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Krasimir Vasilev, Melanie Macgregor Ramiasa
Nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanobelts, nanoneedles, nanosheets, nanowires, nanopillars: the variety of nanostructured interfaces that can be created and modified using plasma processes is virtually endless.[...].
December 15, 2017: Nanomaterials
Jong Hyuk Yun, Joo-Hyung Kim, Do Kyung Kim, Hyun-Wook Lee
Nanostructural design renders several breakthroughs for the construction of high-performance materials and devices, including energy-storage systems. Although attempts made toward electrode engineering have improved the existing drawbacks, nanoengineering is still hindered by some issues. To achieve practical applications of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, it is difficult to attain a high areal capacity with stable cycling. Physical encapsulation via nanostructural design not only can resolve the issue of lithium polysulfide dissolution during the electrochemical cycling but also can offer significant contact resistance, which in turn can decrease the kinetics, particularly at a high sulfur loading...
December 13, 2017: Nano Letters
Scott A Wilson, Lauren M Cross, Charles W Peak, Akhilesh K Gaharwar
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging approach for rapid fabrication of complex tissue structures using cell-loaded bioinks. However, 3D bioprinting has hit a bottleneck in progress because of the lack of suitable bioinks that are printable, have high shape fidelity, and are mechanically resilient. In this study, we introduce a new family of nanoengineered bioinks consisting of kappa-carrageenan (κCA) and two-dimensional (2D) nanosilicates (nSi). κCA is a biocompatible, linear, sulfated polysaccharide derived from red algae and can undergo thermo-reversible and ionic gelation...
December 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jingchao Li, Jianghong Rao, Kanyi Pu
As a new class of organic optical nanomaterials, semiconducting polymer nanoparticles (SPNs) have the advantages of excellent optical properties, high photostability, facile surface functionalization, and are considered to possess good biocompatibility for biomedical applications. This review surveys recent progress made on the design and synthesis of SPNs for molecular imaging and cancer phototherapy. A variety of novel polymer design, chemical modification and nanoengineering strategies have been developed to precisely tune up optoelectronic properties of SPNs to enable fluorescence, chemiluminescence and photoacoustic (PA) imaging in living animals...
November 21, 2017: Biomaterials
Linqiang Pan, Zhiyu Wang, Yifan Li, Fei Xu, Qiang Zhang, Cheng Zhang
DNA strand displacement is widely used in DNA-related nanoengineering for its remarkable specificity and predictability. We report a nicking enzyme-assisted mechanism to regulate strand displacement, where DNA toeholds are dynamically controlled. To demonstrate the strategy, a protein/DNA-based Boolean operation system is constructed and based on it a two-channel multiplexer controlled by three different nicking enzymes is realized. The proposed regulatory mechanism can be used for switch logic statement and bridges protein and DNA logic circuits...
November 22, 2017: Nanoscale
Victoria Le, Jason Lee, Somali Chaterji, Adrianne Spencer, Yen-Liang Liu, Peter Kim, Hsin-Chih Yeh, Deok-Ho Kim, Aaron B Baker
The cells of the vascular system are highly sensitive to biophysical cues from their local cellular microenvironment. To engineer improved materials for vascular devices and delivery of cell therapies, a key challenge is to understand the mechanisms that cells use to sense biophysical cues from their environment. Syndecans are heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) that consist of a protein core modified with heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains. Due to their presence on the cell surface and their interaction with cytoskeletal and focal adhesion associated molecules, cell surface proteoglycans are well poised to serve as mechanosensors of the cellular microenvironment...
November 9, 2017: Biomaterials
Leon Mishnaevsky, Kim Branner, Helga Nørgaard Petersen, Justine Beauson, Malcolm McGugan, Bent F Sørensen
A short overview of composite materials for wind turbine applications is presented here. Requirements toward the wind turbine materials, loads, as well as available materials are reviewed. Apart from the traditional composites for wind turbine blades (glass fibers/epoxy matrix composites), natural composites, hybrid and nanoengineered composites are discussed. Manufacturing technologies for wind turbine composites, as well their testing and modelling approaches are reviewed.
