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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926923/involvement-of-mapk-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signal-transduction-pathways-camellia-japonica-mitigates-inflammation-and-gastric-ulcer
#1
Md Rashedunnabi Akanda, Byung-Yong Park
Gastric ulcer is an important risk factor for human health globally. Camellia japonica (CJ) is a plant of which the fruits are used as traditional phytomedicine for inflammatory and immunomodulatory diseases; however, the underlying molecular mechanism has not been clarified. The present study aimed to investigate the immunopharmacological activities of Camellia japonica and validate its pharmacological targets. To evaluate the protective roles of Camellia japonica on LPS-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cells and HCl/EtOH-induced gastric ulcer in mice; we applied 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), histopathology, malondialdehyde (MDA), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and western blot analyses...
September 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925872/abdominal-aorta-aneurysm-aaa-is-there-a-role-for-prevention-and-therapy-using-antioxidants
#2
Joël Pincemail, Jean-Olivier Defraigne, Audrey Courtois, Adelin Albert, Jean-Paul Cheramy-Bien, Natzi Sakalihasan
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a degenerative disease that cause mortality in people aged > 65 years. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress seems to play a pivotal role in AAA pathogenesis. Several sources of ROS have been identified in aortic tissues using experimental models: inflammation, increased activity of NAD(P)H or NOX, over-expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), platelets activation and iron release from hemoglobin...
September 18, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924918/adipocyte-size-and-leptin-receptor-expression-in-human-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#3
Martha Tamez, Victoria Ramos-Barragan, Patricia Mendoza-Lorenzo, Pablo Arrieta-Joffe, Sergio López-Martínez, Martín E Rojano-Rodríguez, Mucio Moreno-Portillo, María E Frigolet
The molecular mechanisms implicated in pronounced weight loss and metabolic benefits after bariatric surgery are still unknown. Adipocyte phenotype and metabolism have not been entirely explored. However, some features of adipocyte function have been studied, such as adipocyte size and inflammation, which are both reduced after bariatric surgery. Adipocyte fat metabolism, which is partly regulated by leptin, is likely modified, since adipocyte area is decreased. Here, we show that leptin receptor expression is increased, while adipocyte size is decreased 8 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass...
September 18, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924833/rho-inhibiting-c2in-c3-fusion-toxin-inhibits-chemotactic-recruitment-of-human-monocytes-ex-vivo-and-in-mice-in-vivo
#4
Tobias Martin, Amelie Möglich, Ina Felix, Christina Förtsch, Anne Rittlinger, Annette Palmer, Stephanie Denk, Julian Schneider, Lena Notbohm, Mona Vogel, Hartmut Geiger, Stephan Paschke, Markus Huber-Lang, Holger Barth
Bacterial protein toxins became valuable molecular tools for the targeted modulation of cell functions in experimental pharmacology and attractive therapeutics because of their potent and specific mode of action in human cells. C2IN-C3lim, a recombinant fusion toxin (~50 kDa) of the Rho-inhibiting C3lim from Clostridium (C.) limosum and a non-toxic portion of the C. botulinum C2 toxin (C2IN), is selectively internalized into the cytosol of monocytic cells where C3lim specifically ADP-ribosylates Rho A and -B, thereby inhibiting Rho-mediated signaling...
September 18, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923905/acute-coronary-syndromes-the-way-forward-from-mechanisms-to-precision-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Filippo Crea, Peter Libby
Well into the 21st century, we still triage acute myocardial infarction on the basis of the presence or absence of ST-segment elevation, a century-old technology. Meanwhile, we have learned a great deal about the pathophysiology and mechanisms of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) at the clinical, pathological, cellular, and molecular levels. Contemporary imaging studies have shed new light on the mechanisms of ACS. This review discusses these advances and their implications for clinical management of the ACS for the future...
September 19, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923765/preparation-and-investigation-of-p28gst-loaded-plga-microparticles-for-immunomodulation-of-experimental-colitis
#6
T H Hoang Thi, P A Priemel, Y Karrout, V Driss, M Delbeke, A Dendooven, M P Flament, M Capron, J Siepmann
The aim of this work was to prepare and characterize (in vitro and in vivo) PLGA-based microparticles loaded with an enzymatic protein derived from the helminth parasite Schistosoma haematobium: glutathione S-transferase P28GST (P28GST). This protein is not only a promising candidate vaccine against schistosomiasis, it also exhibits interesting immunomodulating effects, which can be helpful for the regulation of inflammatory diseases. Helminths express a regulatory role on intestinal inflammation, and immunization by P28GST has recently been shown to be as efficient as infection to reduce inflammation in a murine colitis model...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923134/%C3%A3-1-3-galactosyl-o-glycosyl-glycoprotein-%C3%A3-1-6-n-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-3-increases-mcam-stability-which-enhances-s100a8-a9-mediated-cancer-motility
#7
I Wayan Sumardika, Chen Youyi, Eisaku Kondo, Yusuke Inoue, I Made Winarsa Ruma, Hitoshi Murata, Rie Kinoshita, Ken-Ichi Yamamoto, Shuta Tomida, Kazuhiko Shien, Hiroki Satoh, Akira Yamauchi, Junichiro Futami, Endy Widya Putranto, Toshihiko Hibino, Shinichi Toyooka, Masahiro Nishibori, Masakiyo Sakaguchi
We previously identified novel S100A8/A9 receptors, Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer (EMMPRIN), MelanomaCell Adhesion Molecule (MCAM), Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM) and Neuroplastin (NPTN) ß, that are critically involved in S100A8/A9-mediated cancer metastasis and inflammation when expressed at high levels. However, little is known about the presence of any cancerspecific mechanism(s) that modifies these receptors, further inducing upregulation at protein levels without any transcriptional regulation...
