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Spinal plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814632/intermittent-apnea-elicits-inactivity-induced-phrenic-motor-facilitation-via-a-retinoic-acid-and-protein-synthesis-dependent-pathway
#1
Nathan A Baertsch, Tracy L Baker
Respiratory motoneuron pools must provide rhythmic inspiratory drive that is robust and reliable, yet dynamic enough to respond to respiratory challenges. One form of plasticity that is hypothesized to contribute to motor output stability by sensing and responding to inadequate respiratory neural activity is inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation (iPMF), an increase in inspiratory output triggered by a reduction in phrenic synaptic inputs. Evidence suggests that mechanisms giving rise to iPMF differ depending on the pattern of reduced respiratory neural activity (i...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799866/proprioception-and-flexibility-profiles-of-elite-synchronized-swimmers
#2
Nora M Y Cho, Hedda P Giorgi, Karen P Y Liu, Young-Hyeon Bae, Louisa M Y Chung, Kitchana Kaewkaen, Shirley S M Fong
This study compared the full-body flexibility and joint proprioception (on land and underwater) of (a) 20 elite female synchronized swimmers (mean age ± standard deviation = 18.5 ± 1.9 years) and (b) 20 college female swim team members with no training in synchronized swimming (control participants; mean age ± standard deviation = 20.6 ± 1.3 years). Flexibility of the trunk and upper and lower limbs was measured using plastic tape and a goniometer, respectively. Joint proprioception (joint position sense) of the upper and lower limbs on land and underwater was measured by an active joint angle repositioning test...
January 1, 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782901/the-effects-of-memory-training-on-behavioral-and-microstructural-plasticity-in-young-and-older-adults
#3
Ann-Marie Glasø de Lange, Anne Cecilie Sjøli Bråthen, Darius A Rohani, Håkon Grydeland, Anders M Fjell, Kristine B Walhovd
Age differences in human brain plasticity are assumed, but have not been systematically investigated. In this longitudinal study, we investigated changes in white matter (WM) microstructure in response to memory training relative to passive and active control conditions in 183 young and older adults. We hypothesized that (i) only the training group would show improved memory performance and microstructural alterations, (ii) the young adults would show larger memory improvement and a higher degree of microstructural alterations as compared to the older adults, and (iii) changes in memory performance would relate to microstructural alterations...
August 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782263/regulation-of-synaptic-scaling-by-action-potential-independent-miniature-neurotransmission
#4
REVIEW
Carlos Gonzalez-Islas, Pernille Bülow, Peter Wenner
Synaptic scaling represents a homeostatic adjustment in synaptic strength that was first identified as a cell-wide mechanism to achieve firing rate homeostasis after perturbations to spiking activity levels. In this review, we consider a form of synaptic scaling that is triggered by changes in action potential-independent neurotransmitter release. This plasticity appears to be both triggered and expressed locally at the dendritic site of the synapse that experiences a perturbation. A discussion of different forms of scaling triggered by different perturbations is presented...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776155/how-plastic-are-human-spinal-cord-motor-circuitries
#5
REVIEW
Lasse Christiansen, Jesper Lundbye-Jensen, Monica A Perez, Jens Bo Nielsen
Human and animal studies have documented that neural circuitries in the spinal cord show adaptive changes caused by altered supraspinal and/or afferent input to the spinal circuitry in relation to learning, immobilization, injury and neurorehabilitation. Reversible adaptations following, e.g. the acquisition or refinement of a motor skill rely heavily on the functional integration between supraspinal and sensory inputs to the spinal cord networks. Accordingly, what is frequently conceived as a change in the spinal circuitry may be a change in either descending or afferent input or in the relative integration of these, i...
