keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

adaptive clinical trials

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533809/brachytherapy-in-the-treatment-of-bile-duct-cancer-a-tough-challenge
#1
REVIEW
Janusz Skowronek, Grzegorz Zwierzchowski
The majority of patients with bile duct cancer are diagnosed with clinically advanced disease. Most of these patients have a short life expectancy and are treated with palliative aim. Most patients present with locally advanced or metastatic disease, which is not amenable to surgical resection, resulting in poor survival. Adjuvant or definitive radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy, is therefore used in many centers worldwide for better local control, and with the expectation that it will have a favorable effect on survival...
April 2017: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532387/robust-estimation-of-the-expected-survival-probabilities-from-high-dimensional-cox-models-with-biomarker-by-treatment-interactions-in-randomized-clinical-trials
#2
Nils Ternès, Federico Rotolo, Stefan Michiels
BACKGROUND: Thanks to the advances in genomics and targeted treatments, more and more prediction models based on biomarkers are being developed to predict potential benefit from treatments in a randomized clinical trial. Despite the methodological framework for the development and validation of prediction models in a high-dimensional setting is getting more and more established, no clear guidance exists yet on how to estimate expected survival probabilities in a penalized model with biomarker-by-treatment interactions...
May 22, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529904/mini-review-of-conventional-and-hypofractionated-radiation-therapy-combined-with-immunotherapy-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Allison M Campbell, Roy H Decker
A successful antitumoral response requires immunological activation as well as an antigenic pool capable of stimulating both the innate and the adaptive immune system. Recent advances in immunotherapy have been aimed at boosting the activation status of the innate and adaptive immune system, including cytokine administration, monoclonal antibodies engineered to target high yield elements in oncogenic signaling pathways, cancer vaccines, and checkpoint inhibitors. Herein, we examine the ways that radiation therapy induced cell death provides a pool of stimulus antigen, and draw parallels from the immunobiology of autoimmunity to explore how the immunogenicity of antigen derived from radiation-induced cell death might augment the antitumoral response...
April 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529900/immunotherapy-and-radiation-therapy-for-operable-early-stage-and-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Neil K Taunk, Andreas Rimner, Melissa Culligan, Joseph S Friedberg, Julie Brahmer, Jamie Chaft
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer mortality. Although a significant proportion of patients can be cured with surgery, with or without adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation, a significant proportion of patients will fail, particularly distantly. Over fifty percent of patients present with stage IV disease. There are multiple forms of immunotherapy available including T-cell transfer, cytokine therapy, and oncolytic viruses. Checkpoint inhibitors have shown tremendous activity in NSCLC and are currently under intense study given promising data on response...
April 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529406/implementing-optimal-allocation-in-clinical-trials-with-multiple-endpoints
#5
Lu Wang, Yong Chen, Hongjian Zhu
Modern clinical trials are often complex, with multiple competing objectives and multiple endpoints. Such trials should be both ethical and efficient. In this paper, we overcome the obstacles introduced by the large number of unknown parameters and the possible correlations between the multiple endpoints. We obtain the optimal allocation proportions for the following two optimization problems: (1) maximizing the power of the test of homogeneity with a fixed sample size, and (2) minimizing the expected weighted number of failures with a fixed power...
March 2017: Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526605/microevolutionary-response-of-a-gut-nematode-to-intestinal-inflammation
#6
Cédric Lippens, Bruno Faivre, Gabriele Sorci
Parasitic helminths interfere with the immune responses of their hosts to establish long-lasting, chronic infections. While favorable to the parasite, the capacity to dampen the immune response can also provide a benefit to the host in terms of reduced risk of immune disorders and immunopathology. The immunomodulatory role of nematodes has been exploited in clinical trials to treat a number of inflammatory and immune diseases. However, how parasites adapt to an inflammatory environment remains a poorly explored question...
May 17, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526019/mass-anti-malarial-administration-in-western-cambodia-a-qualitative-study-of-factors-affecting-coverage
#7
Christopher Pell, Rupam Tripura, Chea Nguon, Phaikyeong Cheah, Chan Davoeung, Chhouen Heng, Lim Dara, Ma Sareth, Arjen Dondorp, Lorenz von Seidlein, Thomas J Peto
BACKGROUND: Mass anti-malarial administration has been proposed as a key component of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria elimination strategy in the Greater Mekong sub-Region. Its effectiveness depends on high levels of coverage in the target population. This article explores the factors that influenced mass anti-malarial administration coverage within a clinical trial in Battambang Province, western Cambodia. METHODS: Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with villagers, in-depth interviews with study staff, trial drop-outs and refusers, and observations in the communities...
