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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426519/toward-a-universal-antiretroviral-regimen-special-considerations-of-pregnancy-and-breast-feeding
#1
Amy L Slogrove, Polly Clayden, Elaine J Abrams
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As optimized antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens are prepared for introduction in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC), we consider the current evidence related to dosing, efficacy and safety during pregnancy and breastfeeding of next-generation first-line and second-line ART regimens proposed for imminent introduction in the global marketplace. RECENT FINDINGS: Pregnancy pharmacokinetic considerations include potentially insufficient efavirenz exposure if dosed at 400 mg/day, the need for twice daily darunavir dosing and the paucity of data related to tenofovir alafenamide and dolutegravir dosing, safety and efficacy...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424186/circulating-concentrations-of-biomarkers-and-metabolites-related-to-vitamin-status-one-carbon-and-the-kynurenine-pathways-in-us-nordic-asian-and-australian-populations
#2
Øivind Midttun, Despoina Theofylaktopoulou, Adrian McCann, Anouar Fanidi, David C Muller, Klaus Meyer, Arve Ulvik, Wei Zheng, Xiao-Ou Shu, Yong-Bing Xiang, Ross Prentice, Cynthia A Thomson, Mary Pettinger, Graham G Giles, Allison Hodge, Qiuyin Cai, William J Blot, Jie Wu, Mikael Johansson, Johan Hultdin, Kjell Grankvist, Victoria L Stevens, Marjorie L McCullough, Stephanie J Weinstein, Demetrius Albanes, Arnulf Langhammer, Kristian Hveem, Marit Næss, Howard D Sesso, J Michael Gaziano, Julie E Buring, I-Min Lee, Gianluca Severi, Xuehong Zhang, Jiali Han, Meir J Stampfer, Stephanie A Smith-Warner, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Loic le Marchand, Jian-Min Yuan, Lesley M Butler, Woon-Puay Koh, Renwei Wang, Yu-Tang Gao, Ulrika Ericson, Emily Sonestedt, Regina G Ziegler, Neal D Freedman, Kala Visvanathan, Miranda R Jones, Caroline Relton, Paul Brennan, Mattias Johansson, Per M Ueland
Background: Circulating concentrations of biomarkers that are related to vitamin status vary by factors such as diet, fortification, and supplement use. Published biomarker concentrations have also been influenced by the variation across laboratories, which complicates a comparison of results from different studies.Objective: We robustly and comprehensively assessed differences in biomarkers that are related to vitamin status across geographic regions.Design: The trial was a cross-sectional study in which we investigated 38 biomarkers that are related to vitamin status and one-carbon and tryptophan metabolism in serum and plasma from 5314 healthy control subjects representing 20 cohorts recruited from the United States, Nordic countries, Asia, and Australia, participating in the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423949/intranasal-chitosan-g-hp%C3%AE-cd-nanoparticles-of-efavirenz-for-the-cns-targeting
#3
Aarti Belgamwar, Shagufta Khan, Pramod Yeole
Incompetence of antiretrovirals (ARV) in complete eradication of HIV from the CNS is the biggest issue in neuro-AIDS treatment. The ineffectiveness is largely due to the poor penetration of ARV. Hence, the present study is attempted to enhance the CNS uptake of efavirenz (EFV) by designing intranasal EFV nanoparticles (EFV-NPs). EFV-NPs were fabricated using chitosan-g-HPβCD by ionic gelation method and optimized using quadratic response surface methodology (RSM) employing two-factor, five-level circumscribed central composite design...
