Differential diagnoses for etiology include congenital (hypoplasia, abiotrophy, and lysosomal storage diseases), viral, bacterial, and toxic plants. Animals may present aborted as fetuses or stillborn, be affected at birth, develop disease at a few months old, or acquire the disease later in life...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164300/risk-of-exposure-to-blood-products-during-pregnancy-guidance-for-zika-and-other-donor-deferral-policies
#4
Malia S Q Murphy, Nadine Shehata, Jo Ann Colas, Michaël Chassé, Dean A Fergusson, Sheila F O'Brien, Mindy Goldman, Alan Tinmouth, Alan J Forster, Kumanan Wilson
BACKGROUND: Exposure to blood products during pregnancy carries a potential risk of transfusion transmission of infectious agents. Blood agencies have historically sought optimal deferral and testing strategies to protect blood supplies in part to ensure the protection of pregnant women and their unborn infants. The Zika virus outbreak of 2016 has heightened attention to these concerns. In the current context of the recent Zika outbreak, and also more broadly, data are needed to shed light on the likelihood of exposure to blood products throughout pregnancy to inform policy...
February 5, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131239/immune-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-in-cases-of-bovine-perinatal-mortality-with-and-without-infection-in-utero
#5
Paulina Jawor, Tadeusz Stefaniak, John F Mee
The objective of this study was to compare acute-phase protein [serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp)] and immunoglobulin G1 and M concentrations in blood plasma of cases of bovine perinatal mortality due to infection in utero or traumotocia and in unexplained cases. Plasma samples were collected from 110 stillborn calves with bacterial infection (INF_B, n = 16), with viral or parasitic infection (INF_V/P, n = 31) during pregnancy, with lesions of fatal traumotocia (TRAUM, n = 22), and from unexplained deaths (UNEXPL, n = 41)...
February 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116556/effect-of-daily-fluctuations-in-ambient-temperature-on-reproductive-failure-traits-of-landrace-and-yorkshire-sows-under-thai-tropical-environmental-conditions
#6
Teerapong Jaichansukkit, Thanathip Suwanasopee, Skorn Koonawootrittriron, Padet Tummaruk, Mauricio A Elzo
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of daily ranges and maximum ambient temperatures, and other risk factors on reproductive failure of Landrace (L) and Yorkshire (Y) sows under an open-house system in Thailand. Daily ambient temperatures were added to information on 35,579 litters from 5929 L sows and 1057 Y sows from three commercial herds. The average daily temperature ranges (ADT) and the average daily maximum temperatures (PEAK) in three gestation periods from the 35th day of gestation to parturition were classified...
January 23, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104663/first-complete-genome-sequence-of-genotype-iii-japanese-encephalitis-virus-isolated-from-a-stillborn-piglet-in-india
#7
P A Desingu, Pradeep K Ray, Jeny K John, T Das, Z B Dubal, K K Rajak, R K Singh, G Saikumar
We report here the first complete genome of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genotype III strain JEV/SW/IVRI/395A/2014, isolated from stillborn piglets in India. It shares 99% identity with strain JaOArS982 and a few other strains from Japan.
January 19, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029221/the-antepartum-stillbirth-syndrome-risk-factors-and-pregnancy-conditions-identified-from-the-intergrowth-21-st-project
#8
J E Hirst, J Villar, C G Victora, A T Papageorghiou, D Finkton, F C Barros, M G Gravett, F Giuliani, M Purwar, I O Frederick, R Pang, L Cheikh Ismail, A Lambert, W Stones, Y A Jaffer, D G Altman, J A Noble, E O Ohuma, S H Kennedy, Z A Bhutta
OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for antepartum stillbirth, including fetal growth restriction, among women with well-dated pregnancies and access to antenatal care. DESIGN: Population-based, prospective, observational study. SETTING: Eight international urban populations. POPULATION: Pregnant women and their babies enrolled in the Newborn Cross-Sectional Study of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project. METHODS: Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare risks among antepartum stillborn and liveborn babies...
