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Sui-Yuan Chang, Pi-Han Lin, Chien-Lin Cheng, Mao-Yuan Chen, Hsin-Yun Sun, Szu-Min Hsieh, Wang-Huei Sheng, Yi-Ching Su, Li-Hsin Su, Shu-Fang Chang, Wen-Chun Liu, Chien-Ching Hung, Shan-Chwen Chang
Antiretroviral therapy containing an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) plus two NRTIs has become the recommended treatment for antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected patients in the updated guidelines. We aimed to determine the prevalence of INSTI-related mutations in Taiwan. Genotypic resistance assays were performed on plasma from ARV-naïve patients (N = 948), ARV-experienced but INSTI-naive patients (N = 359), and raltegravir-experienced patients (N = 63) from 2006 to 2015. Major INSTI mutations were defined according to the IAS-USA list and other substitutions with a Stanford HIVdb score ≧ 10 to at least one INSTI were defined as minor mutations...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jacinta Nwamaka Nwogu, Qing Ma, Chinedum Peace Babalola, Waheed Adeola Adedeji, Gene D Morse, Babafemi Taiwo
Neurological complications associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are a matter of great concern. While antiretroviral (ARV) drugs are the cornerstone of HIV treatment and typically produce neurological benefit, some ARV drugs have limited CNS penetration while others have been associated with neurotoxicity. CNS penetration is a function of several factors including sieving role of blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers and activity of innate drug transporters. Other factors are related to pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of the specific ARV agent or mediated by drug interactions, local inflammation, and blood flow...
2016: AIDS Research and Treatment
Ameya R Kirtane, Robert Langer, Giovanni Traverso
The human immunodeficiency virus has infected millions of people and the epidemic continues to grow rapidly in some parts of the world. Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has provided improved treatment and prolonged the life expectancy of patients. Moreover, there is growing interest in using ARVs to protect against new infections. Hence, ARVs have emerged as our primary strategy in combating the virus. Unfortunately, several challenges limit the optimal performance of these drugs. First, ARVs often require life-long use and complex dosing regimens...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Nathan R Unger, Marylee V Worley, Jamie J Kisgen, Elizabeth M Sherman, Lindsey M Childs-Kean
Current antiretrovirals (ARVs) have demonstrated the ability to prolong the life of an HIV infected individual via suppression of the virus and subsequent restoration of immune function. Despite significant advancement, there remains an opportunity for improvement. One ARV that attempts to fill global HIV therapeutic needs by balancing convenience, safety, and efficacy is elvitegravir (EVG). Areas covered: Using MEDLINE/PubMed, a literature search was conducted for published articles on the safety and efficacy of EVG in the treatment of HIV infection...
October 21, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Luis Sagaon-Teyssier, Sauman Singh, Boniface Dongmo-Nguimfack, Jean-Paul Moatti
INTRODUCTION: This study aims to provide a landscape of the global antiretroviral (ARV) market by analyzing the transactional data on donor-funded ARV procurement between 2003 and 2015, and the ARV price determinants. DESIGN: The data were obtained from the Global Price Reporting Mechanism (GPRM) managed by the AIDS Medicines and Diagnostics Service of the WHO, and it consists of information that covers approximately 80% of the total donor-funded adult ARV transactions procurement...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Mance E Buttram, Steven P Kurtz
Background: Limited information suggests that men who have sex with men (MSM) are informally obtaining antiretroviral medication (ARVs) and using them for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Methods: Data are drawn from an on-going study examining the use of non-prescribed ARVs for PrEP. To date, 24 qualitative interviews have been conducted with HIV-negative, substance-using MSM living in Miami, Florida, USA. Data are presented from two participants who reported HIV seroconversion while using non-prescribed ARVs for PrEP...
October 21, 2016: Sexual Health
Henry Zakumumpa, Sara Bennett, Freddie Ssengooba
BACKGROUND: Uganda implemented a national ART scale-up program at public and private health facilities between 2004 and 2009. Little is known about how and why some health facilities have sustained ART programs and why others have not sustained these interventions. The objective of the study was to identify facilitators and barriers to the long-term sustainability of ART programs at six health facilities in Uganda which received donor support to commence ART between 2004 and 2009. METHODS: A case-study approach was adopted...
