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molecular inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150621/pnpla3-variant-and-portal-periportal-histological-pattern-in-patients-with-biopsy-proven-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-possible-role-for-oxidative-stress
#1
Guido Carpino, Daniele Pastori, Francesco Baratta, Diletta Overi, Giancarlo Labbadia, Licia Polimeni, Alessia Di Costanzo, Gaetano Pannitteri, Roberto Carnevale, Maria Del Ben, Marcello Arca, Francesco Violi, Francesco Angelico, Eugenio Gaudio
Pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is influenced by predisposing genetic variations, dysmetabolism, systemic oxidative stress, and local cellular and molecular cross-talks. Patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) gene I148M variant is a known determinant of NAFLD. Aims were to evaluate whether PNPLA3 I148M variant was associated with a specific histological pattern, hepatic stem/progenitor cell (HpSC) niche activation and serum oxidative stress markers. Liver biopsies were obtained from 54 NAFLD patients...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150600/mapping-tenascin-c-interaction-with-toll-like-receptor-4-reveals-a-new-subset-of-endogenous-inflammatory-triggers
#2
Lorena Zuliani-Alvarez, Anna M Marzeda, Claire Deligne, Anja Schwenzer, Fiona E McCann, Brian D Marsden, Anna M Piccinini, Kim S Midwood
Pattern recognition underpins innate immunity; the accurate identification of danger, including infection, injury, or tumor, is key to an appropriately targeted immune response. Pathogen detection is increasingly well defined mechanistically, but the discrimination of endogenous inflammatory triggers remains unclear. Tenascin-C, a matrix protein induced upon tissue damage and expressed by tumors, activates toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated sterile inflammation. Here we map three sites within tenascin-C that directly and cooperatively interact with TLR4...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149841/establishment-of-rat-ankle-post-traumatic-osteoarthritis-model-induced-by-malleolus-fracture
#3
Dawei Liang, Jian Sun, Fangyuan Wei, Jianzhong Zhang, Pengcui Li, Yingke Xu, Xianwen Shang, Jin Deng, Ting Zhao, Lei Wei
BACKGROUND: Malleolar fracture, which is present in 37-53% of human ankle osteoarthritis (OA), is the most common type of fracture in the ankle joint. In spite of this, no rat animal model has been developed for this type of injury to date. Here, we established a rat ankle post-traumatic OA (PTOA) model induced by malleolar fracture; this model will be useful in ankle OA research. METHODS: Two-month-old male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into 2 groups (n = 19 per group): 1) malleolus articular fracture, dislocation, and immediate reduction on the right joints and 2) malleolus articular fracture on the right ankle...
November 17, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149067/the-hmgb1-rage-pro-inflammatory-axis-in-the-human-placenta-modulating-effect-of-low-molecular-weight-heparin
#4
Cristian Zenerino, Anna Maria Nuzzo, Domenica Giuffrida, Marilisa Biolcati, Alessandra Zicari, Tullia Todros, Alessandro Rolfo
We evaluated whether physiological and pre-eclamptic (PE) placentae, characterized by exacerbated inflammation, presented alterations in pro-inflammatory High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) and its Receptor of Advanced Glycation End products (RAGE) expression. Moreover, we investigated, in physiological placental tissue, the ability of Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH) to modify HMGB1 structural conformation thus inhibiting RAGE binding and HMGB1/RAGE axis inflammatory activity. HMGB1, RAGE, IL-6 and TNFα (HMGB1/RAGE targets) mRNA expression were assessed by Real Time PCR...
