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Andrea A Kim, Thomas Rehle
BACKGROUND: A recent infection testing algorithm (RITA) that includes a test for recent HIV infection and a viral load (VL) test is the recommended strategy to estimate population-level HIV incidence, reducing false-recent misclassification to <1%. The inclusion of information on exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART), as a supplement to VL testing, could improve RITA performance by further lowering false-recent misclassification of true long-term infection. METHODS: In 2012, Kenya and South Africa conducted national population-based surveys that collected information on HIV recency (i...
June 21, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Rasmus Elbæk Andersen, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Pascal Madeleine
Vibroarthrography (VAG) has been proposed as a diagnostic tool for knee joint disorders. The methodological aspects of VAG assessments, such as sensor placement and outcomes measures have not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sensor placement and the effect of the knee extension and flexion movements using different added loads on six parameters extracted from VAGs of asymptomatic subjects. We hypothesized non-uniform distribution of VAGs during knee movement resulting from the underlying biomechanical features...
June 21, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Kashif Iqbal, Ya-Lin A Huang, Philip Peters, Paul Weidle, Karen Hoover
In 2012, antiretroviral (ARV) treatment guidelines expanded indications and recommended antiretroviral treatment for all HIV-infected persons in the United States, regardless of CD4 cell count. This analysis describes ARV prescriptions among commercially insured HIV-infected adults from 2012 to 2014. We analyzed persons aged 18-64 years from 2012 to 2014 Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters® database. We identified HIV-infected persons who had at least one inpatient or two outpatient medical claims and identified pharmacy claims using National Drug Codes...
June 20, 2018: AIDS Care
Christina Lumbantoruan, Michelle Kermode, Aloisius Giyai, Agnes Ang, Margaret Kelaher
BACKGROUND: Despite a more proactive approach to reducing new HIV infections in infants through lifelong treatment (Option B+ policy) for infected pregnant women, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) has not been fully effective in Papua, Indonesia. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is the second greatest risk factor for HIV infection in the community, and an elimination target of <1% MTCT has not yet been achieved. The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the implementation of Option B+ for PMTCT in Papua through investigation of facilitators and barriers to women's uptake and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the program...
2018: PloS One
Stig Arve Sæther, Tomas Peterson, Vazjwar Matin
The relative age effect (RAE) has been found among youth elite athletes within a range of sports. However, the RAE has been studied to a lesser degree among youth non-elite athletes, and even less among school pupils attending sport specialisation programmes (SSPs). The aim of the present study was to investigate RAE, height, and weight, and compare Swedish lower secondary school and Norwegian upper secondary school pupils. Study 1 includes 156 lower secondary school athletes (95 boys and 61 girls) following an SSP in Sweden, while study 2 includes 111 upper secondary school athletes (81 boys and 30 girls) from two Norwegian schools...
December 8, 2017: Sports
Hung-Chuan Chiu, Wei-Ru Huang, Tsai-Ling Liao, Pei-I Chi, Brent L Nielsen, Jyung-Hurng Liu, Hung-Jen Liu
The avian reovirus (ARV) p17 protein is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein. Although we have demonstrated that p17 causes cell growth retardation via activation of p53, the precise mechanisms remains unclear. This is the first report that ARV p17 possesses broad inhibitory effects on cell-cycle CDKs, cyclins, CDK/cyclin complexes, and CDK activating kinase (CAK) activity in various mammalian, avian, and cancer cell lines. Suppression of CDK activity by p17 occurs by direct binding to CDKs, cyclins, and CDK/cyclin complexes, transcriptional downregulation of CDKs, cytoplasmic retention of CDKs and cyclins, and inhibition of CAK activity by promoting p53/cyclin H interaction...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Kaelo K Seatla, Ava Avalos, Sikhulile Moyo, Madisa Mine, Thabo Diphoko, Mosepele Mosepele, Tendani Gaolatlhe, Christopher F Rowley, Dinah Ramaabya, Joseph N Jarvis, Ishmael Kasvosve, Simani Gaseitsiwe
There is limited data on the effectiveness of Dolutegravir (DTG) based combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in real life settings in southern Africa where HIV-1C predominates. We report here a patient infected with HIV-1C on DTG based ART previously exposed to raltegravir who developed multidrug resistance mutations to four ARV classes. There is need for drug resistance monitoring and clinical vigilance to ensure effectiveness of HIV treatment programmes even in the era of DTG based ART.
