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Immobilization degeneration

Ipsita Chakravarty, Subir Kundu
The increased threat of drug resistance has challenged the existence of several conventional and non-conventional antibiotics in the recent times. Daptomycin is a novel cyclic-lipopeptide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces roseosporus that has progressed as a significant anti-MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) antibiotic. But, the economic practicality of this highly valued secondary metabolite is deterred by its poor production and tedious processing methodology. The present study aims at strategic improvement of Daptomycin production through morphological variations of S...
December 2016: AMB Express
Chi-Hsien Peng, Jen-Hua Chuang, Mong-Lien Wang, Yong-Yu Jhan, Ke-Hung Chien, Yu-Chien Chung, Kuo-Hsuan Hung, Chia-Ching Chang, Chao-Kuei Lee, Wei-Lien Tseng, De-Kuang Hwang, Chia-Hsien Hsu, Tai-Chi Lin, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Shih-Jen Chen
Advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) may lead to geographic atrophy or fibrovascular scar at macular, dysfunctional retinal microenvironment, and cause profound visual loss. Recent clinical trials have implied the potential application of pluripotent cell-differentiated retinal pigment epithelial cells (dRPEs) and membranous scaffolds implantation in repairing the degenerated retina in AMD. However, the efficacy of implanted membrane in immobilization and supporting the viability and functions of dRPEs, as well as maintaining the retinal microenvironment is still unclear...
August 22, 2016: Oncotarget
Franklin T Moutos, Katherine A Glass, Sarah A Compton, Alison K Ross, Charles A Gersbach, Farshid Guilak, Bradley T Estes
Biological resurfacing of entire articular surfaces represents an important but challenging strategy for treatment of cartilage degeneration that occurs in osteoarthritis. Not only does this approach require anatomically sized and functional engineered cartilage, but the inflammatory environment within an arthritic joint may also inhibit chondrogenesis and induce degradation of native and engineered cartilage. The goal of this study was to use adult stem cells to engineer anatomically shaped, functional cartilage constructs capable of tunable and inducible expression of antiinflammatory molecules, specifically IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra)...
August 2, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yongliang Zhang, Yiqun Mi, Jiahong Gang, Huamin Wang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of warm needling moxibustion on body mass, knee cartilage andmorphology in rats with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). METHODS: Forty SD rats were randomly divided into a normalgroup, a model group, a medication group and a warm needling group, 10 rats in each one. Except the normalgroup, the rats in the remaining three groups were injected with papain to establish the model of KOA. After themodeling, rats in the model group did not receive any treatment; rats in the warm needling group were treated withwarm needling moxibustion at bilateral "Xiqian"; rats in the medication group were treated with intragastric administration of meloxicam; rats in the normal group were treated with 0...
February 2016: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Süha Yalçın, Murat Kara, Gökhan Tuna Öztürk, Levent Özçakar
BACKGROUND: Immobilization of the extremities after stroke is known to be the foremost reason of articular cartilage degeneration and musculoskeletal ultrasound (US) has become increasingly important in the assessment of joint cartilage. To the best of our knowledge, US measurements of the metacarpal and talar cartilage thicknesses in hemiplegic patients after stroke have not been performed before. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to explore whether metacarpal and talar cartilage thicknesses were affected after stroke using US...
May 9, 2016: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
Uğur Akpulat, İlyas Onbaşılar, Y Çetin Kocaefe
The pathological endpoint of congenital and senile myopathies is chronic muscle degeneration characterized by the atrophy of contractile elements, accompanied by fibrosis and fatty infiltration of the interstitium. Tenotomy is the release of preload that causes abrupt shortening of the muscle and models atrophy and fibrosis without prominent inflammatory response. Fibrosis in the skeletal muscle is known to be triggered by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, which is activated by inflammatory events. As these were lacking, tenotomy provided an opportunity to investigate transcriptional events on a background without inflammation...
June 2016: Physiological Genomics
Aylin Komez, Erkan T Baran, Uzeyir Erdem, Nesrin Hasirci, Vasif Hasirci
Deterioration of retina and death of the retinal cells due to age, diabetes, or occlusion can cause retinal degeneration which leads to loss of vision. In this study, it is aimed to design a bilayered matrix to mimic the choroid and the Bruch's membrane of the retinal tissue. As choroid, a microchanneled network resembling a fractal tree design was fabricated by photolithography over photo-cross-linkable methacrylated hyaluronic acid hydrogel. Gelatin or collagen was immobilized into the microchannels to enhance adherence of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC)...
