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Spinal plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679548/the-effect-of-myelotomy-following-low-thoracic-spinal-cord-compression-injury-in-rats
#1
Carolin Meyer, Habib Bendella, Svenja Rink, Robin Gensch, Robert Seitz, Gregor Stein, Marilena Manthou, Theodora Papamitsou, Makoto Nakamura, Bertil Bouillon, Mary Galea, Peter Batchelor, Sarah Dunlop, Doychin Angelov
Myelotomy is a surgical procedure allowing removal of extravasated blood and necrotic tissue that is thought to attenuate secondary injury as well as promote recovery in experimental spinal cord injury (SCI) models and humans. Here we examined in rat whether myelotomy at 48 h after low-thoracic compressive SCI provided any benefit over a 12 week period. Compared to animals receiving SCI alone, myelotomy worsened BBB scores (p < 0.05) and also did not improve plantar stepping, ladder climbing, urinary bladder voiding or sensory function (thermal latency) during the 12-week period...
April 18, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672451/spinal-protein-kinase-c-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-signal-pathway-mediates-hyperalgesia-priming
#2
Wei-Hsin Chen, Ya-Ting Chang, Yong-Cyuan Chen, Sin-Jhong Cheng, Chien-Chang Chen
Chronic pain can be initiated by one or more acute stimulations to sensitize neurons into the primed state. In the primed state, the basal nociceptive thresholds of the animal are normal, but, in response to another hyperalgesic stimulus, the animal develops enhanced and prolonged hyperalgesia. The exact mechanism of how primed state is formed is not completely understood. Here, we showed that spinal protein kinase C (PKC)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signal pathway is required for neuronal plasticity change, hyperalgesic priming formation, and the development of chronic hyperalgesia using acid-induced muscle pain model in mice...
May 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665503/zebrafish-extracellular-matrix-improves-neuronal-viability-and-network-formation-in-a-3-dimensional-culture
#3
Sung-Min Kim, Daniel Ward Long, Michael Wai Kok Tsang, Yadong Wang
Mammalian central nervous system (CNS) has limited capacity for regeneration. CNS injuries cause life-long debilitation and lead to $50 billion in healthcare costs in U.S. alone each year. Despite numerous efforts in the last few decades, CNS-related injuries remain as detrimental as they were 50 years ago. Some functional recovery can occur, but most regeneration are limited by an extracellular matrix (ECM) that actively inhibits axonal repair and promotes glial scarring. In most tissues, the ECM is an architectural foundation that plays an active role in supporting cellular development and regenerative response after injury...
April 6, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665155/defining-mechanisms-of-neural-plasticity-after-brainstem-ischemia-in-rats
#4
Jens Minnerup, Jan-Kolja Strecker, Lydia Wachsmuth, Maike Hoppen, Antje Schmidt, Dirk M Hermann, Heinz Wiendl, Sven Meuth, Cornelius Faber, Kai Diederich, Wolf Rüdiger Schäbitz
OBJECTIVE: Neurological recovery after stroke mainly depends on the location of the lesion. A substantial portion of strokes affects the brainstem. However, patterns of neural plasticity following brainstem ischemia are almost unknown. METHODS: Here, we established a rat brainstem ischemia model that resembles key features of the human disease and investigated mechanisms of neural plasticity including neurogenesis and axonal sprouting as well as secondary neurodegeneration...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663410/the-negotiated-equilibrium-model-of-spinal-cord-function
#5
Jonathan R Wolpaw
The belief that the spinal cord is hardwired is no longer tenable. Like the rest of the CNS, the spinal cord changes during growth and aging, when new motor behaviours are acquired, and in response to trauma and disease. This paper describes a new model of spinal cord function that reconciles its recently appreciated plasticity with its long recognized reliability as the final common pathway for behaviour. According to this model, the substrate of each motor behaviour comprises brain and spinal plasticity: the plasticity in the brain induces and maintains the plasticity in the spinal cord...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662439/chondroitin-sulfate-expression-in-perineuronal-nets-after-goldfish-spinal-cord-lesion
#6
Akihito Takeda, Masashige Shuto, Kengo Funakoshi
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) surrounding neuronal cell bodies regulate neuronal plasticity during development, but their roles in regeneration are unclear. In the PNNs, chondroitin sulfate (CS) is assumed to be involved in inhibiting contact formation. Here, we examined CS expression in PNNs in the ventral horn of a goldfish hemisected spinal cord in which descending axons regenerate beyond the lesion to connect with distal spinal neurons. In intact fish, chondroitin sulfate A (CS-A)-positive PNNs accounted for 5...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656361/characterization-of-the-mitochondrial-aerobic-metabolism-in-the-pre-and-perisynaptic-districts-of-the-sod1-g93a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#7
Silvia Ravera, Tiziana Bonifacino, Martina Bartolucci, Marco Milanese, Elena Gallia, Francesca Provenzano, Katia Cortese, Isabella Panfoli, Giambattista Bonanno
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by muscle wasting, weakness, and spasticity due to a progressive degeneration of cortical, brainstem, and spinal motor neurons. The etiopathological causes are still largely obscure, although astrocytes definitely play a role in neuronal damage. Several mechanisms have been proposed to concur to neurodegeneration in ALS, including mitochondrial dysfunction. We have previously shown profound modifications of glutamate release and presynaptic plasticity in the spinal cord of the SOD1 G93A mouse model of ALS...
