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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813038/prostate-cancer-a-variety-of-therapy-arvs-mediate-ddr
#1
Louise Stone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810826/improving-fold-resistance-prediction-of-hiv-1-against-protease-and-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-using-artificial-neural-networks
#2
Olivier Sheik Amamuddy, Nigel T Bishop, Özlem Tastan Bishop
BACKGROUND: Drug resistance in HIV treatment is still a worldwide problem. Predicting resistance to antiretrovirals (ARVs) before starting any treatment is important. Prediction accuracy is essential, as low-accuracy predictions increase the risk of prescribing sub-optimal drug regimens leading to patients developing resistance sooner. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are a powerful tool that would be able to assist in drug resistance prediction. In this study, we constrained the dataset to subtype B, sacrificing generalizability for a higher predictive performance, and demonstrated that the predictive quality of the ANN regression models have definite improvement for most ARVs...
August 15, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806350/blood-pressure-variability-is-increasing-from-the-first-to-the-second-day-of-the-interdialytic-interval-in-hemodialysis-patients
#3
Antonios Karpetas, Charalampos Loutradis, Athanasios Bikos, Georgios Tzanis, Georgios Koutroumpas, Antonios A Lazaridis, Konstantinos Mavromatidis, Vassilios Liakopoulos, Aikaterini Papagianni, Pantelis Zebekakis, Luis M Ruilope, Gianfranco Parati, Pantelis A Sarafidis
OBJECTIVES: Patients with end-stage renal-disease under hemodialysis have increased cardiovascular risk and experience severe blood pressure (BP) fluctuations during the dialysis session and the subsequent interdialytic period. BP variability (BPV) may be an additional risk factor for cardiovascular events and preliminary data suggest increased BPV with advancing stages of chronic kidney disease. This is the first study to examine BPV during the whole intradialytic and interdialytic period in hemodialysis patients with ambulatory BP monitoring...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805985/willingness-to-pay-for-antiretroviral-drugs-among-hiv-and-aids-clients-in-south-east-nigeria
#4
Chinyere Mbachu, Chijioke Okoli, Obinna Onwujekwe, Fabian Enabulele
BACKGROUND: The current trend of withdrawal of donor support for HIV/AIDS treatment in Nigeria may require that the cost of antiretroviral drugs be borne in part by infected people and their families. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the economic value for free antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) expressed by clients receiving treatment for HIV/AIDS in a tertiary hospital. STUDY METHOD: The contingent valuation method was used to elicit the values attached to free ARVs from people living with HIV/AIDS that were receiving care in a public tertiary hospital in south-east Nigeria...
August 14, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793074/sustainability-of-arv-provision-in-developing-countries-challenging-a-framework-based-on-program-history
#5
Thiago Botelho Azeredo, Maria Auxiliadora Oliveira, Cláudia Du Bocage Santos-Pinto, Elaine Silva Miranda, Claudia Garcia Serpa Osorio-de-Castro
The provision of ARVs is central to HIV/AIDS programs, because of its impact on the course of the disease and on quality of life. Although first-line treatments costs have declined, treatment-associated expenses are steeper each year. Sustainability is therefore an important variable for the success of treatment programs. A conceptual framework on sustainability of ARV provision was developed, followed by data collection instruments. The pilot study was undertaken in Brazil. Bolivia, Peru and Mozambique, were visited...
August 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791972/hcv-co-infection-is-associated-with-metabolic-abnormalities-among-haart-naive-hiv-infected-persons
#6
M A Kuti, J O Akinyemi, B O Ogunbosi, K M Kuti, O A Adesina, O A Awolude, O S Michael, I F Adewole
OBJECTIVES: To determine the metabolic abnormalities among Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) co infected HAART naïve HIV infected persons within the adult ARV clinic of the University College Hospital/University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria Methods: This was a retrospective study involving the review of clinical records of newly recruited HIV-infected persons in the adult antiretroviral (ARV) clinic over a 12 month period (January - December 2006). Baseline results for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting lipid profile were retrieved...