September 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Momoko Nagai, Akira Ito, Junichi Tajino, Hirotaka Iijima, Shoki Yamaguchi, Xiangkai Zhang, Tomoki Aoyama, Hiroshi Kuroki
An understanding of the articular cartilage degenerative process is necessary for the prevention and treatment of joint disease. The present study aimed to examine how long-term immobilization-induced cartilage degeneration is aggravated by remobilization. Sixty 8-week-old male Wistar rats were used in this study. The unilateral knee joint was immobilized using an external fixator for 8 weeks. The rats were killed at 0 and 3 days, and at 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks after removing the fixator. After the rats were killed, the maximum knee extension angles were measured...
June 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Markus M Schreiner, Štefan Zbýň, Benjamin Schmitt, Michael Weber, Stephan Domayer, Reinhard Windhager, Siegfried Trattnig, Vladimir Mlynárik
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to establish a gagCEST protocol that would enable robust and reproducible assessment of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content in knee cartilage at 7 T within a clinically feasible measurement time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten young healthy volunteers (mean age 26 years, range 24-28, five males, five females) were examined on a 7 T MR system. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants prior to enrollment into the study...
June 2016: Magma
Lei Xu, Zhe Li, Lei Lei, Yue-Zhu Zhou, Song-Yun Deng, Yong-Bin He, Guo-Xin Ni
This study was aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal changes of subchondral bone and its overlying articular cartilage in rats following knee immobilization. A total of 36 male Wistar rats (11-13 months old) were assigned randomly and evenly into 3 groups. For each group, knee joints in 6 rats were immobilized unilaterally for 1, 4, or 8 weeks, respectively, while the remaining rats were allowed free activity and served as external control groups. For each animal, femurs at both sides were dissected after sacrificed...
March 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
José Martim Marques Simas, Regina Inês Kunz, Rose Meire Costa Brancalhão, Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko Ribeiro, Gladson Ricardo Flor Bertolini
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of physical exercise on cartilage histomorphometry in osteoporosis-induced rats subjected to immobilization. METHODS: We used 36 Wistar rats that were separated into six groups: G1, G2 and G3 submitted to pseudo-oophorectomy, and G4, G5 and G6 submitted to oophorectomy. After 60 days at rest, G2, G3, G5 and G6 had the right hind limbs immobilized for 15 days, followed by the same period in remobilization, being free in the box to G2 and G5, and climb ladder to G3 and G6...
October 2015: Einstein
Audrey Beaussart, Tristan Brandhorst, Yves F Dufrêne, Bruce S Klein
UNLABELLED: Blastomyces adhesin-1 (BAD-1) protein mediates the virulence of the yeast Blastomyces dermatitidis, in part by binding host lung tissue, the extracellular matrix, and cellular receptors via glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as heparan sulfate. The tandem repeats that make up over 90% of BAD-1 appear in their native state to be tightly folded into an inactive conformation, but recent work has shown that they become activated and adhesive upon reduction of a disulfide linkage...
September 22, 2015: MBio
Xin Yang, Tian-Yue Zhu, Li-Cheng Wen, Yong-Ping Cao, Chao Liu, Yun-Peng Cui, Zhi-Chao Meng, Heng Liu
BACKGROUND: Researchers initially proposed the substitution of apoptotic chondrocytes in the superficial cartilage by injecting mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) intraarticularly. This effect was termed as bio-resurfacing. Little evidence supporting the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) by the delivery of a MSC suspension exists. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of injecting allogenic MSCs intraarticularly in a rat OA model and to evaluate the influence of immobility on the effects of this treatment...
September 20, 2015: Chinese Medical Journal
John D Vossler, Young Min Ju, J Koudy Williams, Steven Goldstein, James Hamlin, Sang Jin Lee, James J Yoo, Anthony Atala
The long term efficacy of tissue based heart valve grafts may be limited by progressive degeneration characterized by immune mediated inflammation and calcification. To avoid this degeneration, decellularized heart valves with functionalized surfaces capable of rapid in vivo endothelialization have been developed. The aim of this study is to examine the capacity of CD133 antibody-conjugated valve tissue to capture circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Decellularized human pulmonary valve tissue was conjugated with CD133 antibody at varying concentrations and exposed to CD133 expressing NTERA-2 cl...
