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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231506/plant-chromium-uptake-and-transport-physiological-effects-and-recent-advances-in-molecular-investigations
#1
REVIEW
Maria Angélica da Conceição Gomes, Rachel Ann Hauser-Davis, Marina Satika Suzuki, Angela Pierre Vitória
Increasingly, anthropogenic perturbations of the biosphere manifest in a broad array of global phenomena, causing widespread contamination of most ecosystems, with high dispersion rates of many contaminants throughout different environmental compartments, including metals. Chromium (Cr) contamination in particular, is, increasingly, posing a serious threat to the environment, emerging as a major health hazard to the biota. However, although the molecular and physiological mechanisms of plant responses to many heavy metals, especially lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), have been focused upon in recent years, chromium has attracted significantly less attention...
February 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230817/common%C3%A2-chemical%C3%A2-inductors%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-replication%C3%A2-stress-%C3%A2-focus%C3%A2-on%C3%A2-cell-based%C3%A2-studies
#2
REVIEW
Eva Vesela, Katarina Chroma, Zsofia Turi, Martin Mistrik
DNA replication is a highly demanding process regarding the energy and material supply and must be precisely regulated, involving multiple cellular feedbacks. The slowing down or stalling of DNA synthesis and/or replication forks is referred to as replication stress (RS). Owing to the complexity and requirements of replication, a plethora of factors may interfere and challenge the genome stability, cell survival or affect the whole organism. This review outlines chemical compounds that are known inducers of RS and commonly used in laboratory research...
February 21, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230815/conceptual-foundations-of-systems-biology-explaining-complex-cardiac-diseases
#3
REVIEW
George E Louridas, Katerina G Lourida
Systems biology is an important concept that connects molecular biology and genomics with computing science, mathematics and engineering. An endeavor is made in this paper to associate basic conceptual ideas of systems biology with clinical medicine. Complex cardiac diseases are clinical phenotypes generated by integration of genetic, molecular and environmental factors. Basic concepts of systems biology like network construction, modular thinking, biological constraints (downward biological direction) and emergence (upward biological direction) could be applied to clinical medicine...
February 21, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230703/omics-and-cachexia
#4
Brigitte Twelkmeyer, Nicolas Tardif, Olav Rooyackers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to recapture recent advances in cachexia-related diseases, mainly cancer cachexia, and treatment using genomic, transcriptomics, proteomic, and metabolomics-related techniques. RECENT FINDINGS: From recent studies in the cancer cachexia field it is clear that the tumor has a direct effect on distant organs via its secretome. The affected pathways on the other hand were largely known from earlier studies with changes in energy-related pathways (mainly lipid metabolism) and the protein degradation pathways...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230630/update-on-the-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-and-its-relevance-to-schizophrenia
#5
Lily Van, Erik Boot, Anne S Bassett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Schizophrenia occurs in ∼25% of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), the strongest known molecular genetic risk factor for schizophrenia. This review highlights recent literature in 22q11.2DS as it pertains to psychosis and schizophrenia. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in noninvasive prenatal testing allow for early detection of 22q11.2DS in utero, whereas premature birth has been shown to be a significant risk factor for development of psychotic illness in 22q11...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229978/untranslated-regions-of-mrna-and-their-role-in-regulation-of-gene-expression-in-protozoan-parasites
#6
Shilpa J Rao, Sangeeta Chatterjee, Jayantapal K Pal
Protozoan parasites are one of the oldest living entities in this world that throughout their existence have shown excellent resilience to the odds of survival and have adapted beautifully to ever changing rigors of the environment. In view of the dynamic environment encountered by them throughout their life cycle, and in establishing pathogenesis, it is unsurprising that modulation of gene expression plays a fundamental role in their survival. In higher eukaryotes, untranslated regions (UTRs) of transcripts are one of the crucial regulators of gene expression (influencing mRNA stability and translation efficiency)...
March 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228978/population-and-clinical-genetics-of-human-transposable-elements-in-the-post-genomic-era
#7
REVIEW
Lavanya Rishishwar, Lu Wang, Evan A Clayton, Leonardo Mariño-Ramírez, John F McDonald, I King Jordan
Recent technological developments-in genomics, bioinformatics and high-throughput experimental techniques-are providing opportunities to study ongoing human transposable element (TE) activity at an unprecedented level of detail. It is now possible to characterize genome-wide collections of TE insertion sites for multiple human individuals, within and between populations, and for a variety of tissue types. Comparison of TE insertion site profiles between individuals captures the germline activity of TEs and reveals insertion site variants that segregate as polymorphisms among human populations, whereas comparison among tissue types ascertains somatic TE activity that generates cellular heterogeneity...
