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Immobilization degeneration

Shigeru Ogawa, Mamoru Mizuno, Mayuko Suzuki, Kohtaro Goto, Yuriko Hirose, Akio Matsuda, Takuya Saito, Suguru Oguri, Kiyoshi Furukawa
To elucidate a biological role of the methylated mannose residues found in N-glycans of terrestrial worm Enchytraeus japonensis, we first synthesized 3-O-methyl mannose- and 4-O-methyl mannose-derivatives and immobilized them to Sepharose 4B beads in order to isolate the sugar-binding protein. When whole protein extracts from the worms was applied to a series of the columns immobilized with the modified and unmodified mannose-derivatives, respectively, a protein with a molecular weight of 25,000 was isolated by 4-O-methyl mannose-immobilized column chromatography, and termed as a methylated mannose-binding protein (mMBP)...
June 2, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
Wonki Choi, Sukkyun Song, Seungbum Chae, Sangbong Ko
BACKGROUND: This study attempts to prove a cause and effect relationship between spine immobilization following posterior fixation for unstable burst fractures and degeneration observed following hardware removal. METHODS: We enrolled 57 patients (259 intervertebral discs [IVDs]) who underwent only posterior instrumentation without fusion for thoracolumbar and lumbar unstable burst fractures. We arbitrarily named the IVD that has an endplate fracture after immobilization using pedicle screws as the fractured endplate and immobilized disc (FEID), the IVD that has no endplate fracture after immobilization using pedicle screws as the nonfractured endplate and immobilized disc (NFEID), and the IVD that has no endplate fracture and no immobilization instrumentation as the normal disc (ND)...
June 2017: Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery
Petr Novak, Martin Cente, Nina Kosikova, Tomas Augustin, Richard Kvetnansky, Michal Novak, Peter Filipcik
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial disorder; neurofibrillary pathology composed of tau protein is found side by side with amyloid-β deposits and extensive neuroinflammation. The immune system of the brain is considered as one of the factors that could influence the speed of the progression of AD neuropathology as a potential mediator of the damage induced by AD protein deposits. Alzheimer's disease pathology can be impacted by psychological stress; however, signalling pathways in background are not well known...
April 12, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
M Nomura, N Sakitani, H Iwasawa, Y Kohara, S Takano, Y Wakimoto, H Kuroki, H Moriyama
OBJECTIVE: Moderate mechanical stress generated by normal joint loading and movement is essential for the maintenance of healthy articular cartilage. However, the effects of reduced loading caused by the absence of weight bearing or joint motion on articular cartilage and subchondral bone is still poorly understood. We aimed to characterize morphological and metabolic responses of articular cartilage and subchondral bone to decreased mechanical stress in vivo. METHODS: Mice were subjected to periods of hindlimb unloading by tail suspension or external fixation of the knee joints...
May 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Hatice Resorlu, Yılmaz Savas, Nilufer Aylanc, Ferhat Gokmen
AIM: The purpose of this study was to assess morphological changes in the paravertebral muscles in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-one patients diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis and a 50 member control group were included in the study. The surface area of the multifidus and erector spinae muscles was measured at four levels between L1 and L5, and fatty degeneration in these muscles was scored. Lumbosacral and lumbar lordotic angles were determined for the patient and control groups...
October 27, 2016: Modern Rheumatology
Ipsita Chakravarty, Subir Kundu
The increased threat of drug resistance has challenged the existence of several conventional and non-conventional antibiotics in the recent times. Daptomycin is a novel cyclic-lipopeptide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces roseosporus that has progressed as a significant anti-MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) antibiotic. But, the economic practicality of this highly valued secondary metabolite is deterred by its poor production and tedious processing methodology. The present study aims at strategic improvement of Daptomycin production through morphological variations of S...
December 2016: AMB Express
Chi-Hsien Peng, Jen-Hua Chuang, Mong-Lien Wang, Yong-Yu Jhan, Ke-Hung Chien, Yu-Chien Chung, Kuo-Hsuan Hung, Chia-Ching Chang, Chao-Kuei Lee, Wei-Lien Tseng, De-Kuang Hwang, Chia-Hsien Hsu, Tai-Chi Lin, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Shih-Jen Chen
Advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) may lead to geographic atrophy or fibrovascular scar at macular, dysfunctional retinal microenvironment, and cause profound visual loss. Recent clinical trials have implied the potential application of pluripotent cell-differentiated retinal pigment epithelial cells (dRPEs) and membranous scaffolds implantation in repairing the degenerated retina in AMD. However, the efficacy of implanted membrane in immobilization and supporting the viability and functions of dRPEs, as well as maintaining the retinal microenvironment is still unclear...
