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Lucia Mincheva-Nilsson, Vladimir Baranov, Olga Nagaeva, Eva Dehlin
Exosomes are specialized, nanometer-sized extracellular vesicles of endosomal origin actively secreted into the extracellular space by a variety of cells under normal and pathological conditions. Exosomes have recently emerged as important intercellular communicators and modulators of diverse mechanisms and cellular responses. Characterization of their composition and function will open possibilities for new diagnostic methods and promising therapeutic approaches based on nanobiology. This unit provides a standard isolation procedure for purification of exosomes based on density gradient ultracentrifugation with sucrose...
November 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Immunology
Lothar Leidner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Jun-Ying Wang, Jie Chen, Jiang Yang, Hao Wang, Xiu Shen, Yuan-Ming Sun, Meili Guo, Xiao-Dong Zhang
Gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) have exhibited great advantages in medical diagnostics and therapies due to their efficient renal clearance and high tumor uptake. The in vivo effects of the surface chemistry of Au NCs are important for the development of both nanobiological interfaces and potential clinical contrast reagents, but these properties are yet to be fully investigated. In this study, we prepared glutathione-protected Au NCs of a similar hydrodynamic size but with three different surface charges: positive, negative, and neutral...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Lorena Parlea, Anu Puri, Wojciech Kasprzak, Eckart Bindewald, Paul Zakrevsky, Emily Satterwhite, Kenya Joseph, Kirill A Afonin, Bruce A Shapiro
RNA nanostructures can be programmed to exhibit defined sizes, shapes and stoichiometries from naturally occurring or de novo designed RNA motifs. These constructs can be used as scaffolds to attach functional moieties, such as ligand binding motifs or gene expression regulators, for nanobiology applications. This review is focused on four areas of importance to RNA nanotechnology: the types of RNAs of particular interest for nanobiology, the assembly of RNA nanoconstructs, the challenges of cellular delivery of RNAs in vivo, and the delivery carriers that aid in the matter...
September 12, 2016: ACS Combinatorial Science
Lorena G Parlea, Blake A Sweeney, Maryam Hosseini-Asanjan, Craig L Zirbel, Neocles B Leontis
RNA 3D motifs occupy places in structured RNA molecules that correspond to the hairpin, internal and multi-helix junction "loops" of their secondary structure representations. As many as 40% of the nucleotides of an RNA molecule can belong to these structural elements, which are distinct from the regular double helical regions formed by contiguous AU, GC, and GU Watson-Crick basepairs. With the large number of atomic- or near atomic-resolution 3D structures appearing in a steady stream in the PDB/NDB structure databases, the automated identification, extraction, comparison, clustering and visualization of these structural elements presents an opportunity to enhance RNA science...
July 1, 2016: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Zhenghong Gao, Juan A Varela, Laurent Groc, Brahim Lounis, Laurent Cognet
In the multidisciplinary fields of nanobiology and nanomedicine, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have shown great promise due to their unique morphological, physical and chemical properties. However, understanding and suppressing their cellular toxicity is a mandatory step before promoting their biomedical applications. In light of the flourishing recent literature, we provide here an extensive review on SWCNT cellular toxicity and an attempt to identify the key parameters to be considered in order to obtain SWCNT samples with minimal or no cellular toxicity...
February 2016: Biomaterials Science
Sing Ling Chia, Chor Yong Tay, Magdiel I Setyawati, David T Leong
While matter at the nanoscale can be manipulated, the knowledge of the interactions between these nanoproducts and the biological systems remained relatively laggard. Current nanobiology study is rooted on in vitro study using conventional 2D cell culture model. A typical study employs monolayer cell culture that simplifies the real context of which to measure any nanomaterial effect; unfortunately, this simplification also demonstrated the limitations of 2D cell culture in predicting the actual biological response of some tissues...
February 3, 2016: Small
Hooria Seyedhosseini Ghaheh, Maryam Mousavi, Mahmood Araghi, Reza Rasoolzadeh, Zahra Hosseini
BACKGROUND: Influenza H1N1 is very important worldwide and point mutations that occur in the virus gene are a threat for the World Health Organization (WHO) and druggists, since they could make this virus resistant to the existing antibiotics. Influenza epidemics cause severe respiratory illness in 30 to 50 million people and kill 250,000 to 500,000 people worldwide every year. Nowadays, drug design is not done through trial and error because of its cost and waste of time; therefore bioinformatics studies is essential for designing drugs...
