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Spinal plasticity

Mladen Savikj, Maxwell A Ruby, Emil Kostovski, Per O Iversen, Juleen R Zierath, Anna Krook, Ulrika Widegren
Despite the well-known role of satellite cells in skeletal muscle plasticity, the effect of spinal cord injury on their function in humans remains unknown. We determined whether spinal cord injury affects the intrinsic ability of satellite cells to differentiate and produce metabolically healthy myotubes. We obtained vastus lateralis biopsies from eight spinal cord-injured and six able-bodied individuals. Satellite cells were isolated, grown and differentiated in vitro. Gene expression was measured by quantitative PCR...
June 2018: Physiological Reports
Andrea Calvo-Echenique, José Cegoñino, Raúl Chueca, Amaya Pérez-Del Palomar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Spinal degeneration and instability are commonly treated with interbody fusion cages either alone or supplemented with posterior instrumentation with the aim to immobilise the segment and restore intervertebral height. The purpose of this work is to establish a tool which may help to understand the effects of intervertebral cage design and placement on the biomechanical response of a patient-specific model to help reducing post-surgical complications such as subsidence and segment instability...
August 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Egidio D'Angelo
The cerebellum is a central brain structure deeply integrated into major loops with the cerebral cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord. The cerebellum shows a complex regional organization consisting of modules with sagittal orientation. The cerebellum takes part in motor control and its lesions cause a movement incoordination syndrome called ataxia. Recent observations also imply involvement of the cerebellum in cognition and executive control, with an impact on pathologies like dyslexia and autism. The cerebellum operates as a forward controller learning to predict the precise timing of correlated events...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Rong Li, Sudhanshu Sahu, Melitta Schachner
BACKGROUND: Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 contributes to nervous system development and maintenance by promoting neuronal survival, neuritogenesis, axonal regrowth/sprouting, myelination, and synapse formation and plasticity. L1 also enhances recovery after spinal cord injury and ameliorates neurodegenerative processes in experimental rodent models. Aiming for clinical translation of L1 into therapy we screened for and functionally characterized in vitro the small organic molecule phenelzine, which mimics characteristic L1 functions...
June 6, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Yuki Kambe, Takashi Kurihara, Atsuro Miyata
Transfer of lactate from astrocytes to neurons is activated when synaptic activity is increased, and this mechanism is now known as the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS), that could account for the coupling between synaptic activity and energy delivery. Many lines of evidence suggested that ANLS contributes to neuronal activation or synaptic plasticity at the cellular level as well as learning/memory and cocaine addiction at the behavioral level. However, the candidate neurotransmitters which evoke ANLS activation are still under discussion...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
Thomas Imahiyerobo, Anas A Minkara, Hiroko Matsumoto, Michael G Vitale
OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) and wound complications between standard and plastic multilayered closure (PMC) in patients with pediatric nonidiopathic scoliosis undergoing primary or revision instrumentation or fusion. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although PMC has been used for adult spine patients as well as infected spinal wound closure, it has not been reported as routine closure in the pediatric nonidiopathic scoliosis population...
July 2018: Spine Deformity
Hisham Mohammed, Edmund R Hollis
The plasticity of sensorimotor systems in mammals underlies the capacity for motor learning as well as the ability to relearn following injury. Spinal cord injury, which both deprives afferent input and interrupts efferent output, results in a disruption of cortical somatotopy. While changes in corticospinal axons proximal to the lesion are proposed to support the reorganization of cortical motor maps after spinal cord injury, intracortical horizontal connections are also likely to be critical substrates for rehabilitation-mediated recovery...
