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Spinal plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454667/pten-expression-in-astrocytic-processes-after-spinal-cord-injury
#1
T V Povysheva, Y O Mukhamedshina, A A Rizvanov, Y A Chelyshev
The role of the Rho/ROCK/PTEN signaling pathway in the regulation of astrocyte function for consolidation/stabilization of the synapse has not been thoroughly studied. In this study, the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) in GFAP-positive astrocytic processes in the ventral horns (VH) of the rat spinal cord has been evaluated in the normal condition and in a delayed period (30 days) after dosed contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) in caudal thoracic segments. In intact rats and at 30 days post-injury (dpi), semi-quantitative immunohistochemical analysis showed that there is approximately 2 folds less synaptophysin reactivity in the motoneuron perikarya than outside the perikarya, i...
February 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451889/effects-of-patterned-peripheral-nerve-stimulation-on-soleus-spinal-motor-neuron-excitability
#2
Samuel Jimenez, Laura Mordillo-Mateos, Michele Dileone, Michela Campolo, Carmen Carrasco-Lopez, Fabricia Moitinho-Ferreira, Tomas Gallego-Izquierdo, Hartwig R Siebner, Josep Valls-Solé, Juan Aguilar, Antonio Oliviero
Spinal plasticity is thought to contribute to sensorimotor recovery of limb function in several neurological disorders and can be experimentally induced in animals and humans using different stimulation protocols. In healthy individuals, electrical continuous Theta Burst Stimulation (TBS) of the median nerve has been shown to change spinal motoneuron excitability in the cervical spinal cord as indexed by a change in mean H-reflex amplitude in the flexor carpi radialis muscle. It is unknown whether continuous TBS of a peripheral nerve can also shift motoneuron excitability in the lower limb...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442555/direct-intertectal-inputs-are-an-integral-component-of-the-bilateral-sensorimotor-circuit-for-behavior-in-xenopus-tadpoles
#3
Abigail C Gambrill, Regina L Faulkner, Hollis T Cline
The circuit controlling visually-guided behavior in non-mammalian vertebrates, like Xenopus tadpoles, includes retinal projections to the contralateral optic tectum, where visual information is processed, and tectal motor outputs projecting ipsilaterally to hindbrain and spinal cord. Tadpoles have an intertectal commissure whose function is unknown, but it might transfer information between the tectal lobes. Differences in visual experience between the two eyes have profound effects on the development and function of visual circuits in animals with binocular vision, but the effects on animals with fully-crossed retinal projections are not clear...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439365/adaptive-motor-cortex-plasticity-following-grip-reconstruction-in-individuals-with-tetraplegia
#4
Lina Bunketorp Käll, Robert J Cooper, Johanna Wangdell, Jan Fridén, Malin Björnsdotter
BACKGROUND: Tendon transfer is a surgical technique for restoring upper limb motor control in patients with cervical spinal cord injuries (SCI), and offers a rare window into cortical neuroplasticity following regained arm and hand function. OBJECTIVE: Here, we aimed to examine neuroplasticity mechanisms related to re-established voluntary motor control of thumb flexion following tendon transfer. METHODS: We used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that restored limb control following tendon transfer is mediated by activation of that limb's area of the primary motor cortex...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439361/voluntary-contraction-enhances-spinal-reciprocal-inhibition-induced-by-patterned-electrical-stimulation-in-patients-with-stroke
#5
Yoko Takahashi, Toshiyuki Fujiwara, Tomofumi Yamaguchi, Hikaru Matsunaga, Michiyuki Kawakami, Kaoru Honaga, Katsuhiro Mizuno, Meigen Liu
BACKGROUND: Reciprocal inhibition (RI) may be important for recovering locomotion after stroke. Patterned electrical stimulation (PES) can modulate RI in a manner that could be enhanced by voluntary muscle contraction (VC). OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether VC enhances the PES-induced spinal RI in patients with stroke. METHODS: Twelve patients with chronic stroke underwent three 20 min tasks, each on different days: (1) PES (10 pulses, 100 Hz every 2 s) applied to the common peroneal nerve; (2) VC consisting of isometric contraction of the affected-side tibialis anterior muscle; (3) PES combined with VC (PES + VC)...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433094/fingolimod-reduces-the-clinical-expression-of-active-demyelinating-lesions-in-ms
#6
Signoriello Elisabetta, Landi Doriana, Monteleone Fabrizia, Saccà Francesco, Nicoletti Carolina Gabri, Buttari Fabio, Sica Francesco, Marfia Girolama Alessandra, Di Iorio Giuseppe, Lus Giacomo, Centonze Diego
BACKGROUND: Fingolimod is a modulator of Central and peripheral sphingosine pathways, which is currently approved for treatment of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). In animal models it reduces inflammation, but it is also able to potentiate glutamatergic transmission and synaptic plasticity. We aimed to explore whether Fingolimod is able to modify the clinical expression of new demyelinating lesions with respect to IFNβ-1a in relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) patients suboptimal responders to IFNβ-1a...