2015: Advanced Biomedical Research
Kristine N Brazin, Robert J Mallis, Dibyendu Kumar Das, Yinnian Feng, Wonmuk Hwang, Jia-Huai Wang, Gerhard Wagner, Matthew J Lang, Ellis L Reinherz
The αβTCR was recently revealed to function as a mechanoreceptor. That is, it leverages mechanical energy generated during immune surveillance and at the immunological synapse to drive biochemical signaling following ligation by a specific foreign peptide-MHC complex (pMHC). Here, we review the structural features that optimize this transmembrane (TM) receptor for mechanotransduction. Specialized adaptations include (1) the CβFG loop region positioned between Vβ and Cβ domains that allosterically gates both dynamic T cell receptor (TCR)-pMHC bond formation and lifetime; (2) the rigid super β-sheet amalgams of heterodimeric CD3εγ and CD3εδ ectodomain components of the αβTCR complex; (3) the αβTCR subunit connecting peptides linking the extracellular and TM segments, particularly the oxidized CxxC motif in each CD3 heterodimeric subunit that facilitates force transfer through the TM segments and surrounding lipid, impacting cytoplasmic tail conformation; and (4) quaternary changes in the αβTCR complex that accompany pMHC ligation under load...
2015: Frontiers in Immunology
Jessica D Sims, Jae Youn Hwang, Shawn Wagner, Felix Alonso-Valenteen, Chris Hanson, Jan Michael Taguiam, Richard Polo, Ira Harutyunyan, Gevorg Karapetyan, Karn Sorasaenee, Ahmed Ibrahim, Eduardo Marban, Rex Moats, Harry B Gray, Zeev Gross, Lali K Medina-Kauwe
Water-soluble corroles with inherent fluorescence can form stable self-assemblies with tumor-targeted cell penetration proteins, and have been explored as agents for optical imaging and photosensitization of tumors in pre-clinical studies. However, the limited tissue-depth of excitation wavelengths limits their clinical applicability. To examine their utility in more clinically-relevant imaging and therapeutic modalities, here we have explored the use of corroles as contrast enhancing agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and evaluated their potential for tumor-selective delivery when encapsulated by a tumor-targeted polypeptide...
November 10, 2015: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
K Babin, D M Goncalves, D Girard
BACKGROUND: Some reports indicate that NPs are ingested by cells via different mechanisms, including phagocytosis. In contrast, the direct role of NPs on the phagocytic process is not well documented. The aim of this study was to determine if titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), zinc oxide (ZnO) and cerium dioxide (CeO(2)) NPs, could alter the ability of neutrophils to exert phagocytosis. METHODS: Freshly isolated human neutrophils were incubated with NPs and their ability to phagocytose opsonized sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) or fluorescent latex beads (LBs) was assessed by optical and fluorescence microscopy, respectively...
November 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Sudesna Chakravarty, Dilip Saikia, Priyanka Sharma, Nirab Chandra Adhikary, Debajit Thakur, Neelotpal Sen Sarma
The development of a rapid, label free, cost effective and highly efficient sensor for DNA detection is of great importance in disease diagnosis. Herein, we have reported a new hybrid fluorescent probe based on a cationic curcumin-tryptophan complex and water soluble mercapto succinic acid (MSA) capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) for the detection of double stranded DNA (ds DNA) molecules. The cationic curcumin-tryptophan complex (CT) directly interacts with negatively charged MSA capped quantum dots via electrostatic coordination, resulting in photoluminescence (PL) quenching of QDs via the Photoinduced Electron Transfer (PET) process...
December 21, 2014: Analyst
Subhajit B Purnapatra, Kavya Mohan, Partha P Mondal
We develop an optical system for generating multiple light sheets. This is enabled by employing a special class of spatial filters in a cylindrical lens geometry. The proposed binary filter placed at the back aperture of the cylindrical lens results in the generation of a periodic transverse pattern extending along the z axis (i.e., multiple light sheets). Experimental results confirm the generation of multiple light sheets of thickness 6.6 μm with an intersheet spacing of 13.4 μm. The proposed imaging technique may facilitate three-dimensional imaging in nano-optics, fluorescence microscopy, and nanobiology...