July 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791662/combination-antiretroviral-therapy-improves-cognitive-performance-and-functional-connectivity-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-infected-individuals
#7
Yuchuan Zhuang, Xing Qiu, Lu Wang, Qing Ma, Mark Mapstone, Amneris Luque, Miriam Weber, Madalina Tivarus, Eric Miller, Roberto C Arduino, Jianhui Zhong, Giovanni Schifitto
Our study aimed to investigate the short-term effect of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cognitive performance and functional and structural connectivity and their relationship to plasma levels of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. Seventeen ARV treatment-naïve HIV-infected individuals (baseline mean CD4 cell count, 479 ± 48 cells/mm(3)) were age matched with 17 HIV-uninfected individuals. All subjects underwent a detailed neurocognitive and functional assessment and magnetic resonance imaging. HIV-infected subjects were scanned before starting cART and 12 weeks after initiation of treatment...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777263/a-stepped-wedge-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-to-promote-option-b-retention-in-central-mozambique
#8
James T Pfeiffer, Manuel Napúa, Bradley H Wagenaar, Falume Chale, Roxanne Hoek, Mark Micek, Joao Manuel, Cathy Michel, Jessica Greenberg Cowan, James F Cowan, Sarah Gimbel, Kenneth Sherr, Stephen Gloyd, Rachel R Chapman
BACKGROUND: This randomized trial studied performance of Option B+ in Mozambique, and evaluated an enhanced retention package in public clinics. SETTING: The study was conducted at 6 clinics in Manica and Sofala Provinces in central Mozambique. METHODS: 761 pregnant women tested HIV+, immediately initiated ART, and were followed to track retention at 6 clinics from May 2014 - May 2015. Clinics were randomly allocated within a stepped-wedge fashion to intervention and control periods...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776928/patients-with-parkinson-disease-present-high-ambulatory-blood-pressure-variability
#9
Hélcio Kanegusuku, Carla Silva-Batista, Tiago Peçanha, Natan Silva-Junior, Andreia Queiroz, Luiz Costa, Marco Mello, Maria Piemonte, Carlos Ugrinowitsch, Cláudia Forjaz
Patients with Parkinson disease (PD) present blunted nocturnal blood pressure fall and similar ambulatory blood pressure variability (ABPV) measured by standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (CV) compared with healthy subjects. However, these classical indices of ABPV have limited validity in individuals with circadian blood pressure alterations. New indices, such as the average of daytime and night-time standard deviation weighted by the duration of the daytime and night-time intervals (SDdn ) and the average real variability (ARV), remove the influence of the daytime and the night-time periods on ABPV...
September 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770599/effect-of-frequency-of-clinic-visits-and-medication-pick-up-on-antiretroviral-treatment-outcomes-a-systematic-literature-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Tsitsi Mutasa-Apollo, Nathan Ford, Matthew Wiens, Maria Eugenia Socias, Eyerusalem Negussie, Ping Wu, Evan Popoff, Jay Park, Edward J Mills, Steve Kanters
INTRODUCTION: Expanding and sustaining antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage may require simplified HIV service delivery strategies that concomitantly reduce the burden of care on the health system and patients while ensuring optimal outcomes. We conducted a systematic review to assess the impact of reduced frequency of clinic visits and drug dispensing on patient outcomes. METHODS: As part of the development process of the World Health Organization antiretroviral (ARV) guidelines, we systematically searched medical literature databases for publications up to 30 August 2016...
July 21, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770592/a-call-for-differentiated-approaches-to-delivering-hiv-services-to-key-populations
#11
REVIEW
Virginia Macdonald, Annette Verster, Rachel Baggaley
INTRODUCTION: Key populations (KPs) are disproportionally affected by HIV and have low rates of access to HIV testing and treatment services compared to the broader population. WHO promotes the use of differentiated approaches for reaching and recruiting KP into the HIV services continuum. These approaches may help increase access to KPs who are often criminalized or stigmatized. By catering to the specific needs of each KP individual, differentiated approaches may increase service acceptability, quality and coverage, reduce costs and support KP members in leading the HIV response among their communities...
