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Federico Gramazio, Matteo Lorenzoni, Francesc Pérez-Murano, Laura Evangelio, Jordi Fraxedas
The determination of nanomechanical properties is an intensive topic of study in several fields of nanophysics, from surface and materials science to biology. At the same time, amplitude modulation force microscopy is one of the most established techniques for nanoscale characterization. In this work, we combine these two topics and propose a method able to extract quantitative nanomechanical information from higher harmonic amplitude imaging in atomic force microscopy. With this method it is possible to discriminate between different materials in the stiffness range of 1-3 GPa, in our case thin films of PS-PMMA based block copolymers...
April 2018: Ultramicroscopy
M Kociak, A Gloter, O Stéphan
The new generation of spectromicroscopes opens up new fields of nanophysics. Beyond the impressive spatial and spectral resolutions delivered by these new instruments - an obvious example being the Hermes machine conceived, designed and built by O. L. Krivanek, who is honoured in this journal issue - here we wish to address the motivations and conditions required to get the best out of them. We first coarsely sketch the panorama of physical excitations worth motivating the use of ultra-high resolution spectroscopy techniques in STEMs...
March 29, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
B Förg, J Schötz, F Süßmann, M Förster, M Krüger, B Ahn, W A Okell, K Wintersperger, S Zherebtsov, A Guggenmos, V Pervak, A Kessel, S A Trushin, A M Azzeer, M I Stockman, D Kim, F Krausz, P Hommelhoff, M F Kling
The promise of ultrafast light-field-driven electronic nanocircuits has stimulated the development of the new research field of attosecond nanophysics. An essential prerequisite for advancing this new area is the ability to characterize optical near fields from light interaction with nanostructures, with sub-cycle resolution. Here we experimentally demonstrate attosecond near-field retrieval for a tapered gold nanowire. By comparison of the results to those obtained from noble gas experiments and trajectory simulations, the spectral response of the nanotaper near field arising from laser excitation can be extracted...
2016: Nature Communications
Davide Mandelli, Erio Tosatti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2015: Nature
Ingo Barke, Hannes Hartmann, Daniela Rupp, Leonie Flückiger, Mario Sauppe, Marcus Adolph, Sebastian Schorb, Christoph Bostedt, Rolf Treusch, Christian Peltz, Stephan Bartling, Thomas Fennel, Karl-Heinz Meiwes-Broer, Thomas Möller
The diversity of nanoparticle shapes generated by condensation from gaseous matter reflects the fundamental competition between thermodynamic equilibration and the persistence of metastable configurations during growth. In the kinetically limited regime, intermediate geometries that are favoured only in early formation stages can be imprinted in the finally observed ensemble of differently structured specimens. Here we demonstrate that single-shot wide-angle scattering of femtosecond soft X-ray free-electron laser pulses allows three-dimensional characterization of the resulting metastable nanoparticle structures...
2015: Nature Communications
S M Teichmann, P Rácz, M F Ciappina, J A Pérez-Hernández, A Thai, J Fekete, A Y Elezzabi, L Veisz, J Biegert, P Dombi
We investigated nonlinear photoemission from plasmonic films with femtosecond, mid-infrared pulses at 3.1 μm wavelength. Transition between regimes of multi-photon-induced and tunneling emission is demonstrated at an unprecedentedly low intensity of <1 GW/cm(2). Thereby, strong-field nanophysics can be accessed at extremely low intensities by exploiting nanoscale plasmonic field confinement, enhancement and ponderomotive wavelength scaling at the same time. Results agree well with quantum mechanical modelling...
2015: Scientific Reports
Volkan Müjdat Tiryaki, Virginia M Ayres, Ijaz Ahmed, David I Shreiber
AIM: To investigate the directive importance of nanophysical properties on the morphological and protein expression responses of dibutyryladenosine cyclic monophosphate (dBcAMP)-treated cerebral cortical astrocytes in vitro. MATERIALS & METHODS: Elasticity and work of adhesion characterizations of culture surfaces were performed using atomic force microscopy and combined with previous surface roughness and polarity results. The morphological and biochemical differentiation of dBcAMP-treated astrocytes cultured on promising nanofibrillar scaffolds and comparative culture surfaces were investigated by immunocytochemistry, colocalization, super resolution microscopy and atomic force microscopy...
March 2015: Nanomedicine
Daniel Riveline
At scales below micrometers, Brownian motion dictates most of the behaviors. The simple observation of a colloid is striking: a permanent and random motion is seen, whereas inertial forces play a negligible role. This Physics, where velocity is proportional to force, has opened new horizons in biology. The random feature is challenged in living systems where some proteins--molecular motors--have a directed motion whereas their passive behaviors of colloid should lead to a Brownian motion. Individual proteins, polymers of living matter such as DNA, RNA, actin or microtubules, molecular motors, all these objects can be viewed as chains of colloids...