2017: Mobile Genetic Elements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228773/import-of-soluble-proteins-into-chloroplasts-and-potential-regulatory-mechanisms
#8
REVIEW
Inga Sjuts, Jürgen Soll, Bettina Bölter
Chloroplasts originated from an endosymbiotic event in which a free-living cyanobacterium was engulfed by an ancestral eukaryotic host. During evolution the majority of the chloroplast genetic information was transferred to the host cell nucleus. As a consequence, proteins formerly encoded by the chloroplast genome are now translated in the cytosol and must be subsequently imported into the chloroplast. This process involves three steps: (i) cytosolic sorting procedures, (ii) binding to the designated receptor-equipped target organelle and (iii) the consecutive translocation process...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228157/genetics-and-genomics-of-dilated-cardiomyopathy-and-systolic-heart-failure
#9
REVIEW
Upasana Tayal, Sanjay Prasad, Stuart A Cook
Heart failure is a major health burden, affecting 40 million people globally. One of the main causes of systolic heart failure is dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), the leading global indication for heart transplantation. Our understanding of the genetic basis of both DCM and systolic heart failure has improved in recent years with the application of next-generation sequencing and genome-wide association studies (GWAS). This has enabled rapid sequencing at scale, leading to the discovery of many novel rare variants in DCM and of common variants in both systolic heart failure and DCM...
February 22, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226237/novel-insights-into-tree-biology-and-genome-evolution-as-revealed-through-genomics
#10
David B Neale, Pedro J Martínez-García, Amanda R De La Torre, Sara Montanari, Xiao-Xin Wei
Reference genome sequences are the key to the discovery of genes and gene families that determine traits of interest. Recent progress in sequencing technologies has enabled a rapid increase in genome sequencing of tree species, allowing the dissection of complex characters of economic importance, such as fruit and wood quality and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although the number of reference genome sequences for trees lags behind those for other plant species, it is not too early to gain insight into the unique features that distinguish trees from nontree plants...
February 6, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226236/new-strategies-and-tools-in-quantitative-genetics-how-to-go-from-the-phenotype-to-the-genotype
#11
C Bazakos, M Hanemian, C Trontin, J M Jiménez-Gómez, O Loudet
Quantitative genetics has a long history in plants: It has been used to study specific biological processes, identify the factors important for trait evolution, and breed new crop varieties. These classical approaches to quantitative trait locus mapping have naturally improved with technology. In this review, we show how quantitative genetics has evolved recently in plants and how new developments in phenotyping, population generation, sequencing, gene manipulation, and statistics are rejuvenating both the classical linkage mapping approaches (for example, through nested association mapping) as well as the more recently developed genome-wide association studies...
February 6, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226235/plant-mitochondrial-genomes-dynamics-and-mechanisms-of-mutation
#12
José M Gualberto, Kathleen J Newton
The large mitochondrial genomes of angiosperms are unusually dynamic because of recombination activities involving repeated sequences. These activities generate subgenomic forms and extensive genomic variation even within the same species. Such changes in genome structure are responsible for the rapid evolution of plant mitochondrial DNA and for the variants associated with cytoplasmic male sterility and abnormal growth phenotypes. Nuclear genes modulate these processes, and over the past decade, several of these genes have been identified...
February 9, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226230/genomics-physiology-and-molecular-breeding-approaches-for-improving-salt-tolerance
#13
Abdelbagi M Ismail, Tomoaki Horie
Salt stress reduces land and water productivity and contributes to poverty and food insecurity. Increased salinization caused by human practices and climate change is progressively reducing agriculture productivity despite escalating calls for more food. Plant responses to salt stress are fairly well understood, involving numerous critical processes that are each controlled by multiple genes. Knowledge of the critical mechanisms controlling salt uptake and exclusion from functioning tissues, signaling of salt stress, and the arsenal of protective metabolites is advancing...