June 11, 2018: AIDS
Subhra Mandal, Guobin Kang, Pavan Kumar Prathipati, Wenjin Fan, Qingsheng Li, Christopher J Destache
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients are often diagnosed in the chronic stage of HIV/AIDS. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has improved quality of life for HIV-infected patients. Present study describes a novel long-acting parenteral formulation of combination antiretroviral (cARV) loaded nano-drugs for treating chronic HIV-1 (cHIV) in a humanized-BLT (hu-BLT) mice model. The cARV (elvitegravir+tenofovir alafenamide+emtricitabine; EVG+TAF+FTC) drugs (mimicking marketed Genvoya® one-pill for HIV-treatment) were encapsulated in poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (NPs)...
June 6, 2018: Antiviral Research
Keith Dunn, Marie-Hélène Lafeuille, Xiaolong Jiao, Hela Romdhani, Bruno Emond, Kimberly Woodruff, Jacqueline Pesa, Neeta Tandon, Patrick Lefebvre
BACKGROUND: Adherence to antiretrovirals (ARVs) is critical to achieving durable virologic suppression. OBJECTIVE: To investigate risk factors of poor adherence and the effect of suboptimal adherence on health care resource utilization (HCRU) and costs in Medicaid patients. METHODS: A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted using Medicaid data. Adults (aged ≥ 18 years) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 initiating selected ARVs (index date) were identified...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Susan Kamal, Paul Nulty, Olivier Bugnon, Matthias Cavassini, Marie P Schneider
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with low or high antiretroviral (ARV) adherence through computational text analysis of an adherence enhancing programme interview reports. METHODS: Using text from 8428 interviews with 522 patients, we constructed a term-frequency matrix for each patient, retaining words that occurred at least ten times overall and used in at least six interviews with six different patients. The text included both the pharmacist's and the patient's verbalizations...
May 17, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
Amsalu Bokore, Belay Korme, Getu Bayisa
BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality; because of this it continues to be a major global public health concern. It has believed to kill more than 34 million lives so far. Sub Saharan Africa constitutes about 70% of people living with HIV among the 37 million on the globe. This region, accounted for more than two third of the global new HIV infections and about 15 million (40%) were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the end of 2014 throught the world...
June 5, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
HariOm Singh, R R Gangakhedkar
The genetic variations in APOBEC3G gene are correlated with HIV disease progression. These variations differ in different ethnic groups. The prevalence of APOBEC3G (-90C/G, -571G/C) variations have not been studied in Indian population. Hence, we assessed the occurrence of APOBEC3G polymorphisms in HIV patients and its association with acquisition of HIV and disease progression. Polymorphisms in APOBEC3G were genotyped in a total of 153 HIV patients, naïve to ARV and 156 healthy controls by PCR-RFLP method...
June 1, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Harinder Singh Chahal, Peter Capella, Ryan Presto, Jeffrey S Murray, Martin Shimer, Mary Lou Valdez, Peter G Lurie
Background: Since 2004, the US Food and Drug Administration's (USFDA) dedicated drug review process in support of President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has made safe, effective and quality antiretrovirals (ARVs) available for millions of patients. Furthermore, the WHO and Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) can add the USFDA-reviewed products to their respective formularies, through a novel process of 'one-way reliance'. We assessed the number of ARVs made available through WHO and Global Fund based on the USFDA review...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Cheewanan Lertpiriyasuwat, Achara Teeraratkul, Yolsilp Suchonwanich, Nartlada Chatharojwong, Kunjanakorn Phokasawad, Porntip Yuktanon, Naparat Pattarapayoon, Sorakij Bhakeecheep, Silvia Bertagnolio, Thierry H Roels, Sombat Thanprasertsuk
Objective: To describe trends in Thailand's antiretroviral treatment (ART) program performance assessed by HIV drug resistance early warning indicators (EWIs), as recommended by WHO, between 2009 and 2013. Material and Method: Seven EWIs were monitored, viral load (VL) testing coverage, VL suppression, retention in ART, lost to follow-up (LTFU), antiretrovirals (ARVs) dispensing practices, on-time pill pick-up, and pharmacy stock-outs. Data from ART adult patients in National Health Security Office Scheme were analyzed except for pharmacy stock-outs, which were reported from hospitals...