December 28, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987078/heterogeneous-diagnoses-underlying-radial-ray-anomalies
#9
Rosalba Sevilla-Montoya, Mónica Aguinaga, Alejandro Martínez, Guadalupe Razo, Bertha Molina, Sara Frías, Patricia Grether
OBJECTIVE: To review perinatal Radial Ray Anomaly (RRA) cases born at the National Institute of Perinatology, Mexico, and to reveal the heterogeneous diagnoses of these patients. METHODS: All patients with RRA over a 18 mo period were included; 4/15 were detected prenatally and 11/15 postnatally. Karyotype was performed for all patients with bilateral RRA; and chromosomal breakage analysis, when the karyotype was normal. RESULTS: Fifteen RRA patients were identified: one with trisomy 18, three with an isolated defect, six with monogenic disease, four with a genetic association and one with diabetic embryopathy...
December 17, 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987045/continuous-fetal-head-flexion-as-a-marker-for-prenatal-diagnosis-of-lethal-multiple-pterygium-syndrome-a-case-report
#10
Akihiro Hasegawa, Mieko Hanaoka, Takeshi Murakoshi
Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome (LMPS) is a fatal hereditary disease associated with abnormalities such as pterygium-induced congenital contractures. Fetal hydrops is present in more than half of all patients with LMPS, and all patients with LMPS are either stillborn or die in the early neonatal period. Ultrasonography findings for the prenatal diagnosis of LMPS include the detection of cutaneous webbing at multiple joints, multiple joint contractures, absent limb movement, and increased nuchal translucency...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968739/stillborn-still-loved
#11
Alice Jolly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 29, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936018/stillbirths-at-term-case-control-study-of-risk-factors-growth-status-and-placental-histology
#12
Federico Mecacci, Caterina Serena, Laura Avagliano, Mauro Cozzolino, Eleonora Baroni, Marianna Pina Rambaldi, Serena Simeone, Francesca Castiglione, Gian Luigi Taddei, Gaetano Bulfamante
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the proportion of stillbirths at term associated with abnormal growth using customized birth weight percentiles and to compare histological placental findings both in underweight stillborn fetuses and in live births. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study of 150 singleton term stillbirths. The livebirth control groups included 586 cases of low-risk pregnancies and 153 late fetal growth restriction fetuses. Stillbirths and livebirths from low-risk pregnancies were classified using customized standards for fetal weight at birth, as adequate for gestational age (AGA; 10-90th percentile), small (SGA; <10th percentile) or large for gestational age (LGA; >90th percentile)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907231/use-of-autopsy-to-determine-live-or-stillbirth-new-approaches-in-decision-support-systems
#13
Riza Yilmaz, Okan Erkaymaz, Erdogan Kara, Kivanc Ergen
Fetal deaths are important cases for forensic medicine, as well as for criminal and civil law. From a legal perspective, the determination of whether a deceased infant was stillborn is a difficult process. Such a determination is generally made during autopsy; however, no standardized procedures for this determination exist. Therefore, new facilitative approaches are needed. In this study, three new support systems based on 10 autopsy parameters were tested for their ability to correctly determine whether deceased infants were alive or stillborn...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898925/heritability-of-udder-morphology-and-colostrum-quality-traits-in-swine
#14
A Balzani, H J Cordell, E Sutcliffe, S A Edwards
The heritability of udder quality traits, defined as morphology and colostrum IgG concentration at farrowing, was estimated together with the genetic and phenotypic correlations of these traits with other production and reproduction criteria. Udder morphology traits were recorded in 988 Meidam sows and colostrum samples were collected from 528 sows. Teat length, teat diameter (DIA), interteat distance within the same row (SAMER), and teat distance from the abdominal midline (AML) were recorded to the nearest millimeter...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891829/prepregnancy-obesity-and-the-racial-disparity-in-infant-mortality
#15
Lara S Lemon, Ashley I Naimi, Barbara Abrams, Jay S Kaufman, Lisa M Bodnar
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent to which prepregnancy obesity explains the Black-White disparity in stillbirth and infant mortality. METHODS: A population-based study of linked Pennsylvania birth-infant death certificates (2003-2011; n = 1,055,359 births) and fetal death certificates (2006-2011; n = 3,102 stillbirths) for all singleton pregnancies in non-Hispanic (NH) White and NH Black women was conducted. Inverse probability weighted regression was used to estimate the role of prepregnancy obesity in explaining the race-infant/fetal death association...
