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Spinal plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240948/early-cyclical-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-improves-strength-and-trophism-by-akt-pathway-signaling-in-partially-paralyzed-biceps-muscle-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#1
Gabriel R de Freitas, Caroline C do Espírito Santo, Nicolas A M M de Machado-Pereira, Franciane Bobinski, Adair R S Dos Santos, Jocemar Ilha
Background: Electrical stimulation is often used to treat weakness in people with spinal cord injury (SCI), however its efficacy to increase strength and trophism are weak and the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic benefits are unknown. Objective: The purpose of the study was to analyze the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on muscle function, trophism and the Akt pathway signaling involved in muscular plasticity after incomplete-SCI in rats...
December 12, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233741/cyclooxygenase-enzyme-activity-does-not-impair-respiratory-motor-plasticity-after-one-night-of-intermittent-hypoxia
#2
Adrianne G Huxtable, Elizabeth Kopp, Brendan J Doughtery, Jyoti J Watters, Gordon S Mitchell
Although inflammation is prevalent in many clinical disorders challenging breathing, we are only beginning to understand the impact of inflammation on neural mechanisms of respiratory control. We recently demonstrated one form of respiratory motor plasticity is extremely sensitive to even mild inflammation induced by a single night (8hours) of intermittent hypoxia (IH-1), mimicking aspects of obstructive sleep apnea. Specifically, phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF) following moderate acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) is abolished by IH-1, but restored by high doses of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ketoprofen...
December 9, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229703/orai1-plays-a-crucial-role-in-central-sensitization-by-modulating-neuronal-excitability
#3
Yannong Dou, Jingsheng Xia, Ruby Gao, Xinghua Gao, Frances M Munoz, Dongyu Wei, Yuzhen Tian, James E Barrett, Seena Ajit, Olimpia Meucci, James W Putney, Yue Dai, Huijuan Hu
Pathological pain is a common and debilitating condition that is often poorly managed. Central sensitization is an important mechanism underlying pathological pain. However, candidate molecules involved in central sensitization remain unclear. Store-operated calcium channels (SOCs) mediate important calcium signals in non-excitable and excitable cells. SOCs have been implicated in a wide variety of human pathophysiological conditions including immunodeficiency, occlusive vascular diseases and cancer. However, the role of SOCs in central nervous system (CNS) disorders has been relatively unexplored...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218323/sap97-binding-partner-cript-promotes-dendrite-growth-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#4
Lei Zhang, Angela Marie Jablonski, Jelena Mojsilovic-Petrovic, Hua Ding, Steven Seeholzer, Ian Paterson Newton, Inke Nathke, Rachael Neve, JinBin Zhai, Yuan Shang, Mingjie Zhang, Robert Gordon Kalb
The dendritic tree is a key determinant of neuronal information processing. In the motor system, the dendritic tree of spinal cord neurons undergoes dramatic remodeling in an activity-dependent manner during early postnatal life. This leads to the proper segmental spinal cord connectivity that subserves normal locomotor behavior. One molecular system driving the establishment of dendrite architecture of mammalian motor neurons relies on AMPA receptors (AMPA-Rs) assembled with the GluA1 subunit, and this occurs in an NMDA receptor (NMDA-R)-independent manner...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205090/rapamycin-exacerbates-cardiovascular-dysfunction-after-complete-high-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Khalid C Eldahan, David H Cox, Jenna L Gollihue, Samir P Patel, Alexander G Rabchevsky
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a potentially life-threatening syndrome in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) above the T6 spinal level that is characterized by episodic hypertension in response to noxious stimuli below the lesion. Maladaptive intraspinal plasticity is thought to contribute to the temporal development of AD, and experimental approaches that reduce such plasticity mitigate the severity of AD. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has gained interest as a mediator of plasticity, regeneration and nociceptor hypersensitivity in the injured spinal cord...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204829/spinal-cord-stem-cells-in-their-microenvironment-the-ependyma-as-a-stem-cell-niche
#6
Nicolás Marichal, Cecilia Reali, Omar Trujillo-Cenóz, Raúl E Russo
The ependyma of the spinal cord is currently proposed as a latent neural stem cell niche. This chapter discusses recent knowledge on the developmental origin and nature of the heterogeneous population of cells that compose this stem cell microenviroment, their diverse physiological properties and regulation. The chapter also reviews relevant data on the ependymal cells as a source of plasticity for spinal cord repair.
