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Sankalp A Gharat, Munira Momin, Chintan Bhavsar
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common type of oral cancer; it involves damage to oral epithelial cells due to accumulation of multiple genetic mutations in the cells. OSCC remains major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with head and neck cancers. Tobacco, smoking, alcohol consumption alone or with chewing tobacco, and betel quid are potential carcinogens contributing to the high occurrence of OSCC. Current treatment modalities for OSCC like chemoradiotherapy, surgery, EGFR inhibitors and COX-2 inhibitors, and photodynamic therapy have led to the major problems related to non-specific cell death...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Ying Pan, Giulia Tagliabue, Hadi Eghlidi, Christian Höller, Susanne Dröscher, Guo Hong, Dimos Poulikakos
Light detection and quantification is fundamental to the functioning of a broad palette of technologies. While expensive avalanche photodiodes and superconducting bolometers are examples of detectors achieving single-photon sensitivity and time resolutions down to the picosecond range, thermoelectric-based photodetectors are much more affordable alternatives that can be used to measure substantially higher levels of light power (few kW/cm(2)). However, in thermoelectric detectors, achieving broadband or wavelength-selective performance with high sensitivity and good temporal resolution requires careful design of the absorbing element...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
Thomas Vasileiou, Julia Gerber, Jana Prautzsch, Thomas M Schutzius, Dimos Poulikakos
Inspired by manifestations in nature, microengineering and nanoengineering of synthetic materials to achieve superhydrophobicity has been the focus of much work. Generally, hydrophobicity is enhanced through the combined effects of surface texturing and chemistry; being durable, rigid materials are the norm. However, many natural and technical surfaces are flexible, and the resulting effect on hydrophobicity has been largely ignored. Here, we show that the rational tuning of flexibility can work synergistically with the surface microtexture or nanotexture to enhance liquid repellency performance, characterized by impalement and breakup resistance, contact time reduction, and restitution coefficient increase...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jiao Shi, Kun Cai, Qing-Hua Qin
A conceptual design is presented for a nanoengine governor based on the end interfacial effect of two rotary nanotubes. The governor contains a thermal-driven rotary nanomotor made from double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) and a coaxially laid out rotary nanotube near one end of the nanomotor rotor. The rotation of the rotor in the nanomotor can be controlled by two features. One is the stator (the outer tube of DWCNTs) which has some end atoms with inward radial deviation (IRD) on the stator. The other is the relative rotation of the neighboring rotary tube of the rotor...
November 9, 2016: Nanotechnology
Nü Wang, Yuan Gao, Yun-Xiao Wang, Kai Liu, Weihong Lai, Yemin Hu, Yong Zhao, Shu-Lei Chou, Lei Jiang
Nanoengineering of electrode materials can directly facilitate sodium ion accessibility and transport, thus enhancing electrochemical performance in sodium ion batteries. Here, highly sodium-accessible carbon coated nanoporous TiO2 microfibers have been synthesised via the facile electrospinning technique which can deliver an enhanced capacity of ≈167 mAh g(-1) after 450 cycles at current density of 50 mA g(-1) and retain a capacity of ≈71 mAh g(-1) at the high current rate of 1 A g(-1). With the benefits of their porous structure, thin TiO2 inner walls, and the introduction of conductive carbon, the nanoporous TiO2/C microfibers exhibit high ion accessibility, fast Na ion transport, and fast electron transport, thereby leading to the excellent Na-storage properties presented here...
August 2016: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Andrew K Wise, Justin Tan, Yajun Wang, Frank Caruso, Robert K Shepherd
Cochlear implants electrically stimulate spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in order to provide speech cues to severe-profoundly deaf patients. In normal hearing cochleae the SGNs depend on endogenous neurotrophins secreted by sensory cells in the organ of Corti for survival. SGNs gradually degenerate following deafness and consequently there is considerable interest in developing clinically relevant strategies to provide exogenous neurotrophins to preserve SGN survival. The present study investigated the safety and efficacy of a drug delivery system for the cochlea using nanoengineered silica supraparticles...