July 21, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770436/in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-neurotoxic-effects-of-efavirenz-are-greater-than-those-of-other-common-antiretrovirals
#12
Vincent T Ciavatta, Edyta K Bichler, Iris A Speigel, Courtney C Elder, Shavonne L Teng, William R Tyor, Paul S García
Although antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has reduced the incidence of severe dementia associated with HIV infection, there has been a rise in milder neurocognitive complaints. Data from HIV patients taking ARVs have shown measurable neurocognitive improvements during drug cessation, suggesting a neurotoxic role of the therapy itself. Mechanisms underlying potential ARV neurotoxicity have not been thoroughly investigated, however pathologic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been suspected. Using DIV 16 primary rat cortical neuron culture, we tested eight ARVs from the three most commonly prescribed ARV classes: nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs/NtRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and protease inhibitors (PIs) for effects on neuron viability and morphology after 24 h of drug exposure...
August 2, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769849/an-inverse-relative-age-effect-in-male-alpine-skiers-at-the-absolute-top-level
#13
Øyvind Bjerke, Arve Vorland Pedersen, Tore K Aune, Håvard Lorås
The Relative Age Effect (RAE) can be described as the advantage of being born early after a certain cut-off date within a group of selection. The effect has been found across a wide range of sports and is particularly evident in pre-elite sports and team sports with a high selection pressure. At the absolute top level in team elite sports, the advantage of being relatively older has been reported to disappear, and even reverse, so that the relatively younger athletes are advantaged. In order to further examine such a reversal of the RAE, we investigated the performance of the overall top 50 skiers each year in the alpine World Cup, over a period of 20 years, among men (N = 234) and women (N = 235)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761188/flock-level-prevalence-geographical-distribution-and-seasonal-variation-of-avian-reovirus-among-broiler-flocks-in-ontario
#14
Eric G Nham, David L Pearl, Durda Slavic, Rachel Ouckama, Davor Ojkic, Michele T Guerin
Avian reovirus (ARV) is an economically significant pathogen of broiler chickens. Our objective was to determine the prevalence, geographical distribution, and seasonal variation of ARV infection among commercial broiler flocks in Ontario, Canada during grow-out. A cross-sectional study of 231 randomly selected flocks was conducted from July 2010 to January 2012. Fifteen blood samples, 15 whole intestines, and 15 cloacal swabs per flock were collected at slaughter; ELISA and PCR were used to determine a flock's ARV exposure status...
August 2017: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759752/efavirenz-loaded-nanostructured-lipid-carrier-engineered-for-brain-targeting-through-intranasal-route-in-vivo-pharmacokinetic-and-toxicity-study
#15
Varsha Pokharkar, Arpana Patil-Gadhe, Prathyusha Palla
Intranasal delivery is a potential platform that can be employed in targeting the antiretrovirals (ARVs) to reach HIV that harbors in the central nervous system. The objective of the study was to develop an optimized efavirenz (EFV) loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (ENLC) and deliver it through intranasal route for brain targeting. Factorial design (2(3)) was used to identify the key formulation variables influencing particle size and percent drug encapsulation of efavirenz in the NLC. Optimised ENLC-6 batch exhibited a spherical morphology with a mean particle size of 162nm, high drug encapsulation of 95...