June 7, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Hongmei Zhang, Yan Li, Qing Yang, Xian-Guo Liu, Patrick M Dougherty
Mice with transgenic insertion of code for enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) at the locus for glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), one of two key enzymes for the synthesis of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were used to test whether the morphological properties of these neurons show plasticity with nerve injury. Physiological properties and the delivery of intracellular label to EGFP-expressing lamina II neurons was done using whole-cell patch-clamp in spinal cord slices from sham and chronic constriction injury (CCI) mice...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Daria Guseva, Igor Jakovcevski, Andrey Irintchev, Iryna Leshchyns'ka, Vladimir Sytnyk, Evgeni Ponimaskin, Melitta Schachner
The close homolog of L1 (CHL1) is a cell adhesion molecule involved in regulation of neuronal differentiation and survival, neurite outgrowth and axon guidance during development. In the mature nervous system, CHL1 regulates synaptic activity and plasticity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of CHL1 on peripheral nerve regeneration after trauma. Using the established model of mouse femoral nerve regeneration, CHL1 knock-out mice were investigated in comparison to the wild type littermates...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Dana M Otzel, Jimmy Lee, Fan Ye, Stephen E Borst, Joshua F Yarrow
Neuromuscular impairment and reduced musculoskeletal integrity are hallmarks of spinal cord injury (SCI) that hinder locomotor recovery. These impairments are precipitated by the neurological insult and resulting disuse, which has stimulated interest in activity-based physical rehabilitation therapies (ABTs) that promote neuromuscular plasticity after SCI. However, ABT efficacy declines as SCI severity increases. Additionally, many men with SCI exhibit low testosterone, which may exacerbate neuromusculoskeletal impairment...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Lyandysha Viktorovna Zholudeva, Nisha R Iyer, Liang Qiang, Victoria Marie Spruance, Margo L Randelman, Nicholas W White, Tatiana Bezdudnaya, Itzhak Fischer, Shelly E Sakiyama-Elbert, Michael A Lane
There is growing interest in the use of neural precursor cells to treat spinal cord injury (SCI). Despite extensive preclinical research, it remains unclear as to i) which donor neuron phenotypes are available for transplantation, ii) whether the same populations exist across different sources of donor tissue (e.g. developing tissue vs cultured cells), and iii) whether donor cells retain their phenotype once transplanted into the hostile internal milieu of the injured adult spinal cord. In addition, while functional improvements have been reported after neural precursor transplantation post-SCI, the extent of recovery is limited and variable...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Farahnaz Rezaei Makhouri, Jahan B Ghasemi
BACKGROUND: The acetylated inclusions containing TDP-43 are found in the spinal cord of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients, suggesting that aberrant TDP-43 acetylation and resulting disruption of RNA binding are linked to onset and progression of TDP-43 proteinopathy. METHODS: Here, the consequences of TDP-43 acetylation at Lys145 within the RRM1 domain and Lys192 within the RRM2 domain were studied using experimentally verifiable molecular models, in which lysine residues (K) were substituted with glutamine (Q) as an acetylation mimic (K→Q) and with arginine (R) as a non-mimic (K→R) mutant...
June 4, 2018: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
Nuno Rui Paulino Pereira, Paul T Ogink, Olivier Q Groot, Marco L Ferrone, Francis J Hornicek, C N van Dijk, J A M Bramer, Joseph H Schwab
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Postoperative morbidity may offset the potential benefits of surgical treatment for spine metastatic disease; hence, risk factors for postoperative complications and reoperations should be taken into considerations during surgical decision-making. In addition, it remains unknown whether complications and reoperations shorten these patients' survival. PURPOSE: We aimed to describe and identify factors associated with having a complication within 30 days of index surgery as well as factors associated with having a subsequent reoperation...
June 1, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Isabelle Weinhofer, Bettina Zierfuss, Simon Hametner, Magdalena Wagner, Niko Popitsch, Christian Machacek, Barbara Bartolini, Gerhard Zlabinger, Anna Ohradanova-Repic, Hannes Stockinger, Wolfgang Köhler, Romana Höftberger, Günther Regelsberger, Sonja Forss-Petter, Hans Lassmann, Johannes Berger
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is caused by ATP-binding cassette transporter D1 (ABCD1) mutations and manifests by default as slowly progressive spinal cord axonopathy with associated demyelination (adrenomyloneuropathy). In 60% of male cases, however, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy converts to devastating cerebral inflammation and demyelination (cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy) with infiltrating blood-derived monocytes and macrophages and cytotoxic T cells that can only be stopped by allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation or gene therapy at an early stage of the disease...