August 3, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767505/age-dependent-plasticity-in-endocannabinoid-modulation-of-pain-processing-through-postnatal-development
#6
Charlie H-T Kwok, Ian M Devonshire, Amer Imraish, Charles M Greenspon, Stevie Lockwood, Catherine Fielden, Andrew Cooper, Stephen Woodhams, Sarir Sarmad, Catherine A Ortori, David A Barrett, David Kendall, Andrew J Bennett, Victoria Chapman, Gareth J Hathway
Significant age and experience-dependent remodelling of spinal and supraspinal neural networks occur resulting in altered pain responses in early life. In adults endogenous opioid peptide and endocannabinoid (ECs) pain control systems exist which modify pain responses but the role they play in acute responses to pain and postnatal neurodevelopment is unknown. Here we have studied the changing role of the ECs in brainstem nuclei essential for the control of nociception from birth to adulthood in both rat and human...
August 1, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760862/myelinogenic-plasticity-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-following-spinal-cord-contusion-injury
#7
P Assinck, G J Duncan, J R Plemel, M J Lee, J S Stratton, S B Manesh, J Liu, L M Ramer, S H Kang, D E Bergles, J Biernaskie, W Tetzlaff
Spontaneous remyelination occurs after spinal cord injury (SCI), but the extent of myelin repair and identity of the cells responsible remain incompletely understood and contentious. We assessed the cellular origin of new myelin by fate mapping PDGFRα+, Olig2+, and P0+ cells following contusion SCI in mice. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs; PDGFRα+) produced oligodendrocytes responsible for de novo ensheathment of ∼30% of myelinated spinal axons at injury epicenter three months after SCI, demonstrating that these resident cells are a major contributor to oligodendrocyte regeneration...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751456/intermittent-hypoxia-enhances-functional-connectivity-of-mid-cervical-spinal-interneurons
#8
K A Streeter, M D Sunshine, S Patel, E J Gonzalez-Rothi, P J Reier, D M Baekey, D D Fuller
Brief, intermittent oxygen reductions (acute intermittent hypoxia, AIH) evokes spinal plasticity. Models of AIH-induced neuroplasticity have focused on motoneurons; however, most mid-cervical interneurons (C-INs) also respond to hypoxia. We hypothesized that AIH would alter the functional connectivity between C-INs and induce persistent changes in discharge. Bilateral phrenic nerve activity was recorded in anesthetized and ventilated adult male rats and a multi-electrode array was used to record C4/5 spinal discharge before (baseline, BL), during, and 15 min after 3, 5-min hypoxic episodes (11% O2, H1-H3)...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743726/why-new-spinal-cord-plasticity-does-not-disrupt-old-motor-behaviors
#9
Yi Chen, Lu Chen, Yu Wang, Xiang Yang Chen, Jonathan R Wolpaw
When new motor learning changes the spinal cord, old behaviors are not impaired; their key features are preserved by additional, compensatory, plasticity. To explore the mechanisms responsible for this compensatory plasticity, we transected the spinal dorsal ascending tract (DA) before or after female rats acquired a new behavior -- operantly conditioned increase or decrease in the right soleus H-reflex - and examined an old behavior - locomotion. Neither DA transection nor H-reflex conditioning alone impaired locomotion...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741434/robot-applied-resistance-augments-the-effects-of-body-weight-supported-treadmill-training-on-stepping-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-a-rodent-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Erika Hinahon, Christina Estrada, Lin Tong, Deborah S Won, Ray D de Leon
BACKGROUND: The application of resistive forces has been used during body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) to improve walking function after spinal cord injury (SCI). Whether this form of training actually augments the effects of BWSTT is not yet known. OBJECTIVE: To determine if robotic-applied resistance augments the effects of BWSTT using a controlled experimental design in a rodent model of SCI. METHODS: Spinally contused rats were treadmill trained using robotic resistance against horizontal (n = 9) or vertical (n = 8) hind limb movements...