October 4, 2016: Oncotarget
Franklin T Moutos, Katherine A Glass, Sarah A Compton, Alison K Ross, Charles A Gersbach, Farshid Guilak, Bradley T Estes
Biological resurfacing of entire articular surfaces represents an important but challenging strategy for treatment of cartilage degeneration that occurs in osteoarthritis. Not only does this approach require anatomically sized and functional engineered cartilage, but the inflammatory environment within an arthritic joint may also inhibit chondrogenesis and induce degradation of native and engineered cartilage. The goal of this study was to use adult stem cells to engineer anatomically shaped, functional cartilage constructs capable of tunable and inducible expression of antiinflammatory molecules, specifically IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra)...
August 2, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yongliang Zhang, Yiqun Mi, Jiahong Gang, Huamin Wang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of warm needling moxibustion on body mass, knee cartilage andmorphology in rats with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). METHODS: Forty SD rats were randomly divided into a normalgroup, a model group, a medication group and a warm needling group, 10 rats in each one. Except the normalgroup, the rats in the remaining three groups were injected with papain to establish the model of KOA. After themodeling, rats in the model group did not receive any treatment; rats in the warm needling group were treated withwarm needling moxibustion at bilateral "Xiqian"; rats in the medication group were treated with intragastric administration of meloxicam; rats in the normal group were treated with 0...
February 2016: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Süha Yalçın, Murat Kara, Gökhan Tuna Öztürk, Levent Özçakar
BACKGROUND: Immobilization of the extremities after stroke is known to be the foremost reason of articular cartilage degeneration and musculoskeletal ultrasound (US) has become increasingly important in the assessment of joint cartilage. To the best of our knowledge, US measurements of the metacarpal and talar cartilage thicknesses in hemiplegic patients after stroke have not been performed before. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to explore whether metacarpal and talar cartilage thicknesses were affected after stroke using US...
May 9, 2016: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
Uğur Akpulat, İlyas Onbaşılar, Y Çetin Kocaefe
The pathological endpoint of congenital and senile myopathies is chronic muscle degeneration characterized by the atrophy of contractile elements, accompanied by fibrosis and fatty infiltration of the interstitium. Tenotomy is the release of preload that causes abrupt shortening of the muscle and models atrophy and fibrosis without prominent inflammatory response. Fibrosis in the skeletal muscle is known to be triggered by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, which is activated by inflammatory events. As these were lacking, tenotomy provided an opportunity to investigate transcriptional events on a background without inflammation...
2016: Physiological Genomics
Aylin Komez, Erkan T Baran, Uzeyir Erdem, Nesrin Hasirci, Vasif Hasirci
Deterioration of retina and death of the retinal cells due to age, diabetes, or occlusion can cause retinal degeneration which leads to loss of vision. In this study, it is aimed to design a bilayered matrix to mimic the choroid and the Bruch's membrane of the retinal tissue. As choroid, a microchanneled network resembling a fractal tree design was fabricated by photolithography over photo-cross-linkable methacrylated hyaluronic acid hydrogel. Gelatin or collagen was immobilized into the microchannels to enhance adherence of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC)...
September 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Momoko Nagai, Akira Ito, Junichi Tajino, Hirotaka Iijima, Shoki Yamaguchi, Xiangkai Zhang, Tomoki Aoyama, Hiroshi Kuroki
An understanding of the articular cartilage degenerative process is necessary for the prevention and treatment of joint disease. The present study aimed to examine how long-term immobilization-induced cartilage degeneration is aggravated by remobilization. Sixty 8-week-old male Wistar rats were used in this study. The unilateral knee joint was immobilized using an external fixator for 8 weeks. The rats were killed at 0 and 3 days, and at 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks after removing the fixator. After the rats were killed, the maximum knee extension angles were measured...