February 5, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430715/characterization-and-comparison-of-rat-monosodium-iodoacetate-and-medial-meniscal-tear-models-of-osteoarthritic-pain
#7
Jill-Desiree Brederson, Katharine L Chu, Jun Xu, Arthur L Nikkel, Stella Markosyan, Michael F Jarvis, Rebecca Edelmayer, Robert S Bitner, Steve McGaraughty
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative form of arthritis that can result in loss of joint function and chronic pain. The pathological pain state that develops with OA disease involves plastic changes in the peripheral and central nervous systems, however, the cellular mechanisms underlying OA are not fully understood. We characterized the medial meniscal tear (MMT) surgical model and the intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) chemical model of OA in rats. Both models produced histological changes in the knee joint and associated bones consistent with OA pathology...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425963/sox9-knockout-mice-have-improved-recovery-following-stroke
#8
Xiaoyun Xu, Bethany Bass, William M McKillop, Janina Mailloux, Tony Liu, Nicole M Geremia, Todd Hryciw, Arthur Brown
The partial recovery that can occur after a stroke has been attributed to structural and functional plasticity that compensate for damage and lost functions. This plasticity is thought to be limited in part by the presence of growth inhibitors in the central nervous system. Blocking or reducing signals from inhibitors of axonal sprouting such as Nogo and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) increases post-stroke axonal sprouting and improves recovery. We previously identified the transcription factor SOX9 as a key up-regulator of CSPG production and demonstrated that conditional Sox9 ablation leads to increased axonal sprouting and improved recovery after spinal cord injury...
February 6, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417050/d-amino-acid-oxidase-plg72-interaction-and-d-serine-modulation
#9
REVIEW
Loredano Pollegioni, Luciano Piubelli, Gianluca Molla, Elena Rosini
pLG72 is a small, primate-specific protein of 153 amino acids. It is the product of the G72 gene, expressed in testis, spinal cord, and brain. The presence of G72 transcript and pLG72 has recurrently been called into question, however G72 mRNA and pLG72 protein levels were higher in blood and brain of patients with schizophrenia than in healthy controls. On the one hand, the SNP rs2391191 corresponding to the R30K substitution in pLG72 was genetically linked to schizophrenia, reduced thickness of the brain cortex in schizophrenia-affected individuals, and altered memory function...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386582/spinal-cholinergic-interneurons-differentially-control-motoneuron-excitability-and-alter-the-locomotor-network-operational-range
#10
Maria Bertuzzi, Konstantinos Ampatzis
While cholinergic neuromodulation is important for locomotor circuit operation, the specific neuronal mechanisms that acetylcholine employs to regulate and fine-tune the speed of locomotion are largely unknown. Here, we show that cholinergic interneurons are present in the zebrafish spinal cord and differentially control the excitability of distinct classes of motoneurons (slow, intermediate and fast) in a muscarinic dependent manner. Moreover, we reveal that m2-type muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are present in fast and intermediate motoneurons, but not in the slow motoneurons, and that their activation decreases neuronal firing...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384698/cross-talk-inhibition-between-5-ht2b-and-5-ht7-receptors-in-phrenic-motor-facilitation-via-nadph-oxidase-and-pka
#11
Raphael Rodrigues Perim, Daryl P Fields, Gordon S Mitchell
Intermittent spinal serotonin receptor activation elicits phrenic motor facilitation (pMF), a form of spinal respiratory motor plasticity. Episodic activation of either serotonin type-2 (5-HT2) or 7 (5-HT7) receptors elicits pMF, although they do so via distinct cellular mechanisms known as the Q (5-HT2) and S (5-HT7) pathways to pMF. When co-activated, these pathways interact via mutual, cross-talk inhibition. Although we have a rudimentary understanding of mechanisms mediating cross-talk interactions between spinal 5-HT2 subtype-A (5-HT2A) and 5-HT7 receptor activation, we do not know if similar interactions exist between 5-HT2 subtype-B (5-HT2B) and 5-HT7 receptors...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372544/drug-targets-in-neurotrophin-signaling-in-the-central-and-peripheral-nervous-system
#12
REVIEW
Mahendra Pratap Kashyap, Callie Roberts, Mohammad Waseem, Pradeep Tyagi
Neurotrophins are a family of proteins that play an important role in the regulation of the growth, survival, and differentiation of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system. Neurotrophins were earlier characterized by their role in early development, growth, maintenance, and the plasticity of the nervous system during development, but recent findings also indicate their complex role during normal physiology in both neuronal and non-neuronal tissues. Therefore, it is important to recognize a deficiency in the expression of neurotrophins, a major factor driving the debilitating features of several neurologic and psychiatric diseases/disorders...