2016: PloS One
Dongliang Chao, Pei Liang, Zhen Chen, Linyi Bai, He Shen, Xiaoxu Liu, Xinhui Xia, Yanli Zhao, Serguei V Savilov, Jianyi Lin, Ze Xiang Shen
The abundant reservation and low cost of sodium have provoked tremendous evolution of Na-ion batteries (SIBs) in the past few years, but their performances were still limited either by the specific capacity or rate capability. Attempts to pursuit high-rate ability with maintained high-capacity in a single electrode remains even more challenging. Here, an elaborate self-branched 2D SnS2 (B-SnS2) nanoarrays electrode is designed by a facile hot bath method for Na storage. This interesting electrode exhibits areal reversible capacity of ca...
October 21, 2016: ACS Nano
Chuanrui Chen, Fangzhi Mou, Leilei Xu, Shaofei Wang, Jianguo Guan, Zunpeng Feng, Quanwei Wang, Lei Kong, Wei Li, Joseph Wang, Qingjie Zhang
Intelligent photoresponsive isotropic semiconductor micromotors are developed by taking advantage of the limited penetration depth of light to induce asymmetrical surface chemical reactions. Independent of the Brownian motion of themselves, the as-proposed isotropic micromotors are able to continuously move with both motion direction and speed just controlled by light, as well as precisely manipulate particles for nanoengineering.
October 17, 2016: Advanced Materials
Christopher F Adams, Andrew W Dickson, Jan-Herman Kuiper, Divya M Chari
Tissue engineering studies are witnessing a major paradigm shift to cell culture on biomimetic materials that replicate native tissue features from which the cells are derived. Few studies have been performed in this regard for neural cells, particularly in nanomedicine. For example, platforms such as magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have proven efficient as multifunctional tools for cell tracking and genetic engineering of neural transplant populations. However, as far as we are aware, all current studies have been conducted using neural cells propagated on non-neuromimetic substrates that fail to represent the mechano-elastic properties of brain and spinal cord microenvironments...
October 6, 2016: Nanoscale
Pere R Ramel, Edmund D Co, Nuria C Acevedo, Alejandro G Marangoni
In this review, recent advances in the characterization of the nanoscale structure of fat crystal networks are outlined. The effect of different factors on the properties of crystalline nanoplatelets (CNPs) is comprehensively described. These are discussed together with the observed changes in polymorphism and micro- or mesostructural properties so as to have a complete understanding of the influence of different internal and external factors on the material properties of fats. The relationship between the nanostructure and the material properties of fats (i...
October 1, 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
Rowan K Leary, Anjli Kumar, Patrick J Straney, Sean M Collins, Sadegh Yazdi, Rafal E Dunin-Borkowski, Paul A Midgley, Jill E Millstone, Emilie Ringe
Catalytic and optical properties can be coupled by combining different metals into nanoscale architectures in which both the shape and the composition provide fine-tuning of functionality. Here, discrete, small Pt nanoparticles (diameter = 3-6 nm) were grown in linear arrays on Au nanoprisms, and the resulting structures are shown to retain strong localized surface plasmon resonances. Multidimensional electron microscopy and spectroscopy techniques (energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron tomography, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy) were used to unravel their local composition, three-dimensional morphology, growth patterns, and optical properties...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
Leilei Gu, Mohammad Mahdi Tavakoli, Daquan Zhang, Qianpeng Zhang, Aashir Waleed, Yiqun Xiao, Kwong-Hoi Tsui, Yuanjing Lin, Lei Liao, Jiannong Wang, Zhiyong Fan
Large-scale and highly ordered 3D perov-skite nanowire (NW) arrays are achieved in nanoengineering templates by a unique vapor-solid-solid reaction process. The excellent material properties, in conjunction with the high integration density of the NW arrays, make them promising for 3D integrated nanoelectronics/optoelectronics. Image sensors with 1024 pixels are assembled and characterized to demonstrate the technological potency.
September 20, 2016: Advanced Materials
David R Barbero, Samuel D Stranks
Carbon nanotubes have a variety of remarkable electronic and mechanical properties that, in principle, lend them to promising optoelectronic applications. However, the field has been plagued by heterogeneity in the distributions of synthesized tubes and uncontrolled bundling, both of which have prevented nanotubes from reaching their full potential. Here, a variety of recently demonstrated solution-processing avenues is presented, which may combat these challenges through manipulation of nanoscale structures...