2016: Journal of Anatomy
Markus M Schreiner, Štefan Zbýň, Benjamin Schmitt, Michael Weber, Stephan Domayer, Reinhard Windhager, Siegfried Trattnig, Vladimir Mlynárik
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to establish a gagCEST protocol that would enable robust and reproducible assessment of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content in knee cartilage at 7 T within a clinically feasible measurement time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten young healthy volunteers (mean age 26 years, range 24-28, five males, five females) were examined on a 7 T MR system. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants prior to enrollment into the study...
June 2016: Magma
Lei Xu, Zhe Li, Lei Lei, Yue-Zhu Zhou, Song-Yun Deng, Yong-Bin He, Guo-Xin Ni
This study was aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal changes of subchondral bone and its overlying articular cartilage in rats following knee immobilization. A total of 36 male Wistar rats (11-13 months old) were assigned randomly and evenly into 3 groups. For each group, knee joints in 6 rats were immobilized unilaterally for 1, 4, or 8 weeks, respectively, while the remaining rats were allowed free activity and served as external control groups. For each animal, femurs at both sides were dissected after sacrificed...
March 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
José Martim Marques Simas, Regina Inês Kunz, Rose Meire Costa Brancalhão, Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko Ribeiro, Gladson Ricardo Flor Bertolini
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of physical exercise on cartilage histomorphometry in osteoporosis-induced rats subjected to immobilization. METHODS: We used 36 Wistar rats that were separated into six groups: G1, G2 and G3 submitted to pseudo-oophorectomy, and G4, G5 and G6 submitted to oophorectomy. After 60 days at rest, G2, G3, G5 and G6 had the right hind limbs immobilized for 15 days, followed by the same period in remobilization, being free in the box to G2 and G5, and climb ladder to G3 and G6...
October 2015: Einstein
Audrey Beaussart, Tristan Brandhorst, Yves F Dufrêne, Bruce S Klein
UNLABELLED: Blastomyces adhesin-1 (BAD-1) protein mediates the virulence of the yeast Blastomyces dermatitidis, in part by binding host lung tissue, the extracellular matrix, and cellular receptors via glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as heparan sulfate. The tandem repeats that make up over 90% of BAD-1 appear in their native state to be tightly folded into an inactive conformation, but recent work has shown that they become activated and adhesive upon reduction of a disulfide linkage...
September 22, 2015: MBio
Xin Yang, Tian-Yue Zhu, Li-Cheng Wen, Yong-Ping Cao, Chao Liu, Yun-Peng Cui, Zhi-Chao Meng, Heng Liu
BACKGROUND: Researchers initially proposed the substitution of apoptotic chondrocytes in the superficial cartilage by injecting mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) intraarticularly. This effect was termed as bio-resurfacing. Little evidence supporting the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) by the delivery of a MSC suspension exists. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of injecting allogenic MSCs intraarticularly in a rat OA model and to evaluate the influence of immobility on the effects of this treatment...
September 20, 2015: Chinese Medical Journal
John D Vossler, Young Min Ju, J Koudy Williams, Steven Goldstein, James Hamlin, Sang Jin Lee, James J Yoo, Anthony Atala
The long term efficacy of tissue based heart valve grafts may be limited by progressive degeneration characterized by immune mediated inflammation and calcification. To avoid this degeneration, decellularized heart valves with functionalized surfaces capable of rapid in vivo endothelialization have been developed. The aim of this study is to examine the capacity of CD133 antibody-conjugated valve tissue to capture circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Decellularized human pulmonary valve tissue was conjugated with CD133 antibody at varying concentrations and exposed to CD133 expressing NTERA-2 cl...
September 3, 2015: Biomedical Materials
Laurent Pieuchot, Julian Lai, Rachel Ann Loh, Fong Yew Leong, Keng-Hwee Chiam, Jason Stajich, Gregory Jedd
Cytoplasmic streaming occurs in diverse cell types, where it generally serves a transport function. Here, we examine streaming in multicellular fungal hyphae and identify an additional function wherein regimented streaming forms distinct cytoplasmic subcompartments. In the hypha, cytoplasm flows directionally from cell to cell through septal pores. Using live-cell imaging and computer simulations, we identify a flow pattern that produces vortices (eddies) on the upstream side of the septum. Nuclei can be immobilized in these microfluidic eddies, where they form multinucleate aggregates and accumulate foci of the HDA-2 histone deacetylase-associated factor, SPA-19...
August 24, 2015: Developmental Cell
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