April 19, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422809/associations-between-dietary-intake-prior-to-6-months-of-age-and-rapid-weight-gain-among-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#4
Daniela Neri, Fernanda C Oliveira, Aline M Carvalho, Gabriel A Somarriba, Gwendolyn B Scott, Tracie L Miller
INTRODUCTION: HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants are potentially at risk for cardiovascular disease due to in utero exposures. Feeding practices of the infant could compound this risk. However, few studies have evaluated dietary intake of HEU infants. We determined dietary factors associated with rapid weight gain (RWG) among HEU infants from birth to 6 months followed at the University of Miami HIV Screening Program. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis, logistic regression was used to determine dietary factors associated with RWG defined as a greater than 0...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422610/joint-bent-cable-tobit-models-for-longitudinal-and-time-to-event-data
#5
Getachew A Dagne
In this article, we show how to estimate a transition period for the evolvement of drug resistance to antiretroviral (ARV) drug or other related treatments in the framework of developing a Bayesian method for jointly analyzing time to event and longitudinal data. For HIV/AIDS longitudinal data, developmental trajectories of viral loads tend to show a gradual change from a declining trend after initiation of treatment to an increasing trend without an abrupt change. Such characteristics of trajectories are also associated with a time-to-event process...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418986/performance-of-virological-testing-for-early-infant-diagnosis-a-systematic-review
#6
Divya Mallampati, Nathan Ford, Alisse Hanaford, Nandita Sugandhi, Martina Penazzato
BACKGROUND: Improved access to both maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART) and infant prophylaxis may have an impact on the performance of virological assays for diagnosis of HIV infection in infants. This systematic review was performed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of virological testing at birth as well as the performance of virological testing on dried-blood spots at 6-weeks amongst HIV- and ARV-exposed infants. METHODS: A systematic review was performed for studies published between January 1, 2009 and January 30, 2015...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406033/the-impact-of-hiv-antiretroviral-treatment-perception-on-risky-sexual-behaviour-in-botswana-a-short-report
#7
Gobopamang Letamo, Mpho Keetile, Kannan Navaneetham
The aim of this article is to investigate the impact of ART perception on risky sexual behaviours in Botswana. Using binary logistic regression analysis controlling for individual characteristics, the results tend to support the hypothesis that ART misconceptions do not necessarily increase risky sexual behaviours. In particular, the study findings suggest the belief that ARVs cure HIV and AIDS and that people on ARVs should not always use condoms do not necessarily lead to increased risky sexual behaviours, particularly among women...
April 13, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403027/candidates-for-inclusion-in-a-universal-antiretroviral-regimen-tenofovir-alafenamide
#8
Dzintars Gotham, Andrew Hill, Anton L Pozniak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is a standard first-line therapy for HIV. Recently, tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), a different prodrug for the same active moiety, has been approved. In this review, we have conducted a meta-analysis comparing efficacy and safety data for TDF and TAF, to inform a discussion of which drug would be best for a proposed 'universal antiretroviral (ARV) regimen'. RECENT FINDINGS: We identified 10 randomized controlled trials comparing TDF with TAF (6969 patients, 8043 patient-years of follow-up)...
April 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398774/hiv-persistence-in-galt-pharmacological-challenges-and-opportunities
#9
Corbin Thompson, Cynthia L Gay, Angela Kashuba
An increasing amount of evidence suggests that HIV replication persists in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) despite treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Residual replication in this compartment may propagate infection at other sites in the body and contribute to sustained immune dysregulation and delayed immune recovery. Therefore, it is important to focus efforts on eliminating residual replication at this site. There are several challenges to accomplishing this goal, including low antiretroviral (ARV) exposure at specific tissue locations within GALT, which might be overcome using the tools of clinical pharmacology...
February 28, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395171/the-validity-of-the-gait-variability-index-for-individuals-with-mild-to-moderate-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Linda Rennie, Espen Dietrichs, Rolf Moe-Nilssen, Arve Opheim, Erika Franzén
Increased step-to-step variability is a feature of gait in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) and is associated with increased disease severity and reductions in balance and mobility. The Gait Variability Index (GVI) quantifies gait variability in spatiotemporal variables where a score ≥100 indicates a similar level of gait variability as the control group, and lower scores denote increased gait variability. The study aim was to explore mean GVI score and investigate construct validity of the index for individuals with mild to moderate PD...