December 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881200/sow-level-risk-factors-for-stillbirth-of-piglets-in-organic-sow-herds
#16
L Rangstrup-Christensen, M A Krogh, L J Pedersen, J T Sørensen
In Danish organic pig production, one-third of total born piglets die before weaning, and stillbirth has previously crudely been estimated to account for 27% of the total preweaning mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate season, litter size, parity and body condition of the sow as risk factors for stillbirth in nine commercial Danish organic pig herds. The study was conducted over a 1-year period, and the data included registrations on 5170 farrowings with 82 906 total born piglets. The average number of total born piglets per litter was 16...
November 24, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865263/molecular-assessment-of-the-transplacental-transmission-of-toxoplasma-gondii-neospora-caninum-brucella-canis-and-ehrlichia-canis-in-dogs
#17
Isis Indaiara Gonçalves Granjeiro Taques, Tatiane Rodrigues Barbosa, Andresa de Cássia Martini, Letícia Camara Pitchenin, Ísis Assis Braga, Andréia Lima Tomé de Melo, Luciano Nakazato, Valéria Dutra, Daniel Moura de Aguiar
Given the fact that numerous microbial species can be detected in pregnant female dogs, the objective of this study was to assess the transplacental transmission of Brucella canis, Ehrlichia canis, Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in stillborn puppies. This study involved 41 stillborn puppies, 78.6% of which were positive for T. gondii, 52.4% for N. caninum and 59.5% for B. canis. E. canis was not detected in any of the analyzed puppies. Pregnancy is an important physiological condition for the transmission of infectious agents to puppies and transplacental transmission may be epidemiologically relevant in the spread of these opportunistic agents...
December 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857030/seasonal-variation-in-growth-of-berkshire-pigs-in-alternative-production-systems
#18
Hannah Park, Sang-Hyon Oh
Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of farrowing month (FM), parity and sex on the growth performance of Berkshire swine raised in alternative production systems. Methods: A total of 40 farrowing records from 27 sows and 1258 BW records from 274 piglets collected over a two-year period were used for the analysis. Body weights were recorded at birth, weaning (28 d), 56, 84, 112 and 140 days. Any BW not recorded on schedule was recalculated to conform the days of age among corresponding BW records, using growth curves drawn with polynomial functions whose power was determined by the number of existing observations for each individual...
November 17, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821126/efficient-generation-of-ggta1-null-diannan-miniature-pigs-using-talens-combined-with-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer
#19
Wenmin Cheng, Heng Zhao, Honghao Yu, Jige Xin, Jia Wang, Luyao Zeng, Zaimei Yuan, Yubo Qing, Honghui Li, Baoyu Jia, Cejun Yang, Youfeng Shen, Lu Zhao, Weirong Pan, Hong-Ye Zhao, Wei Wang, Hong-Jiang Wei
BACKGROUND: α1,3-Galactosyltransferase (GGTA1) is essential for the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and therefore a simple and effective target for disrupting the expression of galactose α-1,3-galactose epitopes, which mediate hyperacute rejection (HAR) in xenotransplantation. Miniature pigs are considered to have the greatest potential as xenotransplantation donors. A GGTA1-knockout (GTKO) miniature pig might mitigate or prevent HAR in xenotransplantation. METHODS: Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) were designed to target exon 6 of porcine GGTA1 gene...
November 8, 2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816240/systematic-early-obstetrical-assistance-at-calving-i-effects-on-dairy-calf-stillbirth-vigor-and-passive-immunity-transfer
#20
M Villettaz Robichaud, D L Pearl, S M Godden, S J LeBlanc, D B Haley
A critical time for dairy cattle is the perinatal period. Good calving management is critical to reduce periparturient losses and ensure the health of the offspring. Generally, it has been recommended that cows be allowed to calve unassisted when possible, but very few studies have been published that support or refute this general guideline. To investigate the effect of early assistance, a clinical trial enrolled 257 Holstein cows that were observed through the second stage of calving and assigned randomly to 1 of 2 calving interventions: not assisted (NA) or early assistance (EA) during the second stage of parturition...
January 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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