September 2017: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
Martine Enger, Stein Arve Skjaker, Knut Melhuus, Lars Nordsletten, Are Hugo Pripp, Stefan Moosmayer, Jens Ivar Brox
INTRODUCTION: Shoulder injuries are commonly encountered in emergency departments. In spite of this, the epidemiology is only partly known, and soft tissue injuries in particular remain unclear. The aim of this study was to obtain an overview of shoulder injuries in a general population cohort, and to estimate the relative proportion of the main injury categories soft tissue injuries, fractures and dislocations, as well as their variation with age and gender. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We registered prospectively all patients admitted with a suspected shoulder injury at a combined casualty and primary health care facility during one year...
May 22, 2018: Injury
Gülsüm Özkan, Sonat Pınar Kara, Çiğdem Fidan, Savaş Güzel, Şükrü Ulusoy
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a widespread disease involving frequent thrombotic complications. Blood pressure variability (BPV) has recently been shown to be associated with end-organ damage and cardiovascular events. However, the pathogenesis of the relation between BPV and cardiovascular events has not yet been explained. Soluble endothelial protein C (sEPCR) exhibits a procoagulant effect by reducing the anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory effects of protein C and activated protein C...
May 31, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
HariOm Singh, Dharmesh Samani, Vijay Nema, Manisha V Ghate, R R Gangakhedkar
The severity of hepatic injury depends upon cytokines. Previous studies associated IL-1RN allele 2 with IL-1β production. Hence, we examined the association of IL-1 RN and IL-1β polymorphisms with ARV-associated hepatotoxicity. Genotyping of IL-1RN (VNTR), IL-1β (-511C/T) polymorphisms was done in 162 HIV-infected patients, 34 with ARV hepatotoxicity, 128 without hepatotoxicity, and 152 healthy controls using PCR and PCR-RFLP method. The haplotypes 1T and 2C enhanced the risk for severe hepatotoxicity (OR = 1...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
John Kinuthia, Benson Singa, Christine J McGrath, Beryne Odeny, Agnes Langat, Abraham Katana, Lucy Ng'ang'a, Jillian Pintye, Grace John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programs usually test pregnant women for HIV without involving their partners. Non-disclosure of maternal HIV status to male partners may deter utilization of PMTCT interventions since partners play a pivotal role in decision-making within the home including access to and utilization of health services. METHODS: Mothers attending routine 6-week and 9-month infant immunizations were enrolled at 141 maternal and child health (MCH) clinics across Kenya from June-December 2013...
May 30, 2018: BMC Public Health
Nelsensius Klau Fauk, Anastasia Suci Sukmawati, Pius Almindu Leki Berek, Ernawati, Elisabeth Kristanti, Sri Sunaringsih Ika Wardojo, Isaias Budi Cahaya, Lillian Mwanri
BACKGROUND: Frequent engagement of men in sexual encounters with female sex workers (FSWs) without using condoms places them at a high risk for HIV infection. HIV testing has been noted to be among important strategies to prevent HIV transmission and acquisition. However, it is known that not all men willingly undertake an HIV test as a way to prevent HIV transmission and/or acquisition. This study aimed to identify barriers to accessing HIV testing services among men who are clients of FSWs (clients) in Belu and Malaka districts, Indonesia...
May 30, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
Iyiola Faturiyele, Dimitris Karletsos, Keletso Ntene-Sealiete, Alfred Musekiwa, Mantiti Khabo, Marethabile Mariti, Phetole Mahasha, Thembisile Xulu, Pedro T Pisa
BACKGROUND: HIV treatment and care for migrants is affected by their mobility and interaction with HIV treatment programs and health care systems in different countries. To assess healthcare needs, preferences and accessibility barriers of HIV-infected migrant populations in high HIV burden, borderland districts of Lesotho. METHODS: We selected 15 health facilities accessed by high patient volumes in three districts of Maseru, Leribe and Mafeteng. We used a mixed methods approach by administering a survey questionnaire to consenting HIV infected individuals on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and utilizing a purposive sampling procedure to recruit health care providers for qualitative in-depth interviews across facilities...
May 29, 2018: BMC Public Health
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