July 28, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758568/mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-prevention-programs-in-a-sub-saharan-african-setting-the-gabonese-experience
#16
Armel Mintsa-Ndong, Corneille Ndong-Ella, Roselyne K Boussougou, Léatitia M Busugu, Alexandre Mba, Franck A Agwambouet, Nicolas Barro, Joel F Djoba Siawaya
In many developing countries, mothers' awareness remains a challenge despite the scaling up of antenatal care and programs preventing mother-to-child (MTC) HIV transmission. The present study was done in Libreville, Gabon where all antenatal care (delivery included) is free of charge. Here we assessed the timing of antenatal antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis initiation, HIV-exposed infants' age at their first postnatal HIV check visit and investigated the association between mothers' awareness or knowledge on their ARV therapy and infants' HIV infection...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758024/serum-lipid-and-glucose-profiles-in-hiv-positive-nigerian-children
#17
EDITORIAL
Olukemi O Ige, Christopher S Yilgwan, Augustine O Ebonyi, Ruth Adah, Idris Adedeji, Esther S Yiltok, Stephen Oguche, Fidelia Bode-Thomas
OBJECTIVES: To describe the fasting serum lipid and glucose profiles of HIV-positive Nigerian children and determine the prevalence and risk factors for dyslipidaemia and hyperglycaemia, which are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: This was a comparative cross-sectional study carried out at the Paediatric Infectious Disease Clinic (PIDC) of the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) for HIV-positive children and at two primary schools in Jos for HIV-negative children as controls...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754673/androgen-receptor-variants-mediate-dna-repair-after-prostate-cancer-irradiation
#18
Yi Yin, Rui Li, Kangling Xu, Sentai Ding, Jeffrey Li, Guemhee Baek, Susmita G Ramanand, Sam Ding, Zhao Liu, Yunpeng Gao, Mohammed S Kanchwala, Xiangyi Li, Ryan Hutchinson, Xihui Liu, Solomon L Woldu, Chao Xing, Neil B Desai, Felix Y Feng, Sandeep Burma, Johann S de Bono, Scott M Dehm, Ram S Mani, Benjamin P C Chen, Ganesh V Raj
In prostate cancer (PCa), androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) enhances the cytotoxic effects of radiotherapy. This effect is associated with weakening of the DNA damage response (DDR) normally supported by the androgen receptor. Since a significant number of patients will fail combined ADT and radiotherapy, we hypothesized that DDR may be driven by androgen receptor splice variants (ARV) induced by ADT. Investigating this hypothesis, we found that ARV increase the clonogenic survival of PCa cells after irradiation in an ADT-independent manner...
July 28, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754089/predictive-factors-and-prevalence-of-microalbuminuria-in-hiv-infected-patients-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#19
Katia Falasca, Marta Di Nicola, Italo Porfilio, Claudio Ucciferri, Elisabetta Schiaroli, Chiara Gabrielli, Daniela Francisci, Jacopo Vecchiet
BACKGROUND: Renal dysfunction is a common problem in the HIV+ population, due to the effect of both the HIV virus and the several classes of ARV drugs such as tenofovir (TDF). It is also known that the presence of renal damage correlates with cardiovascular risk and therefore with the risk of mortality of the patients accordingly. The detection of early renal damage is very important. Albuminuria and microalbuminuria are markers of early kidney disease and cardiovascular risk. The aim of the study is to evaluate the prevalence of microalbuminuria in a large polycentric sample, of unselected and consecutive HIV-patients followed as outpatients, and to assess its association with different therapeutic regimens...
July 28, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753637/collaborative-update-of-a-rule-based-expert-system-for-hiv-1-genotypic-resistance-test-interpretation
#20
Roger Paredes, Philip L Tzou, Gert van Zyl, Geoff Barrow, Ricardo Camacho, Sergio Carmona, Philip M Grant, Ravindra K Gupta, Raph L Hamers, P Richard Harrigan, Michael R Jordan, Rami Kantor, David A Katzenstein, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Frank Maldarelli, Dan Otelea, Carole L Wallis, Jonathan M Schapiro, Robert W Shafer
INTRODUCTION: HIV-1 genotypic resistance test (GRT) interpretation systems (IS) require updates as new studies on HIV-1 drug resistance are published and as treatment guidelines evolve. METHODS: An expert panel was created to provide recommendations for the update of the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database (HIVDB) GRT-IS. The panel was polled on the ARVs to be included in a GRT report, and the drug-resistance interpretations associated with 160 drug-resistance mutation (DRM) pattern-ARV combinations...
2017: PloS One
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