July 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724781/muscle-disuse-caused-by-botulinum-toxin-injection-leads-to-increased-central-gain-of-the-stretch-reflex-in-the-rat
#11
Jessica Pingel, Hans Hultborn, Lui Naslund-Koch, Dennis Bo Jensen, Jacob Wienecke, Jens Bo Nielsen
Botulinum toxin (Btx) is used in children with cerebral palsy and other neurological patients to diminish spasticity and reduce the risk of development of contractures. Here, we investigated changes in the central gain of the stretch reflex circuitry in response to botulinum toxin injection in the triceps surae muscle in rats. Experiments were performed in 21 rats. 8 rats were in a control group and 13 rats were injected with 6 IU of Btx in the left triceps surae muscle. Two weeks after Btx injection larger monosynaptic reflexes (MSR) were recorded from the left (injected) than the right (non-injected) L4 + L5 ventral roots following stimulation of the corresponding dorsal roots...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720382/activated-leukocyte-cell-adhesion-molecule-is-involved-in-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-and-plasticity-in-the-rat-spinal-dorsal-horn
#12
Eun-Sung Park, Sang-Min Jeon, Haein Weon, Hee-Jung Cho, Dong-Ho Youn
Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), a member of type I transmembrane immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecule, is expressed in the surface membrane of various cell types including neurons. In the spinal cord dorsal horn (DH), the first gate for the sensory and pain transmission to the brain, the expression and function of ALCAM have not been known yet. Therefore, we here investigate the synaptic function of ALCAM in the substantia gelatinosa (lamina II) of the spinal DH, as well as its expression in the DH...
July 15, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716844/microglia-control-the-glycinergic-but-not-the-gabaergic-synapses-via-prostaglandin-e2-in-the-spinal-cord
#13
Yasmine Cantaut-Belarif, Myriam Antri, Rocco Pizzarelli, Sabrina Colasse, Ilaria Vaccari, Sylvia Soares, Marianne Renner, Radhouane Dallel, Antoine Triller, Alain Bessis
Microglia control excitatory synapses, but their role in inhibitory neurotransmission has been less well characterized. Herein, we show that microglia control the strength of glycinergic but not GABAergic synapses via modulation of the diffusion dynamics and synaptic trapping of glycine (GlyR) but not GABAA receptors. We further demonstrate that microglia regulate the activity-dependent plasticity of glycinergic synapses by tuning the GlyR diffusion trap. This microglia-synapse cross talk requires production of prostaglandin E2 by microglia, leading to the activation of neuronal EP2 receptors and cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715613/isolation-and-characterization-of-canine-placenta-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-for-the-treatment-of-neurological-disorders-in-dogs
#14
Connor Long, Lee Lankford, Priyadarsini Kumar, Robert Grahn, Dori L Borjesson, Diana Farmer, Aijun Wang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating disorder that affects humans and dogs. The prognosis of SCI depends on the severity of the injury and can include varying levels of motor and sensory deficits including devastating paraplegia and quadriplegia. Placental mesenchymal stromal cells (PMSCs) have been shown to improve wound healing and possess neuroprotective and immunomodulatory capabilities, but have not yet been clinically tested for the treatment of SCI. This study established a protocol to isolate fetal PMSCs from canine placentas and characterized their paracrine secretion profile and ability to stimulate neurons in vitro to assess their potential as a treatment option for neurological disorders in dogs...
July 17, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714852/the-small-molecule-mimetic-agonist-trimebutine-of-adhesion-molecule-l1-contributes-to-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-mice
#15
Junping Xu, Chengliang Hu, Qiong Jiang, Hongchao Pan, Huifan Shen, Melitta Schachner
Curing spinal cord injury (SCI) in mammals is a daunting task because of the lack of permissive mechanisms and strong inhibitory responses at and around the lesion. The neural cell adhesion molecule L1CAM (L1) has been shown to favor axonal regrowth and enhance neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity, and thus constitutes a viable target to promote regeneration after SCI. Since delivery of full-length L1 or its extracellular domain could encounter difficulties in translation to therapy in humans, we have identified several small organic compounds that bind to L1 and stimulate neuronal survival, neuronal migration, and neurite outgrowth in an L1-dependent manner...