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183676/depolarization-and-electrical-stimulation-enhance-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-sensory-axon-growth-after-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Ioana Goganau, Beatrice Sandner, Norbert Weidner, Karim Fouad, Armin Blesch
Activity dependent plasticity is a key mechanism for the central nervous system (CNS) to adapt to its environment. Whether neuronal activity also influences axonal regeneration in the injured CNS, and whether electrical stimulation (ES) can activate regenerative programs in the injured CNS remains incompletely understood. Using KCl-induced depolarization, in vivo ES followed by ex-vivo neurite growth assays and ES after spinal cord lesions and cell grafting, we aimed to identify parameters important for ES-enhanced neurite growth and axonal regeneration...
November 25, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180963/spinal-cord-molecular-and-cellular-changes-induced-by-adenoviral-vector-and-cell-mediated-triple-gene-therapy-after-severe-contusion
#8
Andrei A Izmailov, Tatyana V Povysheva, Farid V Bashirov, Mikhail E Sokolov, Filip O Fadeev, Ravil R Garifulin, Boris S Naroditsky, Denis Y Logunov, Ilnur I Salafutdinov, Yuri A Chelyshev, Rustem R Islamov, Igor A Lavrov
The gene therapy has been successful in treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) in several animal models, although it still remains unavailable for clinical practice. Surprisingly, regardless the fact that multiple reports showed motor recovery with gene therapy, little is known about molecular and cellular changes in the post-traumatic spinal cord following viral vector- or cell-mediated gene therapy. In this study we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy and changes in spinal cord after treatment with the genes encoding vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), angiogenin (ANG), and neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) applied using both approaches...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179629/spinal-cord-injury-disrupts-resting-state-networks-in-the-human-brain
#9
Ammar Hawasli, Jerrel Rutlin, Jarod L Roland, Rory Murphy, Sheng-Kwei Song, Eric Leuthardt, Joshua Shimony, Wilson Z Ray
Despite 253,000 spinal cord injury (SCI) patients in America, little is known about how SCI affects brain networks. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides only structural information with no insight into functional connectivity. Resting-state functional MRI (RS-fMRI) quantifies network connectivity through the identification of resting-state networks (RSNs) and allows detection of functionally-relevant changes during disease. Given the robust network of spinal cord afferents to the brain, we hypothesized SCI produces meaningful changes in brain RSNs...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167404/a-critical-role-for-dopamine-d5-receptors-in-pain-chronicity-in-male-mice
#10
Salim Megat, Stephanie Shiers, Jamie K Moy, Paulino Barragan-Iglesias, Grishma Pradhan, Rebecca P Seal, Gregory Dussor, Theodore J Price
Dopaminergic modulation of spinal cord plasticity has long been recognized but circuits affected by this system and the precise receptor subtypes involved in this modulation have not been defined. Dopaminergic modulation from the A11 nucleus of the hypothalamus contributes to plasticity in a model of chronic pain called hyperalgesic priming. Here we tested the hypothesis that the key receptor subtype mediating this effect is the D5 receptor (D5R). We find that a spinally-directed lesion of dopaminergic neurons reverses hyperalgesic priming in both sexes and that a D1/D5 antagonist transiently inhibits neuropathic pain...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163212/regulation-of-skeletal-muscle-plasticity-by-protein-arginine-methyltransferases-and-their-potential-roles-in-neuromuscular-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Derek W Stouth, Tiffany L vanLieshout, Nicole Y Shen, Vladimir Ljubicic
Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the methylation of arginine residues on target proteins, thereby mediating a diverse set of intracellular functions that are indispensable for survival. Indeed, full-body knockouts of specific PRMTs are lethal and PRMT dysregulation has been implicated in the most prevalent chronic disorders, such as cancers and cardiovascular disease (CVD). PRMTs are now emerging as important mediators of skeletal muscle phenotype and plasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163107/the-complexity-of-h-wave-amplitude-fluctuations-and-their-bilateral-cross-covariance-are-modified-according-to-the-previous-fitness-history-of-young-subjects-under-track-training