January 25, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355954/comprehensive-analysis-of-area-specific-and-time-dependent-changes-in-gene-expression-in-the-motor-cortex-of-macaque-monkeys-during-recovery-from-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Noriyuki Higo, Akira Sato, Tatsuya Yamamoto, Takao Oishi, Yukio Nishimura, Yumi Murata, Hirotaka Onoe, Tadashi Isa, Toshio Kojima
The present study aimed to assess the molecular bases of cortical compensatory mechanisms following spinal cord injury in primates. To accomplish this, comprehensive changes in gene expression were investigated in the bilateral primary motor cortex (M1), dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), and ventral premotor cortex (PMv) after a unilateral lesion of the lateral corticospinal tract (l-CST). At 2 weeks after the lesion, a large number of genes exhibited altered expression levels in the contralesional M1, which is directly linked to the lesioned l-CST...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351171/spinal-pkc-erk-signal-pathway-mediates-hyperalgesia-priming
#14
Wei-Hsin Chen, Ya-Ting Chang, Yong-Cyuan Chen, Sin-Jhong Cheng, Chien-Chang Chen
Chronic pain can be initiated by one or more acute stimulations to sensitize neurons into the primed state. In the primed state, the basal nociceptive thresholds of the animal are normal, but in response to another hyperalgesic stimulus, the animal develops enhanced and prolonged hyperalgesia. The exact mechanism of how primed state is formed is not completely understood. Here we showed that spinal PKC/ERK signal pathway is required for neuronal plasticity change, hyperalgesic priming formation and the development of chronic hyperalgesia using acid-induced muscle pain (AIMP) model in mice...
January 18, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350595/motor-network-recovery-in-patients-with-chronic-spinal-cord-compression-a-longitudinal-study-following-decompression-surgery
#15
Kayla Ryan, Sandy Goncalves, Robert Bartha, Neil Duggal
OBJECTIVE The authors used functional MRI to assess cortical reorganization of the motor network after chronic spinal cord compression and to characterize the plasticity that occurs following surgical intervention. METHODS A 3-T MRI scanner was used to acquire functional images of the brain in 22 patients with reversible cervical spinal cord compression and 10 control subjects. Controls performed a finger-tapping task on 3 different occasions (baseline, 6-week follow-up, and 6-month follow-up), whereas patients performed the identical task before surgery and again 6 weeks and 6 months after spinal decompression surgery...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346102/impedance-measures-during-in-vitro-cochlear-implantation-predict-array-positioning
#16
Christopher Kenneth Giardina, Elliot Samuel Krause, Kanthaiah Koka, Douglas Carl Fitzpatrick
OBJECTIVE: Improper electrode placement during cochlear implant (CI) insertion can adversely affect speech perception outcomes. However, the intraoperative methods to determine positioning are limited. Because measures of electrode impedance can be made quickly, the goal of this study was to assess the relationship between CI impedance and proximity to adjacent structures. METHODS: An Advanced Bionics CI array was inserted into a clear, plastic cochlea one electrode contact at a time in a saline bath (nine trials)...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335430/transspinal-direct-current-stimulation-produces-persistent-plasticity-in-human-motor-pathways
#17
Lynda M Murray, Behdad Tahayori, Maria Knikou
The spinal cord is an integration center for descending, ascending, and segmental neural signals. Noninvasive transspinal stimulation may thus constitute an effective method for concomitant modulation of local and distal neural circuits. In this study, we established changes in cortical excitability and input/output function of corticospinal and spinal neural circuits before, at 0-15 and at 30-45 minutes after cathodal, anodal, and sham transspinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) to the thoracic region in healthy individuals...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323046/non-concomitant-cortical-structural-and-functional-alterations-in-sensorimotor-areas-following-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Yu Pan, Wei-Bei Dou, Yue-Heng Wang, Hui-Wen Luo, Yun-Xiang Ge, Shu-Yu Yan, Quan Xu, Yuan-Yuan Tu, Yan-Qing Xiao, Qiong Wu, Zhuo-Zhao Zheng, Hong-Liang Zhao
Brain plasticity, including anatomical changes and functional reorganization, is the physiological basis of functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). The correlation between brain anatomical changes and functional reorganization after SCI is unclear. This study aimed to explore whether alterations of cortical structure and network function are concomitant in sensorimotor areas after incomplete SCI. Eighteen patients with incomplete SCI (mean age 40.94 ± 14.10 years old; male:female, 7:11) and 18 healthy subjects (37...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323029/environmental-cues-determine-the-fate-of-astrocytes-after-spinal-cord-injury
#19
REVIEW
Fatima M Nathan, Shuxin Li
Reactive astrogliosis occurs after central nervous system (CNS) injuries whereby resident astrocytes form rapid responses along a graded continuum. Following CNS lesions, naïve astrocytes are converted into reactive astrocytes and eventually into scar-forming astrocytes that block axon regeneration and neural repair. It has been known for decades that scarring development and its related extracellular matrix molecules interfere with regeneration of injured axons after CNS injury, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms for controlling astrocytic scar formation and maintenance are not well known...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318865/-advances-in-acupuncture-mechanism-research-on-the-changes-of-synaptic-plasticity-pain-memory-for-chronic-pain
#20
Yi-Ling Yang, Jian-Peng Huang, Li Jiang, Jian-Hua Liu
Previous studies have shown that there are many common structures between the neural network of pain and memory, and the main structure in the pain network is also part of the memory network. Chronic pain is characterized by recurrent attacks and is associated with persistent ectopic impulse, which causes changes in synaptic structure and function based on nerve activity. These changes may induce long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission, and ultimately lead to changes in the central nervous system to produce "pain memory"...
December 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
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