November 9, 2017: Materials
Lars Pilgaard Mikkelsen, Leon Mishnaevsky
Computational and analytical studies of degradation of wind turbine blade materials at the macro-, micro-, and nanoscale carried out by the modelling team of the Section Composites and Materials Mechanics, Department of Wind Energy, DTU, are reviewed. Examples of the analysis of the microstructural effects on the strength and fatigue life of composites are shown. Computational studies of degradation mechanisms of wind blade composites under tensile and compressive loading are presented. The effect of hybrid and nanoengineered structures on the performance of the composite was studied in computational experiments as well...
November 8, 2017: Materials
Weiyi Qian, Lanqi Gong, Xin Cui, Zijing Zhang, Apratim Bajpai, Chao Liu, Alesha B Castillo, Jeremy C M Teo, Weiqiang Chen
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation can be manipulated by nanotopographic interface providing a unique strategy to engineering stem cell therapy and circumventing complex cellular reprogramming. However, our understanding of the nanotopographic-mechanosensitive properties of MSCs and the underlying biophysical linkage of the nanotopography-engineered stem cell to directed commitment remains elusive. Here, we show that osteogenic differentiation of human MSCs (hMSCs) can be largely promoted using our nanoengineered topographic glass substrates in the absence of dexamethasone, a key exogenous factor for osteogenesis induction...
November 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Cheng-Lun Hsin, Yu-Ting Liu, Yue-Yun Tsai
Thermal conductivity is an intriguing physical property in the nanometer or quantum regime. In this study, we report the growth and thermal conductivity of β-FeSi2 thin film and single crystalline nanowires. The sample structures and chemical composition were identified by standard microscopy techniques. The temperature-dependent thermal conductivity of the thin film was measured by the 3ω method, whereas that of the nanowires was conducted by a suspended pattern technique. Temperature-dependent thermal conductivity was found to increase gradually from 300 to 500 K due to the effect of surface scattering...
November 6, 2017: Nanotechnology
Dae-Young Kim, Avinash Kadam, Surendra Shinde, Rijuta Ganesh Saratale, Jayanta Patra, Gajanan Ghodake
The applications and benefits of nanotechnology in agricultural sector have attracted considerable attention, particularly in the invention of unique nanopesticides and nanofertilizers. The contemporary developments in nanotechnology are acknowledged and the most significant opportunities awaiting in the agriculture sector from the recent scientific and technical literature are addressed. This review discusses the significance of recent trends in nanomaterial-based sensors available for the sustainable management of agricultural soil, as well as the role of nanotechnology in detection and protection against plant pathogens, and for food quality and safety...
October 24, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Abir Maarouf Kabbani, Xinxin Woodward, Christopher V Kelly
Recent advances in nanoengineering and super-resolution microscopy have enabled new capabilities for creating and observing membrane curvature. However, the effects of curvature on single-lipid diffusion have yet to be revealed. The simulations presented here describe the capabilities of varying experimental methods for revealing the effects of nanoscale curvature on single-molecule mobility. Traditionally, lipid mobility is revealed through fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), and single particle tracking (SPT)...
October 18, 2017: Membranes
X Zhang, Z Shen, J Liu, S N Kerisit, M E Bowden, M L Sushko, J J De Yoreo, K M Rosso
Crystallization by particle attachment is impacting our understanding of natural mineralization processes and holds promise for novel materials design. When particles assemble in crystallographic alignment, expulsion of the intervening solvent and particle coalescence are enabled by near-perfect co-alignment via interparticle forces that remain poorly quantified. Here we report measurement and simulation of these nanoscale aligning forces for the ZnO(0001)-ZnO(000[Formula: see text]) system in aqueous solution...
October 10, 2017: Nature Communications
Qin Yue, Jialuo Li, Yu Zhang, Xiaowei Cheng, Xiao Chen, Panpan Pan, Jiacan Su, Ahmed A Elzatahry, Abdulaziz Alghamdi, Yonghui Deng, Dongyuan Zhao
Yolk-shell nanomaterials with a rattle-like structure have been considered ideal carriers and nanoreactors. Traditional methods to constructing yolk-shell nanostructures mainly rely on multistep sacrificial template strategy. In this study, a facile and effective plasmolysis-inspired nanoengineering strategy is developed to controllably fabricate yolk-shell magnetic mesoporous silica microspheres via the swelling-shrinkage of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) upon soaking in or removal of n-hexane. Using Fe3O4@RF microspheres as seeds, surfactant-silica mesostructured composite is deposited on the swelled seeds through the multicomponent interface coassembly, followed by solvent extraction to remove surfactant and simultaneously induce shrinkage of RF shell...