November 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147624/high-cxc-chemokine-receptor-1-level-represents-an-independent-negative-prognosticator-in-non-metastatic-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-patients
#5
Yu Zhu, Zheng Liu, Yiwei Wang, Hangcheng Fu, Zewei Wang, Huyang Xie, Junyu Zhang, Gaoxiang Li, Bo Dai, Dingwei Ye, Jiejie Xu
CXC chemokine receptor 1 (CXCR1) signaling has been shown as an essential molecular nexus regarding cancer cell proliferation, tumor inflammation, and angiogenesis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of CXCR1 in patients with non-metastatic ccRCC. Data from 446 consecutive non-metastatic ccRCC patients, operated between 2003 and 2008 at a single institution, were evaluated retrospectively. The cohort was split into a training set (n = 223) and a validation set (n = 223)...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147012/piperidylmethyloxychalcone-improves-immune-mediated-acute-liver-failure-via-inhibiting-tak1-activity
#6
Sun Hong Park, Jeong-Ah Kwak, Sang-Hun Jung, Byeongwoo Ahn, Won-Jea Cho, Cheong-Yong Yun, Chang Seon Na, Bang Yeon Hwang, Jin Tae Hong, Sang-Bae Han, Youngsoo Kim
Mice deficient in the toll-like receptor (TLR) or the myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) are resistant to acute liver failure (ALF) with sudden death of hepatocytes. Chalcone derivatives from medicinal plants protect from hepatic damages including ALF, but their mechanisms remain to be clarified. Here, we focused on molecular basis of piperidylmethyloxychalcone (PMOC) in the treatment of TLR/MyD88-associated ALF. C57BL/6J mice were sensitized with D-galactosamine (GalN) and challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, TLR4 agonist) or oligodeoxynucleotide containing unmethylated CpG motif (CpG ODN, TLR9 agonist) for induction of ALF...
November 17, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145733/harnessing-novel-imaging-approaches-to-guide-hiv-prevention-and-cure-discoveries-a-national-institutes-of-health-and-global-hiv-vaccine-enterprise-2017-meeting-report
#7
Brigitte Elisabeth Sanders-Beer, Yegor Voronin, David McDonald, Anjali Singh
Advances in imaging technologies have greatly increased our understanding of cellular and molecular interactions in humans and their corresponding animal models of infectious diseases. In the HIV/SIV field, imaging has provided key insights into mucosal viral transmission, local and systemic virus spread, host-virus dynamics, and chronic inflammation/immune activation and the resultant immunopathology. Recent developments in imaging applications are yielding physical, spatial, and temporal measurements to enhance insight into biological functions and disease processes, while retaining important cellular, microenvironmental, organ and intact organism contextual details...
November 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145158/vibrio-cholerae-ompu-induces-il-8-expression-in-human-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#8
Jae Seung Yang, Jun Ho Jeon, Mi Seon Jang, Seok-Seong Kang, Ki Bum Ahn, Manki Song, Cheol-Heui Yun, Seung Hyun Han
Although Vibrio cholerae colonizes the small intestine and induces acute inflammatory responses, less is known about the molecular mechanisms of V. cholerae-induced inflammatory responses in the intestine. We recently reported that OmpU, one of the most abundant outer membrane proteins of V. cholerae, plays an important role in the innate immunity of the whole bacteria. In this study, we evaluated the role of OmpU in induction of IL-8, a representative chemokine that recruits various inflammatory immune cells, in the human intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) line, HT-29...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142485/unexpected-inflammation-in-the-sympathetic-ganglia-in-thromboangiitis-obliterans
#9
Mahdi Farzadnia, Hassan Ravari, Mitra Masoudian, Narges Valizadeh, Bahare Fazeli
The aim of this study was to inspect more closely the microscopic and molecular sympathetic ganglia histology in thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO). The paraffin block and frozen RNAlater-treated tissue of the lumbar sympathetic ganglia of 19 TAO Caucasian male patients were evaluated. The gene expression of cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) and cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8) markers in the frozen RNAlater-treated sympathetic ganglia tissues were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Unexpectedly, lymphocyte infiltration was observed in all of the histological sections, ranging from scattered to moderate lymphocyte infiltration...