September 16, 2016: Advanced Materials
Shu J Lam, Neil M O'Brien-Simpson, Namfon Pantarat, Adrian Sulistio, Edgar H H Wong, Yu-Yen Chen, Jason C Lenzo, James A Holden, Anton Blencowe, Eric C Reynolds, Greg G Qiao
With the recent emergence of reports on resistant Gram-negative 'superbugs', infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria have been named as one of the most urgent global health threats due to the lack of effective and biocompatible drugs. Here, we show that a class of antimicrobial agents, termed 'structurally nanoengineered antimicrobial peptide polymers' (SNAPPs) exhibit sub-μM activity against all Gram-negative bacteria tested, including ESKAPE and colistin-resistant and MDR (CMDR) pathogens, while demonstrating low toxicity...
September 12, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Michele M Nava, Alessio Piuma, Marina Figliuzzi, Irene Cattaneo, Barbara Bonandrini, Tommaso Zandrini, Giulio Cerullo, Roberto Osellame, Andrea Remuzzi, Manuela T Raimondi
BACKGROUND: The use of pluripotent cells in stem cell therapy has major limitations, mainly related to the high costs and risks of exogenous conditioning and the use of feeder layers during cell expansion passages. METHODS: We developed an innovative three-dimensional culture substrate made of "nichoid" microstructures, nanoengineered via two-photon laser polymerization. The nichoids limit the dimension of the adhering embryoid bodies during expansion, by counteracting cell migration between adjacent units of the substrate by its microarchitecture...
September 9, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Yanguang Zhou, Ming Hu
Thermoelectrics offer an attractive pathway for addressing an important niche in the globally growing landscape of energy demand. Nanoengineering existing low-dimensional thermoelectric materials pertaining to realizing fundamentally low thermal conductivity has emerged as an efficient route to achieve high energy conversion performance for advanced thermoelectrics. In this paper, by performing nonequilibrium and Green-Kubo equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations we report that the thermal conductivity of Si nanowires (NWs) in polycrystalline form can reach a record low value substantially below the Casimir limit, a theory of diffusive boundary limit that regards the direction-averaged mean free path is limited by the characteristic size of the nanostructures...
October 12, 2016: Nano Letters
Sahil Sandesh Gandhi, Min Su Kim, Jeoung-Yeon Hwang, Liang-Chy Chien
An electro-optical (EO) memory device is presented, which is based on a 3D nanostructured polymer scaffold of the amorphous blue phase III (BPIII) of cholesteric liquid crystals (LCs), which can impart optical isotropy, optical activity, and sub-millisecond EO response of BPIII to conventional nematic LCs. This functional scaffold also enables the first experimental observation of the long debated structure of BPIII.
August 24, 2016: Advanced Materials
Arghya Paul, Vijayan Manoharan, Dorothee Krafft, Alexander Assmann, Jorge Alfredo Uquillas, Su Ryon Shin, Anwarul Hasan, Mohammad Asif Hussain, Adnan Memic, Akhilesh K Gaharwar, Ali Khademhosseini
The ability to modulate stem cell differentiation in a three dimensional (3D) microenvironment for bone tissue engineering in absence of exogenous pharmaceutical agents such as bone morphogenic protein (BMP-2) remains a challenge. In this study, we introduce extracellular matrix (ECM)-mimicking nanocomposite hydrogels to induce osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) for bone regeneration in absence of any osteoinducting factors. In particular, we have reinforced photocrosslinkable collagen-based matrix (gelatin methacryloyl, GelMA) used disk-shaped nanosilicates (nSi), a new class of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials...
May 28, 2016: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
Víctor Sebastián, Klavs F Jensen
Microfluidic synthesis in a microfabricated reactor enables fast and facile synthesis of a wide library of metallic nanostructures: monometallic, bimetallic, anisotropic growth and heterostructures. Specific nanostructures are realized by selection of flow pattern and synthesis parameters. The technique is shown to have advantages over conventional batch technologies. Not only does it allow faster scalable synthesis, but also realization of nanostructures hitherto not reported such as Pt-Ru, Pt-Ni and Pt-Co nanodendrites, Pt-Pd heterostructures, Ag-Pd core-shell NPs, Au-Pd nanodumbbells and Au-Pd nanosheets...
August 18, 2016: Nanoscale
Takis Kontos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 21, 2016: Nature
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