April 14, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655872/-contribution-of-the-scrotal-flap-for-the-coverage-of-ischial-and-perineal-pressure-ulcers
#8
M Vantomme, R Viard, R Aimard, P-L Vincent, J-P Comparin, D Voulliaume
INTRODUCTION: The ischiatric pressure sore is a common pathology in rehabilitated spinal cord injured people, despite careful prevention. Medical treatment by discharge and directed healing is not always sufficient and surgery using local musculocutaneous flaps is often essential. Unfortunately, recidivism is frequent and the availability of local flaps is limited. The scrotal flap is an excellent complement to classic flaps, gluteal flaps or hamstrings. It can be used alone or in addition to another musculocutaneous flap, in first or second intention...
April 11, 2018: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649136/perineuronal-nets-in-spinal-motoneurones-chondroitin-sulphate-proteoglycan-around-alpha-motoneurones
#9
Sian F Irvine, Jessica C F Kwok
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are extracellular matrix structures surrounding neuronal sub-populations throughout the central nervous system, regulating plasticity. Enzymatically removing PNNs successfully enhances plasticity and thus functional recovery, particularly in spinal cord injury models. While PNNs within various brain regions are well studied, much of the composition and associated populations in the spinal cord is yet unknown. We aim to investigate the populations of PNN neurones involved in this functional motor recovery...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620141/jmjd6-exerts-function-in-neuropathic-pain-by-regulating-nf%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-following-peripheral-nerve-injury-in-rats
#10
Cen Wen, Mengyuan Xu, Cheng Mo, Zhigang Cheng, Qulian Guo, Xiaoyan Zhu
Treatment of neuropathic pain (NPP) continues to be a major challenge, and the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Previous studies have demonstrated that histone methylation is important in synaptic plasticity of the nervous system and may affect nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) signaling through epigenetic mechanisms. The present study aimed to investigate the role of Jumonji C domain 6 (JMJD6), a histone demethylase, in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of NPP. On the third day post‑CCI surgery, a JMJD6 overexpressing lentiviral vector (LV‑JMJD6) was intrathecally injected in the rats...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615932/synaptic-plasticity-in-cardiac-innervation-and-its-potential-role-in-atrial-fibrillation
#11
REVIEW
Jesse L Ashton, Rebecca A B Burton, Gil Bub, Bruce H Smaill, Johanna M Montgomery
Synaptic plasticity is defined as the ability of synapses to change their strength of transmission. Plasticity of synaptic connections in the brain is a major focus of neuroscience research, as it is the primary mechanism underpinning learning and memory. Beyond the brain however, plasticity in peripheral neurons is less well understood, particularly in the neurons innervating the heart. The atria receive rich innervation from the autonomic branch of the peripheral nervous system. Sympathetic neurons are clustered in stellate and cervical ganglia alongside the spinal cord and extend fibers to the heart directly innervating the myocardium...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614314/glun2b-camkii-mediates-cfa-induced-hyperalgesia-via-hdac4-modified-spinal-cox2-transcription
#12
Cheng-Yuan Lai, Ming-Chun Hsieh, Yu-Cheng Ho, Gin-Den Chen, Dylan Chou, Ting Ruan, An-Sheng Lee, Hsueh-Hsiao Wang, Yat-Pang Chau, Hsien-Yu Peng, Cheng-Hung Lai
Histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4), which actively shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm, is an attractive candidate for a repressor mechanism in epigenetic modification. However, the potential role of HDAC4-dependent epigenetics in the neural plasticity underlying the development of inflammatory pain has not been well established. By injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the hind-paw of Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g), we found animals displayed behavioral hyperalgesia was accompanied with HDAC4 phosphorylation and cytoplasmic redistribution in the dorsal horn neurons...
March 31, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610439/soluble-tnf%C3%AE-signaling-within-the-spinal-cord-contributes-to-the-development-of-autonomic-dysreflexia-and-ensuing-vascular-and-immune-dysfunction-after-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Eugene Mironets, Patrick Osei-Owusu, Valerie Bracchi-Ricard, Roman Fischer, Elizabeth A Owens, Jerome Ricard, Di Wu, Tatiana Saltos, Eileen Collyer, Shaoping Hou, John R Bethea, Veronica J Tom
Cardiovascular disease and susceptibility to infection are leading causes of morbidity and mortality for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). A major contributor to these is autonomic dysreflexia (AD), an amplified reaction of the autonomic nervous system (hallmarked by severe hypertension) in response to sensory stimuli below the injury. Maladaptive plasticity of the spinal sympathetic reflex circuit below the SCI results in AD intensification over time. Mechanisms underlying this maladaptive plasticity are poorly understood, restricting the identification of treatments...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596845/spontaneous-respiratory-plasticity-following-unilateral-high-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-in-behaving-rats
#14
Tatiana Bezdudnaya, Kristiina M Hormigo, Vitaliy Marchenko, Michael A Lane
Unilateral cervical C2 hemisection (C2Hx) is a classic model of spinal cord injury (SCI) for studying respiratory dysfunction and plasticity. However, most previous studies were performed under anesthesia, which significantly alters respiratory network. Therefore, the goal of this work was to assess spontaneous diaphragm recovery post-C2Hx in awake, freely behaving animals. Adult rats were chronically implanted with diaphragm EMG electrodes and recorded during 8 weeks post-C2Hx. Our results reveal that ipsilateral diaphragm activity partially recovers within days post-injury and reaches pre-injury amplitude in a few weeks...