September 2015: Biomedical Materials
Laurent Pieuchot, Julian Lai, Rachel Ann Loh, Fong Yew Leong, Keng-Hwee Chiam, Jason Stajich, Gregory Jedd
Cytoplasmic streaming occurs in diverse cell types, where it generally serves a transport function. Here, we examine streaming in multicellular fungal hyphae and identify an additional function wherein regimented streaming forms distinct cytoplasmic subcompartments. In the hypha, cytoplasm flows directionally from cell to cell through septal pores. Using live-cell imaging and computer simulations, we identify a flow pattern that produces vortices (eddies) on the upstream side of the septum. Nuclei can be immobilized in these microfluidic eddies, where they form multinucleate aggregates and accumulate foci of the HDA-2 histone deacetylase-associated factor, SPA-19...
August 24, 2015: Developmental Cell
T Ibounig, T A Simons
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Quadriceps and patella tendon ruptures are uncommon injuries often resulting from minor trauma typically consisting of an eccentric contraction of the quadriceps muscle. Since rupture of a healthy tendon is very rare, such injuries usually represent the end stage of a long process of chronic tendon degeneration and overuse. This review aims to give an overview of the current understanding of the pathophysiology, diagnostic principles, and recommended treatment protocols as supported by the literature and institutional experience...
June 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Surgery: SJS
Ronghan He, Zhe Wang, Yunxiang Lu, Junqi Huang, Jianhua Ren, Kun Wang
Joint contracture is a fibroproliferative disorder that restricts joint mobility, resulting in tissue degeneration and deformity. However, the etiology of joint contracture is still unknown. Chaperonin containing T-complex polypeptide subunit eta (CCT-eta) is reported to increase in fibrotic diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether CCT-eta is implicated in joint contracture and to determine the role of CCT-eta in the progression of joint contracture by analyzing a rat model. We immobilized the left knee joint of rat by internal fixation for 8 weeks...
November 2015: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Qiangrong Gu, Dong Li, Bo Wei, Yang Guo, Junwei Yan, Fengyong Mao, Xiang Zhang, Liming Wang
The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of nicotine on articular cartilage degeneration and inflammation in a rat model of early stage osteoarthritis (OA), using T2 mapping. In this study, a rat model of early stage OA was established by immobilizing the left knee joints of adult male rats for two weeks. Subsequently, rats were fed with nicotine for two and four weeks. Changes in the articular cartilage from the medial femoral condylar region of the knee were evaluated by gross observation and histological grading with the contents of cartilage matrix detected...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
Insu Kim, Ho Yeon Son, Moon Young Yang, Yoon Sung Nam
Immobilization of nanometer-sized metal catalysts into porous substrates can stabilize the catalysts and allow their recycled uses, while immobilization often sacrifices the active surface of catalysts and degenerates the local microenvironments, resulting in the reduction of the catalytic activity. To maintain a high activity of immobilized nanocatalysts, it is critically important to design an interface that minimizes the contact area and favors reaction chemistry. Here we report on the application of mussel-inspired adhesion chemistry to the formation of catalytic metal nanocrystal-polydopamine hybrid materials that exhibit a high catalytic efficiency during recycled uses...
July 8, 2015: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Christi L Kolarcik, Silvia D Luebben, Shawn A Sapp, Jenna Hanner, Noah Snyder, Takashi D Y Kozai, Emily Chang, James A Nabity, Shawn T Nabity, Carl F Lagenaur, X Tracy Cui
Current designs for microelectrodes used for interfacing with the nervous system elicit a characteristic inflammatory response that leads to scar tissue encapsulation, electrical insulation of the electrode from the tissue and ultimately failure. Traditionally, relatively stiff materials like tungsten and silicon are employed which have mechanical properties several orders of magnitude different from neural tissue. This mechanical mismatch is thought to be a major cause of chronic inflammation and degeneration around the device...
June 28, 2015: Soft Matter
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