2013: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Jérémie Léonard, Didier Rouxel, Pascal Hébraud
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2013: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
H A Fertig, Luis Brey
Electrons in graphene at low energy obey a two-dimensional Dirac equation, closely analogous to that of neutrinos. As a result, quantum mechanical effects when the system is confined or subjected to potentials at the nanoscale may be quite different from what happens in conventional electronic systems. In this article, we review recent progress on two systems where this is indeed the case: quantum rings and graphene electrons in a superlattice potential. In the former case, we demonstrate that the spectrum reveals signatures of 'effective time-reversal symmetry breaking', in which the spectra are most naturally interpreted in terms of effective magnetic flux contained in the ring, even when no real flux is present...
December 13, 2010: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Alberto Diaspro, Athanassia Athanassiou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2010: Microscopy Research and Technique
Siegfried Reipert, Józefa Wesierska-Gadek, Sebastian Wienerroither
Lipids undergo self-assembly to form ordered nonlamellar, nanoperiodic arrays both in vitro and in vivo. While engineering of such membrane arrays for technical devices is envisaged, we know little about their cellular function. Do they represent building blocks of an inherent cellular nanotechnology? Prospects for answering this question could be improved if the nanophysical properties of the membrane arrays could be studied in the context of specific cellular functions. Therefore, we draw attention to exceptional complex membrane arrays found in the renal epithelial cell line PtK2 that could provide perfect conditions for both biophysical and cell functional studies...
June 28, 2010: PMC Biophysics
M Youssef, G Mahler, A-S F Obada
Motivated by the growing interest in the nanophysics and the field of quantum thermodynamics we study an open quantum system consisting of two spatially separated two-level atoms (spins) coupled to a quantum oscillator (resonator field mode). There is no external driving. The spins of different energy splittings are each linked to a heat bath with different temperature. We find that the temperature gradient imposed on the system together with the oscillator operating as a kind of work reservoir makes this system act as a thermodynamic machine, in particular, as a heat engine (laser)...
December 2009: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Salvatore Santoli
Current criteria in Bionanotechnology based on software and sensor/actuator hardware of Artificial Intelligence for bioinspired nanostructured systems lack the nanophysical background and key mathematics to describe and mimick the biological hierarchies of nano-to-micro-integrated informational/energetic levels. It is argued that bionanoscale hardware/software undividable solidarity can be mimicked by artificial nanostructured systems featuring intra/interlevel information processing through the emerging organization principle of quantum holography, described by the Heisenberg group G and by harmonic analysis on G...
February 2009: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
F Pullara, A Emanuele, M B Palma-Vittorelli, M U Palma
The interest of nucleation of protein crystals and aggregates (including oligomerization) spans from basic physics theory all the way to biophysics, nanophysics, clinical sciences, biotechnologies, food technologies and polymer-solvent interactions. Understanding nucleation within a theoretical framework capable of providing quantitative predictions and control of nucleation rates, or even the very occurrence of crystallization, is a long-sought goal of remarkable relevance to each of the above fields. A large amount of work has been aimed at such goal, but success has been so far rather limited...
2008: Faraday Discussions
K P Gaikovich
The scanning tomography method is developed for electromagnetic sounding of a 3D structure of an inhomogeneous dielectric half-space. It is shown that known methods of physical diagnostics are suitable for this tomography with the depth of analysis from nanometers at optical frequencies up to several kilometers at ultralow frequencies. The areas of application include nanophysics, biological and medical diagnostics, subsurface remote sensing in geophysics and geology, etc. This approach is realized in the microwave scanning tomography of living tissues where a subwavelength resolution is achieved...
May 4, 2007: Physical Review Letters
Philipp Hugelmann, Werner Schindler
Nanophysics at electrochemical interfaces, probing the physical properties of nanostructures, requires laterally resolved in-situ spectroscopy, in particular voltage tunneling spectroscopy (VTS), which is at present not yet established. In-situ spectroscopy is required to achieve reliable and reproducible measurements of the intrinsic properties of nanostructures in an electrochemical environment, which are mainly determined in small nanostructures by surface atoms rather than bulk atoms. In contrast to tunneling spectroscopy in ultrahigh vacuum, tip and substrate double-layer capacitances as well as Faradaic currents play an important role in voltage tunneling spectroscopy at electrochemical interfaces...
April 7, 2005: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
F Piazza, P De Los Rios, Y-H Sanejouand
Many systems in the realm of nanophysics from both the living and the inorganic world display slow relaxation kinetics of energy fluctuations. In this Letter we propose a general explanation for such a phenomenon, based on the effects of interactions with the solvent. Within a simple harmonic model of the system fluctuations, we demonstrate that the inhomogeneity of coupling to the solvent of the bulk and surface atoms suffices to generate a complex spectrum of decay rates. We show for myoglobin and for a metal nanocluster that the result is a complex, nonexponential relaxation dynamics...
April 15, 2005: Physical Review Letters
Christian Joachim
Nanomaterials, nanostructures, nanostructured materials, nanoimprint, nanobiotechnology, nanophysics, nanochemistry, radical nanotechnology, nanosciences, nanooptics, nanoelectronics, nanorobotics, nanosoldiers, nanomedecine, nanoeconomy, nanobusiness, nanolawyer, nanoethics to name a few of the nanos. We need a clear definition of all these burgeoning fields for the sake of the grant attribution, for the sake of research program definition, and to avoid everyone being lost in so many nanos.
February 2005: Nature Materials
A N Cleland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 16, 2004: Nature
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