#12
Maria E Ceballos-Villegas, Juan J Saldaña Mena, Ana L Gutierrez Lozano, Francisco J Sepúlveda-Cañamar, Nayeli Huidobro, Elias Manjarrez, Joel Lomeli
The Hoffmann reflex (H-wave) is produced by alpha-motoneuron activation in the spinal cord. A feature of this electromyography response is that it exhibits fluctuations in amplitude even during repetitive stimulation with the same intensity of current. We herein explore the hypothesis that physical training induces plastic changes in the motor system. Such changes are evaluated with the fractal dimension (FD) analysis of the H-wave amplitude-fluctuations (H-wave FD) and the cross-covariance (CCV) between the bilateral H-wave amplitudes...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163098/a-systematic-review-of-investigations-into-functional-brain-connectivity-following-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Alkinoos Athanasiou, Manousos A Klados, Niki Pandria, Nicolas Foroglou, Kyriaki R Kavazidi, Konstantinos Polyzoidis, Panagiotis D Bamidis
Background: Complete or incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) results in varying degree of motor, sensory and autonomic impairment. Long-lasting, often irreversible disability results from disconnection of efferent and afferent pathways. How does this disconnection affect brain function is not so clear. Changes in brain organization and structure have been associated with SCI and have been extensively studied and reviewed. Yet, our knowledge regarding brain connectivity changes following SCI is overall lacking...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151114/non-canonical-heterogeneous-cellular-distribution-and-co-localization-of-camkii%C3%AE-and-camkii%C3%AE-in-the-spinal-superficial-dorsal-horn
#14
Max Larsson
Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a key enzyme in long-term plasticity in many neurons, including in the nociceptive circuitry of the spinal dorsal horn. However, although the role of CaMKII heterooligomers in neuronal plasticity is isoform-dependent, the distribution and co-localization of CaMKII isoforms in the dorsal horn have not been comprehensively investigated. Here, quantitative immunofluorescence analysis was used to examine the distribution of the two major neuronal CaMKII isoforms, α and β, in laminae I-III of the rat dorsal horn, with reference to inhibitory interneurons and neuronal populations defined by expression of parvalbumin, calretinin, and calbindin D28k...
November 18, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150945/development-of-an-in-vivo-mouse-model-of-discogenic-low-back-pain
#15
Changgui Shi, Vaskar Das, Xin Li, Ranjan Kc, Sujun Qiu, InSug O-Sullivan, Richard L Ripper, Jeffrey S Kroin, Fackson Mwale, Atiyayein A Wallace, Bingqian Zhu, Lan Zhao, Andre J van Wijnen, Mingliang Ji, Jun Lu, Gina Votta-Velis, Wen Yuan, Hee-Jeong Im
Discogenic Low back pain (DLBP) is extremely common and costly. Effective treatments are lacking due to DLBP's unknown pathogenesis. Currently, there are no in vivo mouse models of DLBP, which restricts research in this field. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable DLBP model in mouse that captures the pathological changes in the disc and allows longitudinal pain testing. The model was generated by puncturing the mouse lumbar discs (L4/5, L5/6, and L6/S1) and removing the nucleus pulposus using a microscalpel under the microscope...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146456/is-more-always-better-how-different-doses-of-exercise-after-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury-affects-the-membrane-properties-of-deep-dorsal-horn-interneurons
#16
M M Rank, M P Galea, R Callister, R J Callister
Interneurons in the deep dorsal horn (DDH) of the spinal cord process somatosensory input, and form an important link between upper and lower motoneurons to subsequently shape motor output. Exercise training after SCI is known to improve functional motor recovery, but little is known about the mechanisms within spinal cord neurons that underlie these improvements. Here we investigate how the properties of DDH interneurons are affected by spinal cord injury (SCI) alone, and SCI in combination with different 'doses' of treadmill exercise training (3, 6, and 9wks)...