July 14, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711602/contribution-of-5-ht2a-receptors-on-diaphragmatic-recovery-after-chronic-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Kun-Ze Lee, Elisa J Gonzalez-Rothi
Unilateral C2 spinal cord hemisection (C2Hx) interrupts bulbospinal respiratory pathways innervating ipsilateral phrenic motoneurons, resulting in cessation of ipsilateral diaphragm motor output. Plasticity within the spinal neural circuitry controlling the diaphragm can induce partial recovery of phrenic bursting which correlates with the time-dependent return of spinal serotonin (5-HT) immunoreactivity in the vicinity of phrenic motoneurons. The 5-HT2A receptor subtype is present on phrenic motoneurons and its expression is up-regulated after cervical spinal cord injury; however the functional role of these receptors following injury has not been clearly defined...
July 12, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708760/reactive-oxygen-species-affect-spinal-cell-type-specific-synaptic-plasticity-in-a-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#17
Alice Bittar, Jaebeom Jun, Jun-Ho La, Jigong Wang, Joong Woo Leem, Jin Mo Chung
Spinal synaptic plasticity is believed to drive central sensitization that underlies the persistent nature of neuropathic pain. Our recent data showed that synaptic plasticity in the dorsal horn is cell type-specific: intense afferent stimulation produced long-term potentiation (LTP) in excitatory spinothalamic tract neurons (STTn), whereas it produced long-term depression (LTD) in inhibitory GABAergic interneurons (GABAn). In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were shown to be involved in LTP in STTn (STTn-LTP) as well as in LTD in GABAn (GABAn-LTD)...
July 11, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706475/focal-stroke-in-the-developing-rat-motor-cortex-induces-age-and-experience-dependent-maladaptive-plasticity-of-corticospinal-system
#18
Mariangela Gennaro, Alessandro Mattiello, Raffaele Mazziotti, Camilla Antonelli, Lisa Gherardini, Andrea Guzzetta, Nicoletta Berardi, Giovanni Cioni, Tommaso Pizzorusso
Motor system development is characterized by an activity-dependent competition between ipsilateral and contralateral corticospinal tracts (CST). Clinical evidence suggests that age is crucial for developmental stroke outcome, with early lesions inducing a "maladaptive" strengthening of ipsilateral projections from the healthy hemisphere and worse motor impairment. Here, we investigated in developing rats the relation between lesion timing, motor outcome and CST remodeling pattern. We induced a focal ischemia into forelimb motor cortex (fM1) at two distinct pre-weaning ages: P14 and P21...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705495/glial-associated-changes-in-the-cerebral-cortex-after-collagenase-induced-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-the-rat-striatum
#19
J D Neves, D Aristimunha, A F Vizuete, F Nicola, C Vanzella, L Petenuzzo, R G Mestriner, E F Sanches, C A Gonçalves, C A Netto
Striatum and the cerebral cortex are regions susceptible to secondary injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and glial cells in tissue adjacent to the hematoma may modulate cellular vulnerability after brain damage. Nonetheless, while the glial- associated changes occurring in the cerebral cortex after ICH may be important in maximizing brain recovery, they are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the temporal profile of glial-associated changes in the cerebral cortex after ICH. First, the motor consequences of ICH and its relation to the lesion volume were analyzed...
July 10, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702736/changes-in-the-axon-terminals-of-primary-afferents-from-a-single-vibrissa-in-the-rat-trigeminal-nuclei-after-active-touch-deprivation-or-exposure-to-an-enriched-environment
#20
Julia Fernández-Montoya, Yasmina B Martin, Pilar Negredo, Carlos Avendaño
Lasting modifications of sensory input induce structural and functional changes in the brain, but the involvement of primary sensory neurons in this plasticity has been practically ignored. Here, we examine qualitatively and quantitatively the central axonal terminations of a population of trigeminal ganglion neurons, whose peripheral axons innervate a single mystacial vibrissa. Vibrissa follicles are heavily innervated by myelinated and unmyelinated fibers that exit the follicle mainly through a single deep vibrissal nerve...
July 12, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
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