December 2017: International Journal of Angiology: Official Publication of the International College of Angiology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141971/role-of-microrna-regulation-in-obesity-associated-breast-cancer-nutritional-perspectives
#10
REVIEW
Ravi Kasiappan, Dheeran Rajarajan
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy diagnosed in women, and the incidence of breast cancer is increasing every year. Obesity has been identified as one of the major risk factors for breast cancer progression. The mechanisms by which obesity contributes to breast cancer development is not yet understood; however, there are a few mechanisms counted as potential producers of breast cancer in obesity, including insulin resistance, chronic inflammation and inflammatory cytokines, adipokines, and sex hormones...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141573/liver-protective-effects-of-extra-virgin-olive-oil-interaction-between-its-chemical-composition-and-the-cell-signaling-pathways-involved-in-protection
#11
Sandra A Soto-Alarcon, Rodrigo Valenzuela, Alfonso Valenzuela, Luis A Videla
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The liver is an organ susceptible to a multitude of injuries that causes liver damage, like steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), presents several protective effects on the liver, reducing hepatic steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning, fibrogenesis, preventing lipid peroxidation, among other effects. Due to its high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleic acid and phenolic compounds, such as hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, EVOO is able to participate in the activation of different signaling pathways in the hepatocytes involved in the prevention of inflammation, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and insulin resistance, allowing the prevention or resolution of liver damage...
November 14, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141545/main-isoflavones-found-in-dietary-sources-as-natural-anti-inflammatory-agents
#12
Corina Danciu, Stefana Avram, Ioana Pavel, Roxana Ghiulai, Cristina Dehelean, Alexa Ersilia, Daliana Minda, Cristina Petrescu, Elena Moaca, Codruta Soica
BACKGROUND: Isoflavones are natural compounds belonging to the class of isoflavonoids, molecules with a chemical structure based on the 3-phenyl chromen-4-one backbone. As a particular element, the isoflavones are called also phytoestrogens, due to the structural similarity with 17-β estradiol, the primary female sex hormone, presenting both estrogen-agonist and estrogen-antagonist properties. This class of secondary plant metabolites has been extensively reported in the literature for a wide range of therapeutic activities including antioxidant, chemopreventive, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, antibacterial, cardio preventive effects...
November 9, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140592/a-versatile-strategy-to-main-chain-sulfur-selenium-functionalized-polycarbonates-via-macro-ring-closure-of-diols-and-subsequent-ring-opening-polymerization
#13
Chao Wei, Yan Zhang, Bingkun Yan, Yue Xu, Zhengzhen Du, Meidong Lang
Sulfur/selenium containing cyclic carbonate monomers (MR) are designed and synthesized by enzyme catalyzed intermolecular macro-ring closure of related diols. The proposed synthetic strategy is tolerant of other functionalities such as N-substituted groups. The ring opening polymerization (ROP) of MR occurs readily as a versatile route to generate a new family of main chain sulfur/selenium substituted aliphatic polycarbonates (PR) with predictable molecular weights (MW), narrow molecular-weight distribution and controlled copolymer composition...
November 15, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140465/short-chain-arabinoxylans-prepared-from-enzymatically-treated-wheat-grain-exert-prebiotic-effects-during-the-broiler-starter-period
#14
N Yacoubi, L Saulnier, E Bonnin, E Devillard, V Eeckhaut, L Rhayat, R Ducatelle, F Van Immerseel
Carbohydrate-degrading multi-enzyme preparations (MEP) are used to improve broiler performances. Their mode of action is complex and not fully understood. In this study, we compared the effect of water-soluble fractions isolated at the pilot scale from wheat grain incubated with (WE) and without (WC) MEP. The fractions were incorporated in a wheat-based diet (0.1% w/w) to feed Ross PM3 broilers and compared with a non-supplemented control group (NC). The body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) until d 14 were determined...
November 10, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140108/cytomegalovirus-and-hiv-persistence-pouring-gas-on-the-fire
#15
Aaron Christensen-Quick, Christophe Vanpouille, Andrea Lisco, Sara Gianella
The inherent stability of a small population of T cells that are latently infected with HIV despite antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains a stubborn obstacle to an HIV cure. By exploiting the memory compartment of our immune system, HIV maintains persistence in a small subset of quiescent cells with varying phenotypes, thus evading immune surveillance and clinical detection. Understanding the molecular and immunological mechanisms that maintain the latent reservoir will be critical to the success of HIV eradication strategies...