November 13, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141865/development-and-plasticity-of-meningeal-lymphatic-vessels
#17
Salli Antila, Sinem Karaman, Harri Nurmi, Mikko Airavaara, Merja H Voutilainen, Thomas Mathivet, Dmitri Chilov, Zhilin Li, Tapani Koppinen, Jun-Hee Park, Shentong Fang, Aleksanteri Aspelund, Mart Saarma, Anne Eichmann, Jean-Léon Thomas, Kari Alitalo
The recent discovery of meningeal lymphatic vessels (LVs) has raised interest in their possible involvement in neuropathological processes, yet little is known about their development or maintenance. We show here that meningeal LVs develop postnatally, appearing first around the foramina in the basal parts of the skull and spinal canal, sprouting along the blood vessels and cranial and spinal nerves to various parts of the meninges surrounding the central nervous system (CNS). VEGF-C, expressed mainly in vascular smooth muscle cells, and VEGFR3 in lymphatic endothelial cells were essential for their development, whereas VEGF-D deletion had no effect...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138092/abnormal-cortical-neuroplasticity-induced-by-paired-associative-stimulation-after-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-a-preliminary-study
#18
Viviana Versace, Patrick B Langthaler, Yvonne Höller, Vanessa N Frey, Francesco Brigo, Luca Sebastianelli, Leopold Saltuari, Raffaele Nardone
We aimed at assessing in this pilot study whether patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) show alterations of sensorimotor plasticity within the primary motor cortex (M1). Since learning in human M1 occurs through LTP-like mechanisms, we employed the paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocol by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which is able to induce LTP-like effects in M1, in subjects with chronic SCI. We found that PAS protocol significantly increased corticospinal excitability as long as 30minutes in healthy subjects and in SCI patients with good motor recovery, while it was followed by a non-significant increase of MEP amplitude in the SCI patients with poor functional recovery...
November 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135880/histological-osteoarthritic-changes-in-the-human-cervical-spine-facet-joints-related-to-age-and-gender
#19
Lars Uhrenholt, Annie Vesterby Charles, Markil Gregersen, Jan Hartvigsen, Ellen-Margrethe Hauge
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional autopsy study. OBJECTIVE: Quantify histological changes in the lower cervical spine facet joints with regard to age and gender using systematic random sampling of entire joints. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Neck pain is a common debilitating musculoskeletal condition and one of the highest ranked causes of years lived with disability. The cause of neck pain is multifactorial and osteoarthritis is one potential cause...
November 10, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123926/spinal-excitability-changes-after-transspinal-and-transcortical-paired-associative-stimulation-in-humans
#20
Maria Knikou
Paired associative stimulation (PAS) produces enduring neuroplasticity based on Hebbian associative plasticity. This study established the changes in spinal motoneuronal excitability by pairing transcortical and transspinal stimulation. Transcortical stimulation was delivered after (transspinal-transcortical PAS) or before (transcortical-transspinal PAS) transspinal stimulation. Before and after 40 minutes of each PAS protocol, spinal neural excitability was assessed based on the amplitude of the transspinal-evoked potentials (TEPs) recorded from ankle muscles of both legs at different stimulation intensities (recruitment input-output curve)...
2017: Neural Plasticity
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