October 18, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Yi Zhang, Chen Chi, Shikai Yu, Antonis Argyris, Jacques Blacher, Michel Safar, Athanase Protogerou
OBJECTIVE: Both brachial blood pressure (BP) level and its variability (BPV) have significant association with cardiac structure and function. Recent studies indicated that central BP was superior to brachial BP in the association with cardiac abnormities. However, it remains unknown that whether central BPV is better associated with cardiac structure and function. We were, therefore, aimed to investigate and compare central and brachial BPV, in terms of the identification of cardiac abnormities...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
P Mencarini, R Bellagamba, A Oliva, P Ghirga, M L Giancola, A Corpolongo, T Ascoli Bartoli, P De Nardo, A Baiocchini, F Del Nonno, P Narciso, E Nicastri
The diagnosis of sarcoidosis in a patient living with HIV infection is an uncommon event and a challenge for clinicians. Clinical manifestations are variable and fluctuating depending to adherence to ARV therapy and to the level of CD4 count. We analyze here one chronic case in which sarcoidosis appeared clinically two years after pulmonary tuberculosis. The course of the disease was influenced and prolonged by frequent interruptions of antiretroviral therapy. Moreover the diagnosis and the decision to treat have been delayed by the need of exclusion of other pathologies, principally tuberculosis reactivation/reinfection, other mycobacterial diseases, hematologic malignancies...
2016: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Li Zhong, Li Gao, Yongzhen Liu, Kai Li, Miao Wang, Xiaole Qi, Yulong Gao, Xiaomei Wang
Avian reovirus (ARV) infections characterised by severe arthritis, tenosynovitis, pericarditis, and depressed growth have become increasingly frequent in recent years. In this study, we isolated and identified 11 ARV field strains from chickens with viral arthritis and reduced growth in northern China. Comparative analysis of the σC nucleotide and amino acid sequences demonstrated that all isolates, except LN05 and JS01, were closely related to ARV S1133 and clustered in the first genetic lineage. LN05 and JS01 strains were clustered in the third lineage with the ARV 138 strain...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Carmela E Corallo, Louise Grannell, Huyen Tran
A 62-year-old man was admitted to hospital for elective revision of a left total hip arthroplasty. His history was significant for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection for which he was taking the following antiretroviral agents (ARVs): etravirine, ritonavir, darunavir, raltegravir and tenofovir/emtricitabine. Rivaroxaban 10 mg daily was commenced on the second postoperative day for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis. Approximately 24 h later, the patient developed hypotension and anaemia, accompanied by thigh swelling due to bleeding at the surgical site...
December 2015: Drug Saf Case Rep
Motoko Ikuma, Dai Watanabe, Hiroki Yagura, Misa Ashida, Masaaki Takahashi, Masaaki Shibata, Tadafumi Asaoka, Munehiro Yoshino, Tomoko Uehira, Wataru Sugiura, Takuma Shirasaka
An elderly woman with human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection developed short bowel syndrome as a result of extensive intestinal resection. Considering the possibility of poor absorption of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) was performed. A single-dose test of 6 ARVs (darunavir, ritonavir, lopinavir, etravirine, maraviroc, and raltegravir) did not provide information on the appropriate ARV, and repeated TDM under continuous antiretroviral therapy resulted in viral suppression below 50 copies/mL, which was considered to be treatment success...
2016: Internal Medicine
Jennifer Jao, Rohan Hazra, Claude A Mellins, Robert H Remien, Elaine J Abrams
INTRODUCTION: The tremendous success of antiretroviral therapy has resulted in a diminishing population of perinatally HIV-infected children on the one hand and a mounting number of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children on the other. As the oldest of these HEU children are reaching adolescence, questions have emerged surrounding the implications of HEU status disclosure to these adolescents. This article outlines the arguments for and against disclosure of a child's HEU status. DISCUSSION: Disclosure of a child's HEU status, by definition, requires disclosure of maternal HIV status...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Aastha Gupta, Sandeep Juneja, Marco Vitoria, Vincent Habiyambere, Boniface Dongmo Nguimfack, Meg Doherty, Daniel Low-Beer
With anti-retroviral treatment (ART) scale-up set to continue over the next few years it is of key importance that manufacturers and planners in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) hardest hit by the HIV/AIDS pandemic are able to anticipate and respond to future changes to treatment regimens, generics pipeline and demand, in order to secure continued access to all ARV medicines required. We did a forecast analysis, using secondary WHO and UNAIDS data sources, to estimate the number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) and the market share and demand for a range of new and existing ARV drugs in LMICs up to 2025...