May 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525977/the-intracerebral-hemorrhage-acutely-decreasing-arterial-pressure-trial-ii-ich-adapt-ii-protocol
#8
Laura Gioia, Ana Klahr, Mahesh Kate, Brian Buck, Dariush Dowlatshahi, Thomas Jeerakathil, Derek Emery, Kenneth Butcher
BACKGROUND: Aggressively lowering blood pressure (BP) in acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) may improve outcome. Although there is no evidence that BP reduction changes cerebral blood flow, retrospective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have demonstrated sub-acute ischemic lesions in ICH patients. The primary aim of this study is to assess ischemic lesion development in patients randomized to two different BP treatment strategies. We hypothesize aggressive BP reduction is not associated with ischemic injury after ICH...
May 19, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524622/prognostic-significance-of-morphotypes-in-canine-lymphomas-a-systematic-review-of-literature
#9
REVIEW
D Sayag, C Fournel-Fleury, F Ponce
Correlation between morphotypes and prognosis of canine lymphomas presented discordant results in literature, leading to some dilemma for application in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to present a systematic review of literature on the prognostic significance of morphotypes in canine lymphomas. Standardized Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) criteria were applied. Retrospective and prospective studies were included. Level of evidence was determined for each study...
May 19, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523635/2017-position-paper-of-the-italian-society-for-cardiovascular-prevention-siprec-for-an-updated-clinical-management-of-hypercholesterolemia-and-cardiovascular-risk-executive-document
#10
Massimo Volpe, Roberto Volpe, Giovanna Gallo, Vivianne Presta, Giuliano Tocci, Emanuela Folco, Andrea Peracino, Elena Tremoli, Bruno Trimarco
The benefits achieved by implementing cardiovascular prevention strategies in terms of reduced incidence of atherosclerotic diseases and mortality are accepted, worldwide. In particular, the clinical management of hypercholesterolemia has a fundamental role for all preventive strategies, both in primary and secondary prevention, at each stage of cardiovascular risk. Since the net clinical benefit of lipid-lowering therapy largely depends on baseline individual cardiovascular risk profile, the assessment of individual risk is essential to establish type and intensity of both preventive and therapeutic strategies...
May 18, 2017: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521905/harnessing-the-properties-of-dendritic-cells-in-the-pursuit-of-immunological-tolerance
#11
REVIEW
Christopher Horton, Kumaran Shanmugarajah, Paul J Fairchild
The acquisition of self-perpetuating, immunological tolerance specific for graft alloantigens has long been described as the "holy grail" of clinical transplantation. By removing the need for life-long immunosuppression following engraftment, the adverse consequences of immunosuppressive regimens, including chronic infections and malignancy, may be avoided. Furthermore, autoimmune diseases and allergy are, by definition, driven by aberrant immunological responses to ordinarily innocuous antigens. The re-establishment of permanent tolerance towards instigating antigens may, therefore, provide a cure to these common diseases...
April 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521579/cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-post-stroke-fatigue-and-sleep-disturbance-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial-with-blind-assessment
#12
Sylvia Nguyen, Dana Wong, Adam McKay, Shantha M W Rajaratnam, Gershon Spitz, Gavin Williams, Darren Mansfield, Jennie L Ponsford
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of individual cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for post-stroke fatigue and sleep disturbance compared to treatment as usual (TAU). In a parallel two-group pilot randomised controlled trial of 15 participants, nine were allocated to eight weekly sessions of adapted CBT and six continued usual care rehabilitation. The primary outcome was the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS-7) at two and four months from baseline. Secondary outcomes included measures of sleep, mood and quality of life...
May 19, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520893/using-bayesian-modeling-in-frequentist-adaptive-enrichment-designs
#13
Noah Simon, Richard Simon
Our increased understanding of the mechanistic heterogeneity of diseases has pushed the development of targeted therapeutics. We do not expect all patients with a given disease to benefit from a targeted drug; only those in the target population. That is, those with sufficient dysregulation in the biomolecular pathway targeted by treatment. However, due to complexity of the pathway, and/or technical issues with our characterizing assay, it is often hard to characterize the target population until well into large-scale clinical trials...
May 17, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511741/influenza-detection-and-prediction-algorithms-comparative-accuracy-trial-in-%C3%A3-sterg%C3%A3-tland-county-sweden-2008-2012
#14
A Spreco, O Eriksson, Ö Dahlström, T Timpka
Methods for the detection of influenza epidemics and prediction of their progress have seldom been comparatively evaluated using prospective designs. This study aimed to perform a prospective comparative trial of algorithms for the detection and prediction of increased local influenza activity. Data on clinical influenza diagnoses recorded by physicians and syndromic data from a telenursing service were used. Five detection and three prediction algorithms previously evaluated in public health settings were calibrated and then evaluated over 3 years...