October 23, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Charles W Peak, Jean Stein, Karli A Gold, Akhilesh K Gaharwar
Nanoengineered hydrogels offer the potential to design shear-thinning bioinks for three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting. Here, we have synthesized colloidal bioinks composed of disk-shaped two-dimensional (2D) nanosilicates (Laponite) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The addition of Laponite reinforces the PEG network and increases viscosity, storage modulus, and network stability. PEG-Laponite hydrogels display shear-thinning and self-recovery characteristics due to rapid internal phase rearrangement. As a result, a range of complex patterns can be printed using PEG-Laponite bioinks...
October 25, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Nima A Jalili, Manish K Jaiswal, Charles W Peak, Lauren M Cross, Akhilesh K Gaharwar
"Smart" hydrogels are an emerging class of biomaterials that respond to external stimuli and have been investigated for a range of biomedical applications, including therapeutic delivery and regenerative engineering. Stimuli-responsive nanogels constructed of thermoresponsive polymers such as poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylamide) (poly(NIPAM-co-AM)) and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been developed as "smart carriers" for on-demand delivery of therapeutic biomolecules via magneto-thermal activation...
October 19, 2017: Nanoscale
Leilei Xu, Fangzhi Mou, Haotian Gong, Ming Luo, Jianguo Guan
Light, as an external stimulus, is capable of driving the motion of micro/nanomotors (MNMs) with the advantages of reversible, wireless and remote manoeuvre on demand with excellent spatial and temporal resolution. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art light-driven MNMs, which are able to move in liquids or on a substrate surface by converting light energy into mechanical work. The general design strategies for constructing asymmetric fields around light-driven MNMs to propel themselves are introduced as well as the photoactive materials for light-driven MNMs, including photocatalytic materials, photothermal materials and photochromic materials...
November 13, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Ekaterina Y Chernikova, Daria V Berdnikova, Yuri V Fedorov, Olga A Fedorova, François Maurel, Gediminas Jonusauskas
The combination of photoactive styryl(pyridinium) dyes and cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) in an integrated supramolecular system allowed us to design a novel high speed molecular machine based on the fully reversible shuttling motion of the dye inside the CB[7] host cavity. The driving force of this movement is the electrostatic potential change after the occurrence of intramolecular charge transfer in the excited state of the dye molecule that can be externally controlled by light. Steady-state and time-resolved optical spectroscopy as well as DFT calculations provided an unambiguous evidence for the ultrafast piston-like movement of the system between two states...
October 4, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Manish K Jaiswal, James K Carrow, James L Gentry, Jagriti Gupta, Nara Altangerel, Marlan Scully, Akhilesh K Gaharwar
A new approach of vacancy-driven gelation to obtain chemically crosslinked hydrogels from defect-rich 2D molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 ) nanoassemblies and polymeric binder is reported. This approach utilizes the planar and edge atomic defects available on the surface of the 2D MoS2 nanoassemblies to form mechanically resilient and elastomeric nanocomposite hydrogels. The atomic defects present on the lattice plane of 2D MoS2 nanoassemblies are due to atomic vacancies and can act as an active center for vacancy-driven gelation with a thiol-activated terminal such as four-arm poly(ethylene glycol)-thiol (PEG-SH) via chemisorption...
September 2017: Advanced Materials
G R Berdiyorov, M V Milošević, A D Hernández-Nieves, F M Peeters, D Domínguez
The magnetic flux domains in the intermediate state of type-I superconductors are known to resemble fluid droplets, and their dynamics in applied electric current is often cartooned as a "dripping faucet". Here we show, using the time-depended Ginzburg-Landau simulations, that microfluidic principles hold also for the determination of the size of the magnetic flux-droplet as a function of the applied current, as well as for the merger or splitting of those droplets in the presence of the nanoengineered obstacles for droplet motion...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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