2016: PloS One
Johan Ræder, Vegard Dahl, Anne Markestad, Arve Nordbø, Anne Hilde Roaldset, Audun Stubhaug, Bjørn Søeberg, Anke Willke, Vidar Aasbø, Per Wiik Johansen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
Qian Wang, Linhong Wang, Liwen Fang, Ailing Wang, Xi Jin, Fang Wang, Xiaoyan Wang, Yaping Qiao, Sheena G Sullivan, Shannon Rutherford, Lei Zhang
This study investigates the improvement of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in China during 2004-2011. A clinic-based prospective study was conducted among HIV-positive pregnant women and their children in eight counties across China. Associated factors of mother-to-child transmission were analyzed using regression analysis. A total of 1,387 HIV+ pregnant women and 1,377 HIV-exposed infants were enrolled. The proportion of pregnant women who received HIV testing increased significantly from 45...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida, Thiago Henrique Roza
The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a deregulated inflammatory response to invading microorganisms. It is manifested when there is an abrupt change in host immunity from an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive state to a pro-inflammatory state as a result of rapid depletion or removal of factors that promote immune suppression or inhibition of inflammation. The aim of this paper is to discuss and re-interpret the possibility of association of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) with IRIS in the central nervous system (CNS) in a case from Brazil published by Silva-Vergara ML...
October 7, 2016: Mycopathologia
Jaime Galindo, Pedro Amariles, Héctor F Mueses-Marín, Jaime A Hincapié, Sebastián González-Avendaño, Ximena Galindo-Orrego
BACKGROUND: Generic drug policies are often associated with concerns about the quality and effectiveness of these products. Phase IV clinical trials may be a suitable design to assess the effectiveness and safety of generic drugs. The objective of this study was to describe the effectiveness and the safety of the generic abacavir/lamivudine and efavirenz in treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients. METHODS: A monocentric, nonrandomized, open-label, phase IV study in treatment naïve HIV-infected patients 18 years or older with indication to receive abacavir/lamivudine and efavirenz were recruited from a program that provides comprehensive outpatient consultation and continuing care...
October 3, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Kristina M Brooks, Jomy M George, Parag Kumar
Use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) and over-the-counter (OTC) medications are very common among HIV-infected patients. These products can cause clinically significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with antiretroviral (ARV) medications, thereby increasing risk for negative outcomes such as toxicity or loss of virologic control. Areas Covered: This article provides an updated review of the different mechanisms by which CAM and OTC products are implicated in DDIs with ARV medications. Expert Commentary: Much of the literature published to date involves studies of CAMs interacting with older ARV agents via the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) system...
October 7, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Ameena E Goga, Thu-Ha Dinh, Debra J Jackson, Carl J Lombard, Adrian Puren, Gayle Sherman, Vundli Ramokolo, Selamawit Woldesenbet, Tanya Doherty, Nobuntu Noveve, Vuyolwethu Magasana, Yagespari Singh, Trisha Ramraj, Sanjana Bhardwaj, Yogan Pillay
BACKGROUND: Eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV (EMTCT), defined as ≤50 infant HIV infections per 100 000 live births, is a global priority. Since 2011 policies to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) shifted from maternal antiretroviral (ARV) treatment or prophylaxis contingent on CD4 cell count to lifelong maternal ARV treatment (cART). We sought to measure progress with early (4-8 weeks postpartum) MTCT prevention and elimination, 2011-2013, at national and sub-national levels in South Africa, a high antenatal HIV prevalence setting ( ≈ 29%), where early MTCT was 3...
December 2016: Journal of Global Health
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