May 17, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508875/early-phase-clinical-trials-of-anticancer-agents-in-children-and-adolescents-an-itcc-perspective
#15
REVIEW
Lucas Moreno, Andrew D J Pearson, Xavier Paoletti, Irene Jimenez, Birgit Geoerger, Pamela R Kearns, C Michel Zwaan, Francois Doz, Andre Baruchel, Josef Vormoor, Michela Casanova, Stefan M Pfister, Bruce Morland, Gilles Vassal
In the past decade, the landscape of drug development in oncology has evolved dramatically; however, this paradigm shift remains to be adopted in early phase clinical trial designs for studies of molecularly targeted agents and immunotherapeutic agents in paediatric malignancies. In drug development, prioritization of drugs on the basis of knowledge of tumour biology, molecular 'drivers' of disease and a drug's mechanism of action, and therapeutic unmet needs are key elements; these aspects are relevant to early phase paediatric trials, in which molecular profiling is strongly encouraged...
May 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507993/enhanced-recovery-after-emergency-surgery-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Mihai Paduraru, Luca Ponchietti, Isidro Martinez Casas, Peter Svenningsen, Mauro Zago
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the current scientific evidence for the applicability, safety and effectiveness of pathways of enhanced recovery after emergency surgery (ERAS). METHODS: We undertook a search using PubMed and Cochrane databases for ERAS protocols in emergency cases. The search generated 65 titles; after eliminating the papers not meeting search criteria, we selected 4 cohort studies and 1 randomized clinical trial (RCT). Data extracted for analysis consisted of: patient age, type of surgery performed, ERAS elements implemented, surgical outcomes in terms of postoperative complications, mortality, length of stay (LOS) and readmission rate...
April 2017: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507726/adapting-tissue-engineered-in-vitro-cns-models-for-high-throughput-study-of-neurodegeneration
#17
Caitriona O'Rourke, Charlotte Lee-Reeves, Rosemary Al Drake, Grant Ww Cameron, A Jane Loughlin, James B Phillips
Neurodegenerative conditions remain difficult to treat, with the continuing failure to see therapeutic research successfully advance to clinical trials. One of the obstacles that must be overcome is to develop enhanced models of disease. Tissue engineering techniques enable us to create organised artificial central nervous system tissue that has the potential to improve the drug development process. This study presents a replicable model of neurodegenerative pathology through the use of engineered neural tissue co-cultures that can incorporate cells from various sources and allow degeneration and protection of neurons to be observed easily and measured, following exposure to neurotoxic compounds - okadaic acid and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium...
January 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506702/cognitive-and-adaptive-measurement-endpoints-for-clinical-trials-in-mucopolysaccharidoses-types-i-ii-and-iii-a-review-of-the-literature
#18
REVIEW
Darren Janzen, Kathleen A Delaney, Elsa G Shapiro
Sensitive, reliable measurement instruments are critical for the evaluation of disease progression and new treatments that affect the brain in the mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS). MPS I, II, and III have early onset clinical phenotypes that affect the brain during development and result in devastating cognitive decline and ultimately death without treatment. Comparisons of outcomes are hindered by diverse protocols and approaches to assessment including applicability to international trials necessary in rare diseases...
May 8, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506273/inertial-measurement-systems-for-segments-and-joints-kinematics-assessment-towards-an-understanding-of-the-variations-in-sensors-accuracy
#19
Karina Lebel, Patrick Boissy, Hung Nguyen, Christian Duval
BACKGROUND: Joints kinematics assessment based on inertial measurement systems, which include attitude and heading reference system (AHRS), are quickly gaining in popularity for research and clinical applications. The variety of the tasks and contexts they are used in require a deep understanding of the AHRS accuracy for optimal data interpretation. However, published accuracy studies on AHRS are mostly limited to a single task measured on a limited number of segments and participants...
May 15, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505992/the-influence-of-a-constraint-and-bimanual-training-program-using-a-variety-of-modalities-on-endurance-and-on-the-cardiac-autonomic-regulation-system-of-children-with-unilateral-cerebral-palsy-a-self-control-clinical-trial
#20
Marilyn Cohen-Holzer, Gilad Sorek, Maayan Schweizer, Michal Katz-Leurer
BACKGROUND: An intensive hybrid program, combining constraint with bimanual training, improves upper extremity function as well as walking endurance of children with unilateral cerebral palsy (UCP). Endurance improvement may be associated with the cardiac autonomic regulation system (CARS) adaptation, known to be impaired among these children. OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence of an intensive hybrid program on CARS, walking endurance and the correlation with upper extremity function of children with UCP...
May 11, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
keyword
keyword
92440
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"