November 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138954/identification-of-compounds-from-palicourea-rigida-leaves-with-topical-anti-inflammatory-potential-using-experimental-models
#16
Rafael P Pinheiro, Muiara A Moraes, Bruna C S Santos, Rodrigo L Fabri, Glauciemar Del-Vechio-Vieira, Célia H Yamamoto, Ana Lúcia S M Araújo, Aílson L A Araújo, Orlando V Sousa
Palicourea rigida Kunth is traditionally used for the treatment of skin diseases, kidney pains and ovarian inflammation. Based on these traditional uses, this study evaluated the topical anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanol extract from P. rigida leaves (EEPR) and identified bioactive compounds. Ear edema was induced in Swiss mice by the topical application of Croton oil, arachidonic acid, phenol and capsaicin. Histopathological analysis and myeloperoxidase and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activities were determined...
November 14, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138692/transcriptomics-driven-lipidomics-tdl-identifies-the-microbiome-regulated-targets-of-ileal-lipid-metabolism
#17
Anirikh Chakrabarti, Mathieu Membrez, Delphine Morin-Rivron, Jay Siddharth, Chieh Jason Chou, Hugues Henry, Stephen Bruce, Sylviane Metairon, Frederic Raymond, Bertrand Betrisey, Carole Loyer, Scott J Parkinson, Mojgan Masoodi
The gut microbiome and lipid metabolism are both recognized as essential components in the maintenance of metabolic health. The mechanisms involved are multifactorial and (especially for microbiome) poorly defined. A strategic approach to investigate the complexity of the microbial influence on lipid metabolism would facilitate determination of relevant molecular mechanisms for microbiome-targeted therapeutics. E. coli is associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome and we used this association in conjunction with gnotobiotic models to investigate the impact of E...
2017: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138678/febuxostat-modulates-mapk-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAbp65-tnf-%C3%AE-signaling-in-cardiac-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#18
Sana Irfan Khan, Rajiv Kumar Malhotra, Neha Rani, Anil Kumar Sahu, Ameesha Tomar, Shanky Garg, Tapas Chandra Nag, Ruma Ray, Shreesh Ojha, Dharamvir Singh Arya, Jagriti Bhatia
Xanthine oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase have been implicated in producing myocardial damage following reperfusion of an occluded coronary artery. We investigated and compared the effect of febuxostat and allopurinol in an experimental model of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury with a focus on the signaling pathways involved. Male Wistar rats were orally administered vehicle (CMC) once daily (sham and IR + control), febuxostat (10 mg/kg/day; FEB10 + IR), or allopurinol (100 mg/kg/day; ALL100 + IR) for 14 days...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138553/the-protective-effect-of-prmt6-overexpression-on-cigarette-smoke-extract-induced-murine-emphysema-model
#19
Xue He, Tiao Li, Naixin Kang, Huihui Zeng, Siying Ren, Dandan Zong, Jinhua Li, Shan Cai, Ping Chen, Yan Chen
Background: Cigarette smoke exposure is the most common risk factor for emphysema, which is one of the major pathologies of COPD. Protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) is a nuclear enzyme that specially catalyzes dimethylation of R2 in histone H3 (H3R2me2a). H3R2me2a prevents trimethylation of H3K4 (H3K4me3), which is located in the transcription start sites of genes in mammalian genomes. We attempted to determine the expression of PRMT6 in human samples, and investigate whether the upregulation of PRMT6 expression can attenuate the development of cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced emphysema...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138474/phagocytosis-of-environmental-or-metabolic-crystalline-particles-induces-cytotoxicity-by-triggering-necroptosis-across-a-broad-range-of-particle-size-and-shape
#20
Mohsen Honarpisheh, Orestes Foresto-Neto, Jyaysi Desai, Stefanie Steiger, Lidia Anguiano Gómez, Bastian Popper, Peter Boor, Hans-Joachim Anders, Shrikant R Mulay
In crystallopathies, crystals or crystalline particles of environmental and metabolic origin deposit within tissues, induce inflammation, injury and cell death and eventually lead to organ-failure. The NLRP3-inflammasome is involved in mediating crystalline particles-induced inflammation, but pathways leading to cell death are still unknown. Here, we have used broad range of intrinsic and extrinsic crystal- or crystalline particle-sizes and shapes, e.g. calcium phosphate, silica, titanium dioxide, cholesterol, calcium oxalate, and monosodium urate...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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