September 18, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923099/whole-blood-gene-expression-and-white-matter-hyperintensities
#8
Honghuang Lin, Claudia Satizabal, Zhijun Xie, Qiong Yang, Tianxiao Huan, Roby Joehanes, Chengping Wen, Peter J Munson, Alexa Beiser, Daniel Levy, Sudha Seshadri
BACKGROUND: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are an important biomarker of cumulative vascular brain injury and have been associated with cognitive decline and an increased risk of dementia, stroke, depression, and gait impairments. The pathogenesis of white matter lesions however, remains uncertain. The characterization of gene expression profiles associated with WMH might help uncover molecular mechanisms underlying WMH. METHODS: We performed a transcriptome-wide association study of gene expression profiles with WMH in 3248 participants from the Framingham Heart Study using the Affymetrix Human Exon 1...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922437/molecular-biomarkers-as-predictors-for-biliary-complications-following-liver-transplantation-a-prospective-study
#9
Bogdan Dorobantu, Irinel Popescu, Simona Dima, Anca Nastase, Speranta Iacob
BACKGROUND: The biliary complications (BC) have been always considered the "Achilles' heel" of liver transplantation (LT), being one of the leading causes of postoperative morbidity. AIM: To analyse predictors of BC, by monitoring in the peripheral blood the biomarkers involved in the inflammation and hepatic fibrosis, such as the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP 2, 9) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMP1), the interleukins (IL 2, 8), alfa-TNF, the endothelins and their receptors...
September 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922052/applications-of-emerging-transmission-electron-microscopy-technology-in-pcd-research-and-diagnosis
#10
Amelia Shoemark
Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) is a heterogeneous genetic condition characterized by dysfunction of motile cilia. Patients suffer from chronic infection and inflammation of the upper and lower respiratory tract. Diagnosis of PCD is confirmed by identification of a hallmark defect of ciliary ultrastructure or by identification of biallelic pathogenic mutations in a known PCD gene. Since the first description of PCD in 1976, assessment of ciliary ultrastructure by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been central to diagnosis and research...
September 18, 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921472/telomere-damage-response-and-low-grade-inflammation
#11
Lihui Wang, Xianhua Yu, Jun-Ping Liu
Telomeres at the ends of chromosomes safeguard genome integrity and stability in human nucleated cells. However, telomere repeats shed off during cell proliferation and other stress responses. Our recent studies show that telomere attrition induces not only epithelial stem cell senescence but also low-grade inflammation in the lungs. The senescence-associated low-grade inflammation (SALI) is characteristic of alveolar stem cell replicative senescence, increased proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, infiltrated immune cells, and spillover effects...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920945/neutrophils-a-cornerstone-of-liver-ischemia-and-reperfusion-injury
#12
Thiago Henrique Caldeira de Oliveira, Pedro Elias Marques, Paul Proost, Mauro Martins M Teixeira
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is the main cause of morbidity and mortality due to graft rejection after liver transplantation. During IRI, an intense inflammatory process occurs in the liver. This hepatic inflammation is initiated by the ischemic period but occurs mainly during the reperfusion phase, and is characterized by a large neutrophil recruitment to the liver. Production of cytokines, chemokines, and danger signals results in activation of resident hepatocytes, leukocytes, and Kupffer cells. The role of neutrophils as the main amplifiers of liver injury in IRI has been recognized in many publications...
September 18, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920587/complement-in-cancer-untangling-an-intricate-relationship
#13
REVIEW
Edimara S Reis, Dimitrios C Mastellos, Daniel Ricklin, Alberto Mantovani, John D Lambris
In tumour immunology, complement has traditionally been considered as an adjunctive component that enhances the cytolytic effects of antibody-based immunotherapies, such as rituximab. Remarkably, research in the past decade has uncovered novel molecular mechanisms linking imbalanced complement activation in the tumour microenvironment with inflammation and suppression of antitumour immune responses. These findings have prompted new interest in manipulating the complement system for cancer therapy. This Review summarizes our current understanding of complement-mediated effector functions in the tumour microenvironment, focusing on how complement activation can act as a negative or positive regulator of tumorigenesis...