March 26, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593503/emergence-of-serotonergic-neurons-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-turtles
#15
Gabriela Fabbiani, María I Rehermann, Carina Aldecosea, Omar Trujillo-Cenóz, Raúl E Russo
Plasticity of neural circuits takes many forms and plays a fundamental role in regulating behavior to changing demands while maintaining stability. For example, during spinal cord development neurotransmitter identity in neurons is dynamically adjusted in response to changes in the activity of spinal networks. It is reasonable to speculate that this type of plasticity might occur also in mature spinal circuits in response to injury. Because serotonergic signaling has a central role in spinal cord functions, we hypothesized that spinal cord injury (SCI) in the fresh water turtle Trachemys scripta elegans may trigger homeostatic changes in serotonergic innervation...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584611/a-descriptive-retrospective-study-of-using-an-oblique-downward-design-gluteus-maximus-myocutaneous-flap-for-reconstruction-of-ischial-pressure-ulcers
#16
Chang-Yi Chou, Yu-Shan Sun, Yu-Jen Shih, Yuan-Sheng Tzeng, Shun-Cheng Chang, Niann-Tzyy Dai, Chin-Ta Lin
Despite advances in reconstruction techniques, ischial pressure ulcers continue to present a challenge for the plastic surgeon. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate outcomes of using an oblique downward gluteus maximus myocutaneous (GMM) flap for coverage of grade IV ischial ulcers. Data regarding defect size, flap size, operation time, duration of wound healing, and surgical outcome were abstracted from the medical records of patients whose ischial pressure ulcers had been reconstructed using GMM island flaps between January 2010 and December 2015...
March 2018: Ostomy/wound Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579068/rapid-activity-dependent-modulation-of-the-intrinsic-excitability-through-up-regulation-of-kcnq-kv7-channel-function-in-neonatal-spinal-motoneurons
#17
Joseph Lombardo, Jianli Sun, Melissa A Harrington
Activity-dependent changes in the properties of the motor system underlie the necessary adjustments in its responsiveness on the basis of the environmental and developmental demands of the organism. Although plastic changes in the properties of the spinal cord have historically been neglected because of the archaic belief that the spinal cord is constituted by a hardwired network that simply relays information to muscles, plenty of evidence has been accumulated showing that synapses impinging on spinal motoneurons undergo short- and long-term plasticity...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578864/spinal-protein-kinase-m%C3%AE-regulates-%C3%AE-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic-acid-receptor-trafficking-and-dendritic-spine-plasticity-via-kalirin-7-in-the-pathogenesis-of-remifentanil-induced-postincisional-hyperalgesia-in-rats
#18
Linlin Zhang, Suqian Guo, Qi Zhao, Yize Li, Chengcheng Song, Chunyan Wang, Yonghao Yu, Guolin Wang
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative remifentanil anesthesia exaggerates postoperative pain sensitivity. Recent studies recapitulate the significance of protein kinase Mζ in α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor-mediated pathologic pain. Kalirin-7, a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor, coordinates AMPA receptor trafficking and dendritic spine plasticity. This study examines whether protein kinase Mζ and Kalirin-7 contribute to remifentanil-induced postincisional hyperalgesia via AMPA receptor...
March 26, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572841/spinal-associative-plasticity-in-depth-evidence-from-animal-model
#19
Francesco Asci
Spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) implies changes in the effectiveness of the synapse strength depending on exact timing of pre- and post-synaptic activation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 23, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572064/the-role-of-ampk-in-neuromuscular-biology-and-disease
#20
REVIEW
Athan G Dial, Sean Y Ng, Alexander Manta, Vladimir Ljubicic
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a primary regulator of cellular metabolism. Recent studies have revealed that AMPK also mediates the maintenance and plasticity of α-motoneurons, the neuromuscular junction, and skeletal muscle. Furthermore, AMPK stimulation by either genetic, pharmacological, or physiological approaches elicits beneficial phenotypic remodeling in neuromuscular disorders (NMDs). Here, we review the role of AMPK as a governor of neuromuscular biology, and present evidence for AMPK as an effective molecular target for therapeutic pursuit in the context of the most prevalent NMDs, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, and myotonic dystrophy type 1...
March 20, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
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