February 22, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224496/computationally-tractable-multivariate-hmm-in-genome-wide-mapping-studies
#14
Hyungwon Choi, Debashis Ghosh, Zhaohui Qin
Hidden Markov model (HMM) is widely used for modeling spatially correlated genomic data (series data). In genomics, datasets of this kind are generated from genome-wide mapping studies through high-throughput methods such as chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq). When multiple regulatory protein binding sites or related epigenetic modifications are mapped simultaneously, the correlation between data series can be incorporated into the latent variable inference in a multivariate form of HMM, potentially increasing the statistical power of signal detection...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224491/predicting-alpha-helical-transmembrane-proteins-using-hmms
#15
Georgios N Tsaousis, Margarita C Theodoropoulou, Stavros J Hamodrakas, Pantelis G Bagos
Alpha helical transmembrane (TM) proteins constitute an important structural class of membrane proteins involved in a wide variety of cellular functions. The prediction of their transmembrane topology, as well as their discrimination in newly sequenced genomes, is of great importance for the elucidation of their structure and function. Several methods have been applied for the prediction of the transmembrane segments and the topology of alpha helical transmembrane proteins utilizing different algorithmic techniques...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224490/predicting-beta-barrel-transmembrane-proteins-using-hmms
#16
Georgios N Tsaousis, Stavros J Hamodrakas, Pantelis G Bagos
Transmembrane beta-barrels (TMBBs) constitute an important structural class of membrane proteins located in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, and in the outer membrane of chloroplasts and mitochondria. They are involved in a wide variety of cellular functions and the prediction of their transmembrane topology, as well as their discrimination in newly sequenced genomes is of great importance as they are promising targets for antimicrobial drugs and vaccines. Several methods have been applied for the prediction of the transmembrane segments and the topology of beta barrel transmembrane proteins utilizing different algorithmic techniques...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224382/retrospective-review-of-genomic-testing-in-breast-cancer-does-it-improve-outcome
#17
Grady M Gastelum, Cyrus Iqbal, Susan G Hilsenbeck, Mothaffar F Rimawi, Polly Niravath
PURPOSE: Tumor genomic testing has become widely available in many clinical settings. However, we do not yet understand how to best harness the information yielded from this testing. We retrospectively investigated the clinical courses of 24 patients who underwent tumor genomic testing to determine whether targeted therapy is associated with improved progression free survival (PFS) compared to standard therapy. METHODS: The patient population comprised metastatic breast cancer patients who underwent tumor genomic testing (testing biopsy specimens of primary or metastatic lesions for 50 commonly mutated genes) at our institution between September 1, 2010 and June 1, 2015...
February 21, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223438/dysregulated-gpcr-signaling-and-therapeutic-options-in-uveal-melanoma
#18
Vivian Chua, Dominic Lapadula, Clinita Randolph, Jeffrey L Benovic, Philip Wedegaertner, Andrew E Aplin
: Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignant tumor in adults and arises from the transformation of melanocytes in the uveal tract. Even after treatment of the primary tumor, up to 50% of patients succumb to metastatic disease. The liver is the predominant organ of metastasis. There is an important need to provide effective treatment options for advanced stage UM. In order to provide the preclinical basis for new treatments, it is important to understand the molecular underpinnings of the disease...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222731/genomic-newborn-screening-public-health-policy-considerations-and-recommendations
#19
Jan M Friedman, Martina C Cornel, Aaron J Goldenberg, Karla J Lister, Karine Sénécal, Danya F Vears
BACKGROUND: The use of genome-wide (whole genome or exome) sequencing for population-based newborn screening presents an opportunity to detect and treat or prevent many more serious early-onset health conditions than is possible today. METHODS: The Paediatric Task Team of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health's Regulatory and Ethics Working Group reviewed current understanding and concerns regarding the use of genomic technologies for population-based newborn screening and developed, by consensus, eight recommendations for clinicians, clinical laboratory scientists, and policy makers...
February 21, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220606/lamarck-rises-from-his-grave-parental-environment-induced-epigenetic-inheritance-in-model-organisms-and-humans
#20
Yan Wang, Huijie Liu, Zhongsheng Sun
Organisms can change their physiological/behavioural traits to adapt and survive in changed environments. However, whether these acquired traits can be inherited across generations through non-genetic alterations has been a topic of debate for over a century. Emerging evidence indicates that both ancestral and parental experiences, including nutrition, environmental toxins, nurturing behaviour, and social stress, can have powerful effects on the physiological, metabolic and cellular functions in an organism...
February 20, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
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