March 31, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388302/genome-wide-association-and-replication-study-of-hepatotoxicity-induced-by-antiretrovirals-alone-or-with-concomitant-anti-tuberculosis-drugs
#11
Zelalem Petros, Ming Ta Michael Lee, Atsushi Takahashi, Yanfei Zhang, Getnet Yimer, Abiy Habtewold, Ina Schuppe-Koistinen, Taisei Mushiroda, Eyasu Makonnen, Michiaki Kubo, Eleni Aklillu
Drug-induced hepatotoxicity (DIH) is a common adverse event that is associated with both antiretroviral (ARV) and anti-tuberculosis drugs (ATD). Moreover, the genetic variations predisposing ARV- and ARV-ATD-induced liver toxicity in African populations are not well investigated, despite the two diseases being the major global health problems in sub-Saharan Africa. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and replication study to identify the genetic variants linked to the risk of developing DIH due to ARV drugs alone, and ARV-ATD co-treatment in Ethiopian HIV-positive patients...
April 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385477/espen-guideline-clinical-nutrition-in-surgery
#12
Arved Weimann, Marco Braga, Franco Carli, Takashi Higashiguchi, Martin Hübner, Stanislaw Klek, Alessandro Laviano, Olle Ljungqvist, Dileep N Lobo, Robert Martindale, Dan L Waitzberg, Stephan C Bischoff, Pierre Singer
Early oral feeding is the preferred mode of nutrition for surgical patients. Avoidance of any nutritional therapy bears the risk of underfeeding during the postoperative course after major surgery. Considering that malnutrition and underfeeding are risk factors for postoperative complications, early enteral feeding is especially relevant for any surgical patient at nutritional risk, especially for those undergoing upper gastrointestinal surgery. The focus of this guideline is to cover nutritional aspects of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) concept and the special nutritional needs of patients undergoing major surgery, e...
March 7, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383299/a-cost-savings-analysis-of-a-candidate-universal-antiretroviral-regimen
#13
David Ripin, Vineet R Prabhu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite significant strides in tackling HIV/AIDS in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), many treatment shortcomings remain, with limited drug selection to patients emerging as a critical challenge. The potential cost-savings benefits of adopting newer drugs as near-universal first-line antiretroviral (ARV) regimens that also provide improved clinical outcomes are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: In the near term, a fixed-dose combination of dolutegravir (DTG or D) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), and either lamivudine or emtricitabine (XTC), that is, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/XTC/DTG (TXD) (X = XTC), could represent a near-universal first-line antiretroviral regimen offering significant clinical benefit, commodity savings, and overall health system savings...
April 5, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381531/ratios-of-one-carbon-metabolites-are-functional-markers-of-b-vitamin-status-in-a-norwegian-coronary-angiography-screening-cohort
#14
Arve Ulvik, Steinar Hustad, Adrian McCann, Øivind Midttun, Ottar K Nygård, Per M Ueland
Background: Functional (metabolic) markers of B-vitamin status, including plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) for folate and plasma methylmalonic acid (MMA) for vitamin B-12, suffer from moderate sensitivity and poor specificity. Ratios of metabolites belonging to the same pathway may have better performance characteristics.Objective: We evaluated the ratios of tHcy to total cysteine (tCys; Hcy:Cys), tHcy to creatinine (Hcy:Cre), and tHcy to tCys to creatinine (Hcy:Cys:Cre) as functional markers of B-vitamin status represented by a summary score composed of folate, cobalamin, betaine, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), and riboflavin concentrations measured in plasma...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380417/prospects-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-activation-in-the-treatment-of-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#15
Julia Gehrig, Silke Kaulfuß, Hubertus Jarry, Felix Bremmer, Mark Stettner, Peter Burfeind, Paul Thelen
Advanced prostate cancer can develop into castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). This process is mediated either by intratumoral ligand synthesis or by mutations or aberrations of the androgen receptor (AR) or its cofactors. To date, no curative therapy for CRPC is available, as AR-targeted therapies eventually result in the development of resistance. The human prostate cancer cell line VCaP (vertebral cancer of the prostate) overexpresses AR and its splice variants (ARVs) as a mechanism of resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) of external and intratumoral origin...