August 15, 2014: Optics Letters
D N Artamonov, V V Korzhova, O L Vlasova, I B Bezprozvannyi
Optogenetics is a modern nanobiological approaches allowing modulation of the physiological status of electrostimulated cells, including the neurons. The optogenetic approach was used to evaluate the efficiency of synaptic transmission between the neurons in a mixed corticostriatal culture. Synaptic contacts between the cortical and striatal neurons forming in a mixed culture could be modulated by the opticogenetic methods. Studies of the synaptic interactions between the neurons were essential for understanding the disease mechanisms, and therefore, this method seemed to be promising for biomedical studies...
July 2014: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Daniel F Moyano, Krishnendu Saha, Gyan Prakash, Bo Yan, Hao Kong, Mahdieh Yazdani, Vincent M Rotello
A protein corona is formed at the surface of nanoparticles in the presence of biological fluids, masking the surface properties of the particle and complicating the relationship between chemical functionality and biological effects. We present here a series of zwitterionic NPs of variable hydrophobicity that do not adsorb proteins at moderate levels of serum protein and do not form hard coronas at physiological serum concentrations. These particles provide platforms to evaluate nanobiological behavior such as cell uptake and hemolysis dictated directly by chemical motifs at the nanoparticle surface...
July 22, 2014: ACS Nano
Zairin Noor
Hydroxyapatite is chemically related to the inorganic component of bone matrix as a complex structure with the formula of Ca10(OH)2(PO4)6. Previous studies have reported the application of microsized hydroxyapatite to bone regeneration, but the result is not satisfied. The limitation comes from the size of hydroxyapatite. In addition, the duration of treatment is very long. The advantages of hydroxyapatite nanocrystal are the osteoconduction, bioresorption, and contact in close distance. Crystal in osteoporotic bone is calcium phosphate hydroxide with the chemical formula of Ca10(OH)2(PO4)6...
2013: Journal of Osteoporosis
Nobuo Shimamoto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2013: Chemical Reviews
Xu Wang, Jia-Tong Chen, Haomiao Zhu, Xueyuan Chen, Xiu-Ping Yan
Bionanoparticles and nanostructures with high biocompatibility and stability, low toxicity, diversification of imaging modality, and specificity of targeting to desired organs or cells are of great interest in nanobiology and medicine. However, integrating all of these desired features into a single bionanoparticle, which can be applied to biomedical applications and eventually in clinical prediagnosis and therapy, is still a challenge. We herein report a facile one-step solvothermal approach to fabricate targetable and biocompatible β-NaYF4:Yb,Gd,Tm upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) with bimodal-signals (near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence and magnetic resonance (MR) signals) using hyaluronic acid (HA) as a multifunctional molecule...
November 5, 2013: Analytical Chemistry
Soumen Das, Janet M Dowding, Kathryn E Klump, James F McGinnis, William Self, Sudipta Seal
Promising results have been obtained using cerium (Ce) oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) as antioxidants in biological systems. CNPs have unique regenerative properties owing to their low reduction potential and the coexistence of both Ce(3+)/Ce(4+) on their surfaces. Defects in the crystal lattice due to the presence of Ce(3+) play an important role in tuning the redox activity of CNPs. The surface Ce(3+):Ce(4+) ratio is influenced by the microenvironment. Therefore, the microenvironment and synthesis method adopted also plays an important role in determining the biological activity and toxicity of CNPs...
September 2013: Nanomedicine
Katrin Quester, M Avalos-Borja, E Castro-Longoria
Nanobiotechnology, bionanotechnology, and nanobiology are terms that have emerged in reference to the combination of nanotechnology and biology. Through the convergence of these disciplines, the production of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) using biological material as reducing agents is rapidly progressing. In the near future, the application of clean, non-toxic, and eco-friendly nanostructured material will be possible in industry and/or biomedicine. Currently, there is a wide range of organisms that have been reported to be useful in producing NPs...
November 2013: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
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