September 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919990/pharmacological-targeting-of-peptidylarginine-deiminase-4-prevents-cancer-associated-kidney-injury-in-mice
#14
Jessica Cedervall, Anca Dragomir, Falk Saupe, Yanyu Zhang, Johan Ärnlöv, Erik Larsson, Anna Dimberg, Anders Larsson, Anna-Karin Olsson
Renal insufficiency is a frequent cancer-associated problem affecting more than half of all cancer patients at the time of diagnosis. To minimize nephrotoxic effects the dosage of anticancer drugs are reduced in these patients, leading to sub-optimal treatment efficacy. Despite the severity of this cancer-associated pathology, the molecular mechanisms, as well as therapeutic options, are still largely lacking. We here show that formation of intravascular tumor-induced neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is a cause of kidney injury in tumor-bearing mice...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919876/peptide-composition-of-stroke-causing-emboli-correlate-with-serum-markers-of-atherosclerosis-and-inflammation
#15
Neal M Rao, Joseph Capri, Whitaker Cohn, Maram Abdaljaleel, Lucas Restrepo, Jeffrey A Gornbein, William H Yong, David S Liebeskind, Julian P Whitelegge
INTRODUCTION: The specific protein composition of stroke-causing emboli is unknown. Because ischemic stroke has a varied etiology, it is possible that the composition of the thrombus from which an embolus originated will have distinctive molecular characteristics reflective of the underlying pathophysiology. We used mass spectrometry to evaluate the protein composition of retrieved emboli from patients with differing stroke etiologies and correlated the protein levels to serum predictors of atherosclerosis...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919489/zinc-chloride-induced-trpa1-activation-does-not-contribute-to-toxicity-in-vitro
#16
Dirk Steinritz, Franziska Zehfuß, Bernhard Stenger, Annette Schmidt, Tanja Popp, Kai Kehe, Harald Mückter, Horst Thiermann, Thomas Gudermann
The hygroscopic zinc chloride (ZnCl2) is often used to generate smoke screens. Severe adverse pulmonary health effects have been associated with inhalation of ZnCl2 smokes. The underlying molecular toxicology is not known. Recent studies have shown that the Transient Receptor Potential Channel A1 (TRPA1) is important for sensing toxic chemicals. TRPA1 was shown to be activated by Zn(2+) which was linked to pain and inflammation. In the present study, we investigated whether TRPA1 activation contributes to ZnCl2-mediated toxicity in vitro...
September 14, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919465/uridine-treatment-protects-against-neonatal-brain-damage-and-long-term-cognitive-deficits-caused-by-hyperoxia
#17
Bulent Goren, Aysen Cakir, Cansu Sevinc, Sema Serter Kocoglu, Busra Ocalan, Ceren Oy, Zehra Minbay, Nevzat Kahveci, Tulin Alkan, Mehmet Cansev
Exposure to excessive oxygen in survivors of preterm birth is one of the factors that underlie the adverse neurological outcome in later life. Various pathological changes including enhanced apoptotic activity, oxidative stress and inflammation as well as decreased neuronal survival has been demonstrated in animal models of neonatal hyperoxia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of administering uridine, an anti-apoptotic agent, on cellular, molecular and behavioral consequences of hyperoxia-induced brain damage in a neonatal rat model...
September 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919302/obesity-and-breast-cancer-role-of-estrogens-and-the-molecular-underpinnings-of-aromatase-regulation-in-breast-adipose-tissue
#18
REVIEW
Céline Gérard, Kristy A Brown
One in eight women will develop breast cancer over their lifetime making it the most common female cancer. The cause of breast cancer is multifactorial and includes hormonal, genetic and environmental cues. Obesity is now an accepted risk factor for breast cancer in postmenopausal women, particularly for the hormone-dependent subtype of breast cancer. Obesity, which is characterized by an excess accumulation of body fat, is at the origin of chronic inflammation of white adipose tissue and is associated with dramatic changes in the biology of adipocytes leading to their dysfunction...
September 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919271/-autoimmune-hepatitis-immunological-diagnosis
#19
Imane Brahim, Ikram Brahim, Raja Hazime, Brahim Admou
Autoimmune hepatopathies (AIHT) including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune cholangitis (AIC), represent an impressive entities in clinical practice. Their pathogenesis is not perfectly elucidated. Several factors are involved in the initiation of hepatic autoimmune and inflammatory phenomena such as genetic predisposition, molecular mimicry and/or abnormalities of T-regulatory lymphocytes. AIHT have a wide spectrum of presentation, ranging from asymptomatic forms to severe acute liver failure...
September 14, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918157/differential-proteomic-profiling-of-endometrium-and-plasma-indicate-the-importance-of-hydrolysis-in-bovine-endometritis
#20
Shi-Dong Zhang, Shu-Wei Dong, Dong-Sheng Wang, Chike F Oguejiofor, Ali A Fouladi-Nashta, Zhi-Qiang Yang, Zuo-Ting Yan
Endometritis is an important disease of dairy cows that leads to significant economic losses in the dairy cattle industry. To investigate the alteration of proteins associated with endometritis in the dairy cow, the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) technique was applied to quantitatively identify differentially expressed proteins (DEP) in the endometrium and peripheral plasma of Chinese Holstein cows with endometritis. Compared with the normal (control) group, 159 DEP in the endometrium and 137 DEP in the plasma were identified in cows with endometritis...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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