March 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376825/antiretroviral-therapy-supply-chain-quality-control-and-assurance-in-improving-people-living-with-hiv-therapeutic-outcomes-in-cameroon
#16
M P Ngogang Djobet, David Singhe, Julienne Lohoue, Christopher Kuaban, Jeanne Ngogang, Ernest Tambo
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of medication efficacy and safety is an essential guarantee to successful therapeutic outcome in public health practices. However, larger distribution chain supply in developing countries such as Cameroon is often challenged by counterfeit drugs, poor manufacturing, storage and degradation leading to health and patient adverse consequences. Yet, access to supply chain management in strengthening ARVs quality assurance and outcomes remains poorly documented. More than 53,000 patients have been enrolled on free ARVs medications, but little is documented on quality assurance and validity of safety for affected populations along the supply chain management since 2008...
April 4, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375551/phenotypic-characterization-of-regulatory-t-cells-from-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-1-infected-people
#17
Georgia N Ambada, Claudine E Ntsama, Nadesh N Nji, Loveline N Ngu, Sake N Carole, Abel Lissom, Flaurent T Tchouangeu, Jules Tchadji, Martin Sosso, François-Xavier Etoa, Godwin W Nchinda
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a key role in dampening excessive immune activation. However antiretroviral (ARV) naive HIV-1 infection maintains the immune system in a sustained state of activation that could alter both Tregs surface markers and functions. Since Tregs surface markers are directly linked to their functions the overall objective of this study was to determine how ARV naïve HIV infection affects the phenotypic properties of Tregs. Our data showed that in ARV naive HIV-1 infection, Tregs are dominated by effector (CD45RA(+) CD27(-) CCR7(-) CD62L(-) ) and effector memory (CD45RA(-) CD27(-) CCR7(-) CD62L(-) ) cells...
April 4, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371940/comparison-of-the-berg-balance-scale-and-the-mini-bestest-for-assessing-balance-in-ambulatory-people-with-spinal-cord-injury-validation-study
#18
Vivien Jørgensen, Arve Opheim, Alexandra Halvarsson, Erika Franzén, Kirsti Skavberg Roaldsen
Background.: The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) has several constraints-ceiling effect, low responsiveness, and uncertain predictability of falls-in neurological populations. The Mini-BESTest, which has not yet been validated in spinal cord injury (SCI) populations, has shown no ceiling effect, slightly better responsiveness, and could in some neurological populations predict falls. Objective.: Validate and compare psychometric performances of the BBS and Mini-BESTest in individuals with chronic SCI...
March 24, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370504/cyp1a1m1-and-cyp2c9-2-and-3-polymorphism-and-risk-to-develop-arv-associated-hepatotoxicity-and-its-severity
#19
HariOm Singh, Sonam Lata, Vijay Nema, Dharmesh Samani, Manisha Ghate, Raman R Gangakhedkar
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors are metabolized in the liver by cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes. Variations in the genes encoding these enzymes may influence the activity of corresponding metabolizing enzymes. This study aimed at assessing association of CYP2C9*2 430C/T, CYP2C9*31075A/C, and CYP1A1m1 3801T/C polymorphism with risk to develop ARV Antiretroviral-associated hepatotoxicity and its severity. In this case-control study, genotyping of CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, and CYP1A1m1 genes was done in 34 HIV-infected individuals with hepatotoxicity and 131 without hepatotoxicity, and 153 unrelated healthy individuals using PCR-RFLP...
April 3, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368493/updated-data-on-linkage-to-human-immunodeficiency-virus-care-and-antiretroviral-treatment-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-20-cities-united-states
#20
Brooke E Hoots, Teresa J Finlayson, Cyprian Wejnert, Gabriela Paz-Bailey
We examined differences in prevalence of linkage to care and antiretroviral (ARV) treatment among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) between 2008 and 2014 in National HIV Behavioral Surveillance. Prevalence of linkage to care increased from 79% in 2008 to 87% in 2014 (prevalence ratio [PR], 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.07). ARV treatment increased from 69% in 2008 to 88% in 2014 (adjusted PR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.12-1.18). Despite these increases, a large disparity in ARV treatment between white and black MSM remains...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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