May 30, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Abel Torres-Espín, Juan Forero, Keith K Fenrich, Ana M Lucas-Osma, Aleksandra Krajacic, Emma Schmidt, Romana Vavrek, Pamela Raposo, David J Bennett, Phillip G Popovich, Karim Fouad
Rehabilitative training is one of the most successful therapies to promote motor recovery after spinal cord injury, especially when applied early after injury. Polytrauma and management of other medical complications in the acute post-injury setting often preclude or complicate early rehabilitation. Therefore, interventions that reopen a window of opportunity for effective motor training after chronic injury would have significant therapeutic value. Here, we tested whether this could be achieved in rats with chronic (8 weeks) dorsolateral quadrant sections of the cervical spinal cord (C4) by inducing mild neuroinflammation...
May 30, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Nathaniel R Bridges, Michael Meyers, Jonathan Garcia, Patricia A Shewokis, Karen A Moxon
BACKGROUND: Most brain machine interfaces (BMI) focus on upper body function in non-injured animals, not addressing the lower limb functional needs of those with paraplegia. A need exists for a novel BMI task that engages the lower body and takes advantage of well-established rodent spinal cord injury (SCI) models to study methods to improve BMI performance. NEW METHOD: A tilt BMI task was designed that randomly applies different types of tilts to a platform, decodes the tilt type applied and rights the platform if the decoder correctly classifies the tilt type...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Shmma Quraishe, Lindsey H Forbes, Melissa R Andrews
The extracellular environment of the central nervous system (CNS) becomes highly structured and organized as the nervous system matures. The extracellular space of the CNS along with its subdomains plays a crucial role in the function and stability of the CNS. In this review, we have focused on two components of the neuronal extracellular environment, which are important in regulating CNS plasticity including the extracellular matrix (ECM) and myelin. The ECM consists of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and tenascins, which are organized into unique structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs)...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Karen L Bunday, M A Urbin, Monica A Perez
BACKGROUND: Paired corticospinal-motoneuronal stimulation (PCMS) increases corticospinal transmission in humans with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Here, we examine whether increases in the excitability of spinal motoneurons, by performing voluntary activity, could potentiate PCMS effects on corticospinal transmission. METHODS: During PCMS, we used 100 pairs of stimuli where corticospinal volleys evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the hand representation of the primary motor cortex were timed to arrive at corticospinal-motoneuronal synapses of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle ∼1-2 ms before antidromic potentials were elicited in motoneurons by electrical stimulation of the ulnar nerve...
May 9, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Jun Qian, Wei Wu, Wenhui Xiong, Zhi Chai, Xiao-Ming Xu, Xiaoming Jin
Current evaluation of impairment and repair after spinal cord injury (SCI) is largely dependent on behavioral assessment and histological analysis of injured tissue and pathways. Here we evaluated whether transcranial optogenetic mapping of motor cortex could reflect longitudinal structural and functional damage and recovery after SCI. In Thy1-Channelrhodopsin2 transgenic mice, repeated motor mappings were made by recording optogenetically-evoked electromyograms (EMGs) of a hindlimb at baseline and 1 day, and 2, 4, and 6 weeks after mild, moderate, and severe spinal cord contusion...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Max O Krucoff, Jonathan P Miller, Tarun Saxena, Ravi Bellamkonda, Shervin Rahimpour, Stephen C Harward, Shivanand P Lad, Dennis A Turner
Injury to the central nervous system (CNS) can leave patients with devastating neurological deficits that may permanently impair independence and diminish quality of life. Recent insights into how the CNS responds to injury and reacts to critically timed interventions are being translated into clinical applications that have the capacity to drastically improve outcomes for patients suffering from permanent neurological deficits due to spinal cord injury, stroke, or other CNS disorders. The translation of such knowledge into practical and impactful treatments involves the strategic collaboration between neurosurgeons, clinicians, therapists, scientists, and industry